The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Paul IV (1555-1559)
Consistory of December 20, 1555 (II)


(2) 1. MARTÍNEZ SILÍCEO, Juan (1486-1557)

Birth. 1486 (1), Villagarcía de la Torre, diocese of Badajoz, Spain. Son of Juan Martínez Guijeno, a poor laborer, and Juana Muñoz. His first name is also listed as Fernando. His original last name is also listed as Pedernales, Guijarro and Guijeno. Silíceo is the Latinized form of Guijarro.

Education. Studied grammar in Herena, small town near Villagarcía de la Torre; and philosophy in Sevilla; also attending the University of Paris.

Early life. To support himself, served as sacristan in the parish church of his native town. Tutor of the two sons of a gentleman in Valencia. Following the advice of a religious man that he met in Valencia, went to France to study; to support himself, took a position as a régent at the University of Paris. Returned to Spain and became professor of moral philosophy at Colegio de San Bartolomé, Salamanca.

Priesthood. Ordained to the priesthood (no further information found). Professor of theology. Canon theologian of the cathedral chapter of Coria. In July 1534 he was named tutor; and later, almoner and confessor of Prince Felipe, future King Felipe II, and occupied the post until his promotion to the episcopate.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Cartagena, Spain, February 23, 1541. Consecrated, 1541 (no further information found). In 1543, he was sent by Prince Felipe to Badajoz to receive the prince's fiancée, Infanta Maria of Portugal. He did not enter his see until 1544. Promoted to the metropolitan and primatial see of Toledo, January 8, 1546.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 20, 1555; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, February 1, 1556.

Death. May 31, 1557, Toledo (2). Buried in the church of Colegio de Doncellas Nobles, which he had built in Toledo (3).

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols.1065-1066; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 342-344; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1622-1623; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 34, 67, 154 and 314; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1500-1699). Españoles obispos en españa, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 34), p. 53.

Webgraphy. Portrait and biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; portrait and biograohy, in Spanish, Extremeños Ilustres; biography by Vmctor Navarro Brotóns, in Spanish, La web de las biografías; bibliography and biography, in Spanish, Scholasticon; portrait and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his engraving, Wikisource; El Cardenal Silíceo, Prícipe Español de la Contra-Reforma by Rafael R. de Espona, dialnet.unirioja.es.

(1) This is according to Guitarte, Episcopologio Español (1500-1699), p. 53; both, Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 344; and Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1666, indicate that he died in 1557 at the age of 80 or older; his second biography in Spanish, linked above, says that he was born in 1477; and his biography in French, also linked above, indicates that he was born in 1485.
(2) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 344, who in the same place says that others indicate that he died in Valladolid.
(3) This is according to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1623; and Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 344, who says that others indicate that he was buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Toledo. Chacón, IV, 1623, transcribes the text of his monument in the Chacón, IV, 1623, transcribes the text of his monument in the cathedral of Toledo: IOANNES. SILICEVS. SEXTVS. CARD. PHILIPPI. II. MAGISTER. PATER. PAVPERVM. ET. IN. ECCLESIA. TOLETANA. SANCTARVM. LEGVM. RESTAVRATOR. OBIIT. XXXI. MAII. MDLVII; the site of his native Villagarcía de la Torre, linked above, says that his ashes were transferred to that town (without mentioning when) and that his "panteón, lucilo o cenotafio" (pantheon, urn or cenotaph) is in its parish church (its photograph is also linked above).

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(3) 2. SCOTTI, Theat., Gianbernardino (1478?-1568)

Birth. 1478?, Magliano di Sabina. Of an ancient noble family that had been in Sabina for more than 400 years. His first name is also listed as Giovanni Bernardino; and as Bernardino only.

Education. He was a man of erminente dottrina, e di profondo erudizione (1). Expert in Greek, Hebrew, Chaldean and in canon law. Entered the Congregation of the Clerics Regular Theatines, 1525.

Early life. Consistorial lawyer. To pursue a religious life and complete his ecclesiastical studies, decided to join the Theatines, founded by Archbishop Gianpietro Carafa of Chieti, future Pope Paul IV, and is believed to have been the first to receive its habit.

Sacred orders. Cleric of Sabina.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Accompanied Luigi Lippomano, bishop of Verona, in his nunciature in Germany in 1548. Returned from Germany and went to Venice where he was aggravated by age and dedicated to his studies when the pope called him to Rome and promoted him to the episcopate and the cardinalate in the same consistory.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Trani, December 20, 1555. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 20, 1555; received the red hat and the title of S. Matteo in Merulana, January 13, 1556. Participated in the conclave of 1559, which elected Pope Pius IV. Transferred to the see of Piacenza, August 9, 1559. Called to Rome and named member of the commission of cardinals charged with the reform of the Roman Missal and the Roman Breviary, 1561. Did not participate in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Member of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition and charged with the affairs of the Greeks and the Oriental Church in the pontificate of Pope Pius V. Resigned the government of the diocese before July 23, 1568.

Death. December 11, 1568, Rome. Buried in the basilica of S. Paolo nella Via Ostiense (1), Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 344-346; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1624; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 35, 42, 67, 275 and 317.

Webgraphy. His portrait (1700-1799), diocese of Verona, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 344.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1624: IOANNES. BERNARDINVS. S. R. E. CARDINALIS EPISCOPVS. PLACENTINVS. VIVENS. SIBI. POSVIT. ANNO. DOMINI. M. D. LXVIII. NON. MORTVVS. EST. SED. DORMIT.

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(4) 3. CARAFA, Diomede (1492-1560)

Birth. January 7, 1492, Ariano. Neapolitan noble. Second of the four children of Giovanni Francesco Carafa, duke of Ariano, and Francesca Orsini, of the dukes of Ravina. The other siblings were Alberico (duke of Ariano), Federico and Giovanni Vincenzo. Relative of Pope Paul IV. His first name is also listed as Diomedes; and his last name as Caraffa; and as Carrafa. Other cardinals of the family were Filippo Carafa (1378); Oliviero Carafa (1467); Gianvincenzo Carafa (1527); Carlo Carafa (1555); Alfonso Carafa (1557); Antonio Carafa (1568); Decio Carafa (1611); Pier Luigi Carafa, seniore (1645); Carlo Carafa della Spina (1664); Fortunato Ilario Carafa della Spina (1686); Pierluigi Carafa, iuniore (1728); Francesco Carafa della Spina (1773); Marino Carafa di Belvedere (1801); and Domenico Carafa della Spina (1844).

Education. Studied civil law. He was highly educated and an expert in literature.

Early life. Cleric of Naples. Worked in the Roman tribunals.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ariano on April 9, 1511, with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age and not having received the sacred orders. Consecrated (no information found). He governed his diocese with great zeal and care. He restored the facade of the cathedral, the episcopal palace and the church of Sant'Arcangelo in Ariano. He also built a chapel dedicated to Arcangelo S. Michele in the Servite church of S. Maria del Parto in Mergellina, Naples. He was promoted to the cardinalate because Pope Paul IV, his relative, wanted to favor the members of his family.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 20, 1555; received the red hat and the title of S. Martino ai Monti, January 13, 1556. After his promotion, he continued to lead a secluded life, being totally unrelated to the maneuvers and the political intrigues of his family, although he was, along with Alfonso Carafa, Gianbernardino Scotti, Theat., Virgilio Rosario, Clemente d'Olera, O.F.M.Obs., and Giovanni Battista Consiglieri, in the group of cardinals closer to pope, whose task is to advise and assist him in the ecclesiastical problems. Since September 1557, his name appears among those of the cardinals deputies of the Inquisition. Because of his discreet conduct, Cardinal Diomede was the only member of the family who was not obliged to leave Rome in January 1559 when the wrath of Pope Paul IV fell upon his relatives, guilty of atrocities and abuses; but in April 1559, the crisis further deepened, and he also fell out of favor, it seems quite unfairly. Participated in the conclave of 1559, which elected Pope Pius IV. A testimony to the integrity of life and the substantial good faith that the Roman people had for Cardinal Diomed, is that during the anti-Carafa riots that followed the death of Pope Paul IV, the only insignias that were spared from destruction where his. When after the death of Paul IV the Carafas found themselves in the need to obtain the unconditional support of the future pontiff to restore their credit, Cardinal Diomede lined up to help the family, strongly supporting the candidacy of Cardinal Giovanni Angelo de' Medici. Cardinal d'Medici, however , once elected as Pope Pius IV, disappointed the expectations of his supporters, pursuing a policy of hostility towards the illustrious Neapolitan lineage, which also involved Cardinal Diomede. The relationship between the two became bitter, until finally breaking up during the trial brought against Carlo and Giovanni Carafa by the pope. Cardinal Diomede in vain endeavored in every way to save the lives of his relatives, appealing directly to Pope Pius IV to get a review of the process: the pope left the two to be executed. Indignant and offended Cardinal Diomede left Rome and settled in Taranto for some time. He fought again against the pope's decision to disband the Theatine Order, founded by Pope Paul IV in 1524 , mobilizing many personalities in favor of the congregation. He restored at his own expense several Roman churches, among them Ss. Martino e Silvestro ai Monti, his titular church. He was a close fiend of Poet Laura Terracina, who dedicated him a sonnet on the occasion of his appointment as cardinal (Le Seste Rime, Lucca 1558).

Death. August 12, 1560, in the house of S. Martino ai Monti, his title, in Rome. Buried before the main altar of his titular church (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 346-347; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1624-1625; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 35, 67 and 117; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), IV, 204.

Webgraphy. Biography by M. Gabriella Cruciani Troncanelli, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 19 (1976), Treccani; his bust (1538), Arianese Shop, diocese of i Ariano Irpino-Lacedonia, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 347. His biography in Italian, linked above, says that he was buried in the church of S. Arcangelo in Ariano.

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rebiba4.jpg
Provided by don Basilio Rinaudo
Rector, Seminary of Patti, Italy
from Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana

(5) 4. REBIBA, Scipione
(1504-1577)

Birth. February 3, 1504, S. Marco d'Alunzio, diocese of Patti. Second of the three sons of Francesco Rebiba and Antonia Filingeri; his two brothers were Ascanio and Gerolamo. Uncle of Prospero Rebiba, bishop of Troja, and later titular patriarch of Jerusalem; and Giovanni Domenico Rebiba, bishop of Ortona and later archbishop of Catania.

Education. Studied law and theology in Palermo, where his maternal uncle, Girolamo Filingeri, count of S. Marco, resided; obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law. He received the ecclesiastical tonsure.

Sacred orders. Received the minor and major orders between 1524 and 1528, while Giovanni Carandolet was archbishop of Palermo. Received a benefice in the church of S. Maria dei Miracoli, Palermo; he later resigned it and went to Rome around 1536/1537. In Rome, he entered in contact with the recently established Congregation of the Regular Clerics (Theatines), founded by Cardinal Gian Pietro Carafa, archbishop of Chieti; he was admitted to the household of the cardinal. Archpriest of Chieti. Archpriest of Ortona.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Amicle and appointed auxiliary bishop of Chieti, March 16, 1541. Consecrated, May 16, 1541 (1). Vicar of Naples; for a year, in 1549, governed the archdiocese of Naples in the name of Cardinal Carafa, who had been transferred to that see. After November 9, 1549, he returned to Rome and worked in the Curia. Protonotary apostolic, 1549-1551. Transferred to the see of Motula, October 12, 1551. On May 30, 1553, he was named member of the Commission of the Holy Office (presided by Cardinal Gian Pietro Carafa) and delegate of the Roman Inquisition in Naples, the first one to occupy that new post. Governor of Rome and its district, July 5 to December 20, 1555.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 20, 1555; received the red hat and the title of S. Pudenziana, January 24, 1556. In the consistory of April 9, 1556, he was named legate before King Felipe II in Brussels to congratulate him for the peace of Vaucelles with King Henri II of France; he received the legatine cross on May 11; and left Rome for Brussels on May 30 (2). Promoted to the metropolitan see of Pisa, April 13, 1556; took possession of the see on the following April 29, through a procurator; in 1557, unable to reside in his see because of his occupation in the affairs of the Church, he named Antonio de' Catignano his vicar general in Pisa. At the beginning of August 1558, he declined to go to Kraków as legate before the king of Poland and instead went to Pisa to receive in person the report on the state of the reform of the diocese. He was named member of a council of state to alleviate the pope, old and infirm, in the conduction of the temporal affairs; he also became member of the General Inquisition of the Holy Office. Participated in the conclave of 1559, which elected Pope Pius IV. Resigned the government of the archdiocese in favor of Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici and was transferred to the see of Troja, June 19, 1560. Resigned the government of the see in favor of his nephew Prospero Rebiba, September 4, 1560. Legate a latere before the emperor and the king of Poland. Detained by orders of Pope Pius IV in Castelo Sant'Angelo, Rome, as an accomplice of the Carafas; found innocent, he was freed; and offended by such action, declined to accept all charges offered to him during that pontificate. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 12, 1565 to January 13, 1567. Opted for the title of S. Anastasia, February 7, 1565. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. The new Pope Pius V called Cardinal Rebiba to occupy all the charges that he had had during the pontificate of Pope Paul IV and to reside again in the Apostolic Palace; he also asked the cardinal to erect a monument to the memory of the late pope in the tomb of the Carafa family in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva. Opted for the title of S. Angelo in Pescheria, deaconry assigned as a title, October 7, 1566. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, July 3, 1570. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Named Major Inquisitor of the Church and promoted to the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, April 8, 1573 (3). Opted for the suburbicarian see of Sabina, May 5, 1574. Most of the Roman Catholic bishops alive today trace their episcopal lineage back to Cardinal Rebiba.

Death. July 23, 1577 (4), Rome, suffocated while having a meal (ex nimio adipe suffucatus). Buried in the middle of the church of S. Silvestro nel Quirinale, with an elegant inscription placed by his nephew Prospero Rebiba (5).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 347-349; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1625 and 1768; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, pp. 84-85; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 35, 36, 56, 58, 59, 66, 69, 72, 107, 251, 274 and 314; Muzzarelli, Girolamo ; Lutz, Heinrich. Nuntiatur des Girolamo Muzzarelli : sendung des Antonio Agustin, legation des Scipione Rebiba (1554-1556) T|bingen : M. Niemeyer, 1971. (Nuntiaturberichte aus Deutschland ; 1 Abt., Bd. 14; Variation: Nuntiaturberichte aus Deutschland); Rinaudo, Basilio ; Miracola, Salvatore. Il cardinale Scipione Rebiba (1504-1577) : vita e azione pastorale di un vescovo riformatore. Patti : L'Ascesa, 2007. (Quaderni del seminario ; 1); Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), VI, 808; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 359 and 860.

Webgraphy. His portrait, seal and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms, portrait, seal and biography, in Italian, Cathopedia; his tomb, church of S. Silvestro nel Qurinale, Rome, Requiem Datenbank; and forum on Stemma Scipione Rebiba, in Italian Forum Italiano della Commissione Internazionale permanente per lo Studio degli Ordini Cavallereschi, dell'Istituto Araldico Genealogico Italiano e di Famiglie Storiche d'Italia.

(1) It is widely believed that Bishop Rebiba was consecrated by Cardinal Gian Pietro Carafa, archbishop of Chieti, who became Pope Paul IV. However, no documentary evidence has been found to verify this hypothesis (Charles N. Branson Jr., Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church).
(2) While he was traveling, the relations with Spain became worse and the legation was revoked. He returned to Rome in September 1556, after the king of Spain had decided to declare the war against the pope. Together with six other cardinals, he was named member of a commission to prepare a peace agreement. The pope abandoned the efforts for peace and the war continued. On August 27, 1557, Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, duke of Alba and viceory of Naples, was at the walls of Rome leading the troops for a final assault. On the following September 13, Cardinal Carlo Carafa signed the peace with the duke accepting all conditions.
(3) He was the most senior cardinal priest residing in the Roman Curia.
(4) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 35; and Del Re, Monsignor governatore di Roma, p. 85; and the photograph of the epitaph, linked above; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 768, says that he died on August 10, 1577.
(5) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Rinaudo, Il cardinale Scipione Rebiba (1504-1577) , p. 149:

D.     O.     M.
SCIPIONI. REBIBÆ. SICVLO.
EPISCOPO. SABINENSI. S. R. E. CARD. PISARVM.
INTEGRITATE. DOCTRINA.
RELIGIONES. PRÆSTANTI.
HÆRETICÆ. PRAVITATIS.
INQUISITORI. SVMMO.
FIDEI. ORTODIXÆ.
ACERRIMO. PROPVGNATORI.
PROSPER. REBIBA. PATRIARCHA.
CONSTANTINOPOLITANVS.
ET. TROIÆ. CIVIT. EPISCOPVS.
PATRVO. BENE. MER. MÆSTISSIME. POSVIT.
VIXIT. ANNOS. LXXIII.
OBIIT. DIE. XXIII. IVLII.
MDLXXVII.

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(6) 5. SUAU, Jean (1503-1566)

Birth. 1503, Castle of Rieumes, Gascogne, France. His last name is also listed as Reuman, Reumano, Suard and Suavius (the Latinized form of Suau).

Education. Studied canon and civil law.

Early life. Cleric of Lòmbes. Auditor of causes of the Apostolic Palace. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota (1).

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Mirepoix, December 20, 1555. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 20, 1555; received the red hat and the title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, January 13, 1556. Participated in the conclave of 1559, which elected Pope Pius IV. Prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice in the pontificate of Pope Pius IV. Opted for the title of S. Prisca, April 26, 1560. Resigned the government of the diocese before January 31, 1561. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V.

Death. Monday April 29 (2), 1566, in the Alexander VI chamber of the Apostolic Palace, Rome, of calculus. Buried near the main altar of the church of S. Spirito in Sassia, Rome (3).

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1542; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 349-350; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1626; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 35, 64, 69 and 246.

(1) According to Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1542, he defended and won before the tribunal a process in favor of Cardinal Gian Pietro Carafa, future Pope Paul IV. In gratitude, the cardinal sent him two hundred gold scudi. He took two and sent back the rest to the cardinal.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 35; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1626, indicates that he died on September 29, 1566; on the same page, his epitaph, transcribed in note 3, also says that he died on September 29.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1626: IESV. CHRISTO. SPEI. VITÆ. FVTVRÆ.. IOANNES. SVAVIVS. REVMANVS. GALLVS. TT. S. PRISCÆ. PRESB. CARD. OB. ANIMI. CANDOREM. ET. EXIMIAM. IVRIS. PRVDENTIAM. DVODECIMVIRATVS. LITIBVS. IVDICANDIS. ASCITVS. AC. PROPTER. HVMANITATEM. ET. INNOCENTIAM. PAVLI. IV. BENEFECIO. IN. PATRVM. SENATVM. MERITO. COOPTATVS. LXIII.AGENS. ANNVM. SANCTISSIME. VT. VIXERAT. ITA. CHRISTIANISSIME. DECESSIT. DIE. XXIX. SEPTEMBR. M.D.LXVI. SCIPIO. REBIBA. TT. S. ANGELI. CARD. DE PISIS. TESTAMENTI. EXECVTOR. ABSOLVI. CVRAVIT.

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(7) 6. GROPPER, Johann (1503-1559)

Birth. February 24, 1503, Soest, Westphalia.

Education. Completed classical studies in Soest. University of Cologne, Cologne, 1517-1525 (jurisprudence; doctorate in civil law, November 7, 1525). Privately, he studied and acquired an extensive knowledge of theology; became known as os cleri Coloniensis.

Early life. Named canon in Kanten in 1522; and later, dean. Officer of Hermann von Neuenahr, provost of the cathedral, 1525. Official sealer in the electoral municipality of Cologne, 1526; in 1527 Scholastiker of St. Gereon; and in 1532, canon. In 1530, canon, pastor and dean of Soest; and later that year, he accompanied the archbishop of Cologne, as assistant counselor, to the Diet of Augsburg; together with Arnold of Wesel and Bernard of Hagen, he established a close relationship with Philipp Melanchthon; after the Diet, he dedicated himself to the study of theological questions in detail and began to read the Bible and the church fathers in private and without teachers. In 1533 he became Scholastiker in Xanten; and in 1543, dean. In the provincial council of Cologne held in 1536, he had an influential role and drew up its resolutions; on behalf of that council he wrote its Enchiridion, a manual of Christian teachings, in which he approached the teachings of justification in close similarity to the opinion of the Reformers (1), but its theory of the church and the general priesthood and the seven sacraments, the hierarchical order and the primacy of the pope, were in complete agreement with Catholic doctrine. He took part in1540 and 1541 in the religious discussions in Hagenau, Worms and Regensburg and met with the union negotiators, particularly Martin Bucer, with whom he led friendly discussions in February 1542 in Cologne on the church reform planned by the archbishop. Gropper became Bucer's opponent when Elector Archbishop Hermann von Wied of Cologne, in December 1542, as part of the execution of the reformation, assigned him and the Evangelists to lecture at the cathedral in Bonn. He exerted himself energetically as a delegate of the cathedral chapter in March and July 1543 at the federal state parliament but was unsuccessful in his effort to win the conditions for a common procedure against Bucer and the archbishop and worked against the "Doubt of Christian Reformation", which was submitted by Archbishop von Wied in July 1543 to the federal state parliament; with Bucer, he held several disputations and fought the reformation violently. Gropper contacted the pope and the chancellor and, as a result, Pope Paul III on January 2, 1546 suspended Hermann von Wied, and excommunicated him on April 16, 1546; and in the following July, Coadjutor Archbishop Adolf von Schaumburg was named archbishop of Cologne. Archbishop von Wied resigned on January 26, 1547 as administrator of Paderborn and on the following February 25 as archbishop of Cologne. Strongly supported the interests of the church and the clergy of Cologne against Elector Archbishop Hermann von Wied, who wanted to introduce the Protestant reformation in that city. He was named provost of Bonn in 1547; and later, archdeacon of the cathedral church of Cologne. On behalf of Emperor Charles V, he led the "Augsburger Interim" of 1548 in Soest. With Eberhard Billick, he accompanied Adolf von Schaumburg, archbishop of Cologne, to the council of Trent in 1551. Considered as a rescuer of the Catholic faith, he wrote numerous works defending the Catholic faith (2).

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 20, 1555 (3); received the deaconry of S. Lucia in Silice, January 13, 1556; the pope sent him the red hat and he refused the promotion because he felt that he could work better for the church in Germany without that dignity (4). He traveled to Rome in 1558 after the choice of Count Gebhard von Mansfeld to be the archbishop of Cologne, in order to prevent his confirmation by Pope Paul IV; he did not succeed because the count defended himself before the Inquisition, where he had been denounced, and convinced the pope of the fact that the accusations raised against him were not justified.

Death. March 13 (5), 1559, Rome (6). The pope delivered the funeral oration. Buried at the feet of the tomb of Pope Hadrian VI in the church of S. Maria dell'Anima, Rome (7).

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1058; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 350-352; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 16261628-; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 35 and 73.

Webgraphy. Biography by Henry Joseph Schroeder, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his curriculum, in German, Erzbischöfliche Diözesan- und Dombibliothek Köln; his portrait, Erzbistum Köln; enlarged view of the same portrait, Erzbischöfliche Diözesan- und Dombibliothek Köln; and his epitaph in the church of S. Maria dell'Anima, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) Pope Clement VIII (1592-1605) placed the work in the index of prohibited books.
(2) Among his works are Jurisdictionis ecclesiasticae archiepiscopalis Curiae Coloniensis reformatio (Cologne, 1529); Institutio compendiaria doctrinae christianae (Cologne, 1538; Paris, 1541, 1550); Antididagma seu christianae et catholicae religionis propugnatio (Cologne, 1544); Vonn Warer, Wesenlicher vnd Pleibender Gegenwertigkeit des Leybs vnd Bluts Christi nach beschener Consecration (Cologne, 1548); Manuale pro administratione sacramentorum etc. (Cologne, 1550); De appellationum abusu (Cologne, 1552); Formula examinandi designatos seu praesentatos ad ecclesias parochiales (Cologne, 1552).
(3) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 351, mentions several authors who deny that he was ever created a cardinal and affirm that since he did not go to Rome for the promotion, Gropper died in Cologne.
(4) This is according to his biography in German linked above; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1058; and Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 350, say that he declined because of humility.
(5) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 35; and to his biographies in English and German and his obituary linked above and transcribed in note 6; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 351, indicates that his epitaph says that the cardinal died on March 12, 1559.
(6) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 35; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1626, says that he died in Cologne and was buried in its metropolitan cathedral and adds that the inscription transcribed in note 5 is in the Teutonic church (S. Maria dell'Anima) of Rome; Andrea Vittorelli, in his addition in Chacón, II, col. 1627, indicates that he was buried in the Germanic church in Rome ad pedes Hadriani VI (at the feet of Hadrian VI).
(7) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1626:

D. O. M.
IOANNI GROPPERIO
RELIGIONIS FIDEIQ. CATHO
LICÆ PROPVGNATORI ACE
RRIMO POST INCREDIBILES
LABORES SVMMIS CVM PE
RICVLIS PRO ECCLESIÆ AC
RELIGIONIS CONSERVATIONE
MAGNO SEMPER ET INVICTO
ANIMO EXANTLATOS MVLTAQ
PRÆCLARA LITTERARVM
MONVMENTA EDITA OB
PERPETVAM FIDEI PIETATISQ
CONSTANTIAM
INCOMPARABILEM DOCTRINAM
SVMMASQ VIRTVTES ABSENTI
NEC QVICQUAM MINUS
COGTANTI IN SACRVM
S. R. E. CARDINALIVM
COLLEGIVM COOPTATO
PRÆMATVRA ADHVC
MORTE ET QVANDO SVI
OPERA IMPRIMIS
DESIDERABATVR EX
HVMANIS EXCEPTO FRATRII PIIS
SIMO ATQUE OPTIME MERITO
GODIFREDVS AC GASPAR
GROPERII FRATRES MÆTISS POSVERE
VIXIT ANN LVII. DIES XVIII.
OBIIT VII. ID MARTII M. D. LVII.

Cool Archive

(8) 7. CAPIZUCCHI, Gianantonio (1515-1569)

Birth. October 24, 1515, Rome. Of an ancient noble Roman family that had distinguished itself at the service of the Church and the army. Son of Cristoforo Capizucchi and Lavinia Castellana. His first name is also listed as Giovanni Antonio; and his last name as Capisucco; as Capisucchi; and as Capizzuchi. Other cardinals of the family were Gianroberto Capizucchi (1088); Roberto Capizucchi (1097) (no information found about him); Pietro Capizucchi (1122); Gian Roberto Capizucchi (1126); and Raimondo Capizucchi, O.P. (1681). He was also related to Cardinals Girolamo Recanati Capodiferro (1544) and Fabio Mignanelli (1551). Nephew of Monsignor Paolo Capizucchi, who occupied important posts during the pontificates of Popes Leo X, Adrian VI, Clement VII and Paul III.

Education. He undertook the ecclesiastical career under the guidance and with the support of his uncle Monsignor Paolo and obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Roman cleric. Because of the resignation of his uncle, who reserved the annuities, he obtained on February 7, 1535 a canonry at St. Peter's basilica. The death of Monsignor Paolo in 1539 marked a setback in the career of his nephew, who appears only in the following decade as referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Named auditor of causes at the Rota of the Apostolic Palace on June 1, 1549; he occupied the post until January 24, 1556.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 20, 1555; received the red hat and the title of S. Pancrazio, January 13, 1556. In the fall of 1556, he was named member of the Tribunal of the Inquisition; and in addition, he was named member of the Cardinalitial Commission which was entrusted with the examination of the project of the reorganization of the Dutch ecclesiastical provinces presented by King Felipe II of Spain.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Lodi, July 5, 1557. Consecrated, December 21, 1557, Rome, by Giovanni Giacomo Barba, bishop of Terni, papal sacristan, assisted by Cesare Cybo, archbishop of Turin, and by Ferdinando Pandolfini, bishop of Troia. Because of the hostilities between Spain and the Papacy, the bull of appointment did not obtain the consent of King Felipe II; he could not reside in the diocese before April 13 1563. Pope Paul IV named him perpetual governor, with the title of apostolic legate, of Castel di Gualdo di Nocera. Participated in the conclave of 1559, which elected Pope Pius IV; because of a serious illness, he had to be absent during the month of October 1559. During his episcopate, there was a big innovative impulse in the diocese establishing in 1560 the school of Christian doctrine for children of both sexes; the Capuchins and Jesuits were introduced; he repeatedly insisted in the provisions of the Tridentine decrees regarding the moral reform of the clergy and the people; and realized a pastoral visit to the diocese. Opted for the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, July 6, 1562. On September 28, 1564, was called to Rome by Pope Pius IV at the request of his nephew, Cardinal Carlo Borromeo, on the charge of living a somewhat licentious life, which was more typical of a knight than a bishop (1). Because of arduous tasks in the Roman Curia, he was not able to participate in the provincial council celebrated in Milan by Cardinal Borromeo, archbishop of that see, between October10 and November 3, 1565; he was represented by Vicar Giovanni Francesco Alberici. Opted for the title of S. Clemente, November 7, 1565. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. The new pope had Cardinal Capizucchi among his advisers and gave him, as Pope Paul IV had done, lodging in the Apostolic Palace. He was appointed member of the commission of cardinals entrusted with the examination of the problem of clerical celibacy that the Council of Trent had left unsolved and which Emperor Maximilian II had insistently demanded the pontiff for a solution. In 1566, with Cardinal Giovanni Morone, he thwarted the aspirations of Ernest of Bavaria who wished that the diocese of Freising be given to his father. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 13, 1567 to January 14, 1568. Prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace, December 1, 1568. Member of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office.

Death. January 28 (or 29), 1569, Rome. Buried in his titular church (2).

Bibliography. Beltrami, Giuseppe. Notizie su prefetti e referendari della Segnatura Apostolica desunte dai brevi di nomina. Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1972, p. 4; Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 646; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 352-353; Cerchiari, Emmanuele. Capellani papae et apostolicae sedis auditores causarum sacri palatii apostolici : seu sacra Romana Rota ab origine ad diem usque 20 septembris 1870. Relatio historica-iuridica SSMO D.N. Benedicto Papae XV dicata ... 4 vols. Romae : Typis Polyglottis Vaticanis,1919-1921. Contents: v. I. Relatio.--v. II. Synataxis Capellanorum auditorum.--v. III. Documenta.--v. IV. Formae et mndices, II, 99; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1628; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 35, 62, 68 and 220; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), pp. 96 and 139.

Webgraphy. Biography by Gigliola Fragnito, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 18 (1975), Treccani; his tomb, church of S. Maria in Campitelli, Rome, Requiem Datenbank; funeral monument of his family, church of S. Maria in Campitelli, Rome, where Cardinal Raimondo Capizucchi, O.P. (1681), built a chapel, The Australian National University; his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana; and I Capizzuchi, in Italian, Ordine dei Cavalieri della Croce d'Argento di Montieri (OCCXAM).

(1) According to his first biography in Italian, linked above, the good relations that Cardinal Capizucchi quickly established with Cardinal Borromero suggest that it was a slander, more likely, and that they tended to mask the well-known distrust of Pope Pius IV for the cardinals created by his predecessor.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph taken from
(2) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1628:

D. O. M.
IOANNI. ANTONIO. CAPISVCCO.
TT. S. CLEMENTIS. PRESB. CARDINALI.
EPISC. LAVDEN.
A. PIO. V.
SVBSIGNANDIS. GRATIÆ. RESCRIPTIS.
PRÆPOSITO.
VIRO. INTEGERRIMO.
PIETATIS. RELIGIONISQ. CHRISTIANÆ.
CVLTORI. PRÆCIPVO.
HIERONYMVS. CAPISVCCVS. PATRVO. B. M.
POSVIT.
VIXIT. ANNOS. LIII. MENSES. III.
DIES. VIII.
OBIIT. IV. KALEN. FEBRVARII.
M. D. LXIX.

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