The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Paul IV (1555-1559)
Consistory of March 15, 1557 (III)


(9) 1. GADDI, Taddeo (1520-1561)

Birth. January 22, 1520, Florence. Son of Luigi Gaddi and Caterina Gomiel. Of the Signori of Riano. Nephew of Cardinal Niccolò Gaddi (1527). Direct descendant of the famous medieval painter Taddeo Gaddi, for whom he was named.

Education. Studied law.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Constituted archbishop of Cosenza in title, June 21, 1535; administrator until he reached the canonical age of 27 years old; governed the archdiocese through vicars. Consecrated (no information found). Succeeded his uncle the cardinal as abbot commendatario of S. Leonardo di Manfredonia, 1536. Archpriest and canon of the cathedral chapter of S. Maria in Fiore, Florence. Pastor of S. Maria Novella, Chianti, from 1536. Referendary apostolic, 1552.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 15, 1557; received the red hat and the title of S. Silvestro in Capite, March 24, 1557. Participated in the conclave of 1559, which elected Pope Pius IV.

Death. December 22, 1561, at 3:30 p.m., of stomach flu with vomits and catharr, monastery of S. Leonardo, Apullia. Transferred to Florence and buried in his family's tomb in the Dominican church of S. Maria Novella in that city (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 353-354; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 1628; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 35, 36, 70 and 183; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), pp. 97, 106, 111, 115 and 117; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), IV, 559.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1628: TADDEO. GADDIO. ALOYSII. FILIO. S. R. E. PRESBYT. CARD. QVEM OB. EXIMIAS. EIVS. VIRTVTES. PONTIFICES. MAXIMI. CÆTERIQVE. PRINCIPES. MIRIFICE. DILEXERVNT. MAXIMOSQVE. ILLI. HONORES. HABVERVNT. NICOLAVS. GADDIVS. FRATRI. PATRVELLI. AMANTISSIMO. BENEVOLENTIÆ. CAVSA. HOC. SEPVLCHRVM. STATVIT. ANNO. MDLXXVII. VIXIT. ANNOS. XLI. MENSES. XI. OBIIT. MDLXI. XI. KALEND. IANVARII.

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(10) 2. TRIVULZIO, iuniore, Antonio (ca.1514-1559)

Birth. ca.1514, Milan. Son of Gerolamo Teodoro Trviulzio and Antonia da Barbiano. His last name is also listed as Trivulce. Milanese patrician. Nephew of Cardinal Scaramuccia Trivulzio (1517). Cousin of Cardinal Agostino Trivulzio (1517). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Giangiacomo Teodoro Trivulzio (1629). Another cardinal of the family was Antonio Trivulzio, seniore, O.C.R.S.A. (1500).

Education. Studied law in Milan.

Early life. Provost in commendam of the Humiliati monastery of Blessed Marie de Mirasole, archdiocese of Milan. Went to Rome and was named referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace and domestic prelate of His Holiness.

Sacred orders. Cleric of Milan.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Toulon, June 7, 1535. Consecrated (no information found). Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, ca.1539. Vice-legate in Avignon, 1544-1547; he vigorously opposed the entrance of the Protestants in Comtat Venaissin and supported the forces of the king of France, expelling the Protestants from Cabrières and Merindol, where they had established themselves. Obtained a prorogation to receive the sacred orders, April 25, 1548. Vice-legate in Perugia, 1549 to June 1550. Nuncio in France, April 25, 1550.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 15, 1557. Legate a latere to Venice, May 18, 1557. Legate a latere to France to reestablish the peace between King Henri II of France and King Felipe II of Spain, September 20, 1557; his mission was successful and peace was achieved with the treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis. Received the red hat and the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, October 11, 1557. Prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, October 16, 1557.

Death. June 25 (1), 1559, of an apoplexy, Castle of Saint-Martin, near Paris. Buried in the chapel of that castle. The news of his death reached Rome on July 2, 1559.

Bibliography. Beltrami, Giuseppe. Notizie su prefetti e referendari della Segnatura Apostolica desunte dai brevi di nomina. Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1972, p. 2; Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1591; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, ; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. ; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 35, and 315; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), pp. 103, 111, 113, 115 and 120; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 132, 326, and 952-953.

Webgraphy. The Trivulzio family.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 315; Katterbach, Referendarii utriusque Signaturae, p. 103, indicates that he died on June 24; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1591, says that he died on June 26, 1559 a day after leaving Paris on his way to Italy.

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(11) 3. STROZZI, Lorenzo (1523-1571)

Birth. December 3, 1523, Florence. Son of Filippo Strozzi and Clarice de' Medici, niece of Pope Leo X. His last name is also listed as d'Estrosse.

Education. Initial studies under Benedetto Varchi; later, he attended the University of Padua, where he studied law.

Early life. Entered the military in France; became a captain and fought against the Calvinists in Languedoc under King Henri II. Persuaded by his cousin, Queen Catarina de' Medici of France, entered the ecclesiastical state. Counselor of state. Abbot commendatario of Saint-Victor of Marseille and of Saint-Marie di Staffarda. Nominated bishop of Béziers by the king of France.

Sacred orders. Cleric of Florence.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Béziers, December 7, 1547. Consecrated, June 8, 1550, Paris (no further information found). Governor of the province of Narbonne.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 15, 1557; received the red hat and the title of S. Balbina, September 20, 1557. Participated in the conclave of 1559, which elected Pope Pius IV. Resigned the government of the diocese before May 9, 1561. Named administrator of the diocese of Alby, May 9, 1561. Resigned the abbey of Saint-Victor of Marseille, 1561. Did not participate in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Aix, February 6, 1568. Resigned the administration of the diocese before February 8, 1568.

Death. December 14, 1571, Avignon. Buried in the church of Saint-Agricol, Avignon (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 355-356; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 1629-1630; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 35, 60, 101, 112-113 and 135.

Webgraphy. His portrait, Italian School, 18th century, Gabrius Databank, now extinct; his portrait, School of Jean Clouet, Musée Condé, Chantilly, Réunion des musées nationaux, Ministère de la Culture et la Communication, France; and the Strozzi Chapel in the church of S. Andrea della Valle, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is the inscription in his sarcophagus, taken from Requien Datenbank, linked above:

LAVRENTIO STROZAE . PHILIPPI . FILIO . FLORENTINO
S . R . E . TT . SANCTAE . BALBINAE . PRESB . CARDINALI
LEO . STROZA . PATRVO . OPTIME . MERITO

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(12) 4. ROSARIO, Virgilio (1499-1559)

Birth. 1499, Spoleto.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Rector of a parish. Abbot commendatario of S. Maria Rotonda, Naples. Went to Rome and was provided with a canonship in the Collegiata of S. Maria at Martyres, called la Rotonda.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ischia, August 27, 1554. Consecrated, February 24, 1555, at the Sistine Chapel, Rome, by Cardinal Giovanni Michele Saraceno, assisted by Ascanio de Ferrariis, former bishop of Montepeloso, and by Fabio Mirto, bishop of Caiazzo.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 15, 1557; received the red hat and the title of S. Simeone Profeta, March 24, 1557. Vicar general perpetuo of Rome, 1558-1559. Member of the commission of four cardinals charged with judging the cause of Cardinal Giovanni Girolamo Morone.

Death. May 22, 1559, at 10 p.m., suddenly; suffocated in his own blood from the rupture of a vein in his chest, in the Apostolic Palace, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, ; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 1630; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 35, 70 and 214.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1630: D. O. M. VIRGILIO. ROSARIO. SPOLETANO. S. R. E. PRESBYT. CARDINALI. SVMMI. PONTIFICIS. PERPETVO. VICARIO. FLAVIVS. ROSARIVS. PATRVO. OPTIMO. POSVIT. VIXIT. ANNOS. LX. OBIIT. KALEND. IVNII. MDLIX.

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(13) 5. BERTRAND, Jean (1482-1560)

Birth. 1482, Toulouse, France. He was of a short stature. His father was a procurator general of the Parliament of Toulouse. Of the Signeurs of Villemele.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure.

Early life. First president of the Parliament of Toulouse, 1536. At the recommendation of Constable Anne de Montmorency, King François I of France named him first president of the Parliament of Paris. During the reign of King Henri II, he was guardian of the royal seal, 1551; and later vice-chancellor and chancellor. After the death of his wife, Jeanne Baras, lady of Mirabelle and Villemor, with whom he had a son and two daughters, he decided to enter the ecclesiastical state.

Sacred orders. Cleric of Toulouse.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Cominges, December 16, 1555. Consecrated, April 30, 1560, at the high altar of the chapel of the Virgin Mary, Loreto, by Filippo Riccabella, bishop of Recanati e Loreto. Resigned the government of the diocese before June 16, 1556. Nuncio in Germany, 1557. Viceroy of Savoy.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 15, 1557. Administrator of the archdiocese of Sens, July 5, 1557. Received the red hat and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, August 9, 1557. Participated in the assembly held in Paris by King Henri II of France to solidify his position against his enemies. Participated in the conclave of 1559, which elected Pope Pius IV. Opted for the title of S. Prisca, January 16, 1560. Opted for the title of S. Crisogono, March 13, 1560. Named one of the judges of the cause against Cardinal Carlo Carafa, 1560. Extraordinary ambassador of France before the Venetian senate, 1560.

Death. December 4, 1560, Venice. Buried in the Augustinian church of S. Stefano, Venice (1). The news of his death reached Rome on December 12, 1560.

Bibliography. Ancel, René. "L'activité réformatrice de Paul IV. Le choix des cardinaux." Revue des questiones historiques, XLI (July 1909), 67-103; Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 521; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 357-359; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 1630-1631; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 35, 36, 177 and 298.

Webgraphy. His portrait by Jean Clouet; and his portrait, attributed to Léonard Limosin.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1630-1631: D. O. M. IOANNI. BERTRANDO. TOLOSANO. SENONENSI. ARCHIEPISCOPO. CARD. PRIMARIO. ILLIS. OPTIMIS. & MAXIMIS. DVOBVS. GALIÆ. REGIBVS. FRANCISCO. PRIMO. & HENRICO. SECVNDO. CARISSIMO. MAGISTRATVS. & HONORES. AMPLISSIMOS. QVOS. SOLI. EXCELLENTISS. I. C. CONSEQVS POSSVNT. IN. PATRIA. CVM ETAQVE. GALLIA. HONORIFICE. ADEPTO. IN. GERMANIAM. LEGATO. IN SABAVDIAM. PRO. REGE. MISSIO. TANDEMQUE. PROCANCELLARIO. FACTO. CANCELLARIO. ETIAM. DESIGNATO. CVM. ROMAM. PONTIFICIS. MAXIMI. DELIGENDI. CAVSA, PROFECTVS. IN. GALLIAM. PIO. QVARTO. PONTIFICE. CREATO. REDIVET. SENIO. IAM.CONFECTO. VENETIIS. MORBO. PRIDIE. NONAS. DECEMBRIS. OPPRESSO. IACOB. FABER. TOLOSANVS. CASADEI. ABBAS. LIBELLORVM. SUPPLICVM. REGIVS. MAGISTER. SVMMVS. AMICVS. & BOSTHEDONIVS. NEPOS. M. P. P. QVOSQUVE. HÆREDES. PRO. TANTI. VIRI. DIGNITATE. REFICIEM. CURABUNT. M. DICTANTE. E. PALMELIO. AUDITORE. SVO. ANNO. MDLX.

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(14) 6. GHISLIERI, O.P., Michele (1504-1572)

Birth. January 17, 1504, Bosco, diocese of Alessandria, Lombardy. Of poor parents. Son of Paolo Ghislieri and Domenica Augeria. His baptismal name was Antonio. The family was originally from Bologna. He is also listed as Giovanni Michele. He was denominated Cardinal Alessandrino. Great-uncle of Cardinal Michele Bonelli, O.P. (1566).

Education. He was a shepherd until he entered the Order of Preachers (Dominicans) in 1518. Took the name Michele. Studied in Bologna.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1528, Genoa. Professor of theology in Pavia for sixteen years. Master of novices and prior of different Dominican houses several times. Later, he was named inquisitor in Como and Bergamo. In 1551, at the recommendation of Cardinal Gian Pietro Carafa, Pope Julius III named him commissary general of the Roman Inquisition.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Sutri e Nepi, September 4, 1556. Consecrated, September 14, 1556, at the Sistine Chapel, Rome, by Cardinal Giovanni Michele Saraceno assisted by Giovanni Beraldo, bishop of Telese, and by Nicola Majorano, bishop of Molfetta. Inquisitor in Milan and in Lombardy, 1556.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 15, 1557; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, March 24, 1557. Grand inquisitor, December 14, 1558. Participated in the conclave of 1559, which elected Pope Pius IV. Provost in commendam of S. Spirito de Columbella, archdiocese of Milan, August 9, 1559. Transferred to the see of Mondovì, March 17, 1560. He successfully opposed the promotion to the cardinalate by Pope Pius IV of Ferdinando de' Medici, then only thirteen years old. Opted for the title of S. Sabina, April 14, 1561 (1). Opted for the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, May 15, 1565. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope on January 7, 1566. Took the name Pius V. Crowned, January 17, 1566, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Giulio Feltrio della Rovere, protodeacon of S. Pietro in Vincoli. He created 21 cardinals in three consistories.

Death. May 1, 1572, Rome, of gravel. Buried in the chapel of S. Andrea, near the tomb of Pope Pius III, in the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Although he had asked in his will to be buried in Bosco, Pope Sixtus V built a funeral monument in his honor in the chapel of SS. Sacramento of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, and his remains were transferred there in a solemn ceremony that took place on January 9, 1588.

Sainthood. He was beatified by Pope Clement X on May 1, 1672 and canonized by Pope Clement XI on May 22, 1712. His feast is celebrated on April 30 (formerly on May 5).

Bibliography. Anderson, Robin. St. Pius V. A brief account of his life, times, vistues & miracles. Foreword by Alfredo Cardinal Ottaviani. Rome : St. Michael's Press, 1973; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 359-363; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 1631-1632; Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, 160-180; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 35-36, 42, 250 and 306; Grente, Georges. Saint Pie V (1504-1572). Paris : V. Lecoffre, 1914. (Les saints); Kelly, John Norman Davidson, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 268-269.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English; biography, in German; portrait, arms and biographical information, in English; biography, in Italian, and gallery of 26 pictures; portrait and biography, in Spanish; his episcopal lineage, in English; his portrait by Palma il Giovani; his engraving; his portrait, Collegio Ghislieri, Pavia; his portrait, Museo di Palazzo Venezia, Rome; his statue, Piazza Collegio Ghislieri, Pavia; his effigy on a medal; and his tomb in the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome.

(1) According to Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1631, he fell gravely ill in 1564 and thinking that he was going to die, prepared the following epitaph for his tomb in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva: AD. LAVDEM. DEI. OPT. MAX. F. MICHAEL. GHISLIERIVS. EX. OPPIDO. BOSCHI. AGRI. ALEXANDRINI. ORDIN. PRÆDIGAT. DIVINA. MISERICORDIA. TT. S. SABINÆ. S. R. E. PRESB. CARD. NOSCENS. TERRAM. TERRÆ. SE. REDDITVRVM. OB. CERTAM. RESVRRECTIONIS. SPEM. IN. VIRG. DEI. GENITRICIS. TEMPLO. CVIVS. ET. SANCTORVM. PIORVM. VIVENTIVM. CVPIENS. ADIVVARI. SUFFRAGIIS. LOCVM. HVNC. SIBI. VIVENS. STATVIT. IN QVO. CADAVER. QVVM. SVVM. OBIIERIT. DIEM. PONI. CVRAVIT. ANNVM. AGENS. ÆTATIS. SVÆ. LX. ET. HVMANÆ. SLVTIS. ANNO. MDLXIV.

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(15) 7. OLERA, O.F.M.Obs., Clemente d' (1501-1568)

Birth. June 20, 1501, Castle of Moneglia, diocese of Genoa. He is also listed as Clementi Monliano; and his last name as Dolera.

Education. Entered the Order of the Friars Minor Observants (Franciscan Observants) at a young age. After spending his youth at the service of the Franciscans of Moneglia, he went to Bologna and obtained the letterato in theology at the "Studium Generale". This degree allowed him to teach the subject.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). For many years was a professor of philosophy and theology in houses of study of his order. In 1538, he was elected provincial minister of Bologna; and in 1541, definitor and general procurator in Mantua; he also exercised the office of custodian in the province. In 1545, the minister general of the order in Corsica, Giovanni Maltei da Calvi, constituted him his vicar general; and two years later, when Fr. Maltei died, he succeeded him in that post with the approval of Pope Paul III. In that same year, 1547, in the general chapter of Assisi, he was named prefect of the Franciscan Famiglia Cismontana. In the general chapter in Bologna celebrated in 1550, he was elected commissary of the curia. He was elected minister general of his order in the chapter held in Salamanca in 1553 the election was approved by Pope Julius III. In 1554, he promulgated the famous Constitutiones Salmanticenses also called "Monilianenses". On January 1, 1555, Pope Julius III named him his commissary against heresy in all the regions where he would go for reasons of his office of minister general of the order with the exception of Spain.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 15, 1557; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Aracoeli, March 24, 1557. Archpriest of Rapallo, 1558. Participated in the conclave of 1559, which elected Pope Pius IV. Named prefect of the Holy Office by Pope Paul IV.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Foligno, March 13, 1560. Consecrated (no information found). In the episcopal palace, he set up a printing press to publish works for the defense of the faith. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Member of the Supreme S.C. of the Inquisition. Protector of the Sacred Roman Empire. He was a philosopher and theologian of fame (1).

Death. January 6, 1568, at 4 p.m., after a long illness, in the Franciscan convent of S. Pietro in Montorio, Rome, where he lived. Buried in front of the main altar of his titular church (2). He named the infirm of the Hospital of S. Giacomo degli Incurabili, Rome, as his heirs.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 363-364; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 1632-1633; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 36, 42, 66 and 199; Oldoini, Agostino. Athenaeum Romanum : in qvo summorum pontificum, ac pseudopontificum, nec non s.r.e. cardinalium et pseudocard. scripta publich exponuntur. Perusiae [i.e. Perugia] : Ex typographia Camerali, apud haeredes Sebastiani Zechini, 1676. Republished in 1969 by Gregg International Publishers Limited, 1 Westmead, Farnborough, Hants., England, p. 172-174.

Webgraphy. Biography by A. M. Giraldi, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Treccani; biographical entry, in German, Wikipedia.

(1) In 1562 he published Catholicarum institutionum ad christianam theologiam compendium, a monumental and erudite work that discusses the Decalog, sacraments, Evangelical counsels, priestly celibacy and ecumenical councils. It was a clear synthesis of the Catholic doctrine.
(2) This is text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1632:

D.     O.     M.
CLEMENTI. MONILIANO
CARDINALI. ARACÆLI
SUMMÆ. DOCTRINÆ. ET. RELIGIONIS. VIRO
PRVDENTIÆ
DOCVMENTO. PER. OMNES. HONORVM. GRADVS
AD. SVMMAM
IN. ORDINE. FRATRVM. MINORVM
DE. OBSERVANTIA
DIGNITATEM
ELATIO. A. PAVLO. IV
CARDINALI. CREATO. LIBERALITATEM
QVAM. SEMPER. VIVENS
EXERCVERAT. MORIEN. COMPROBAVIT
PAVPERES. INCVRABILES. HOSPITALIS
SANCTI. IACOBI
EX. TESTAMENTO. HÆREDES. BENEFICII. ACCEPTI
ERGO. B. M. P
VIXIT. ANNOS. LXVI. MENSES. VI
DIES. XVI
OBIIT. OCTAVO. ID. IANVARII
MDLXVIII.

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(16) 8. CARAFA, Alfonso (1540-1565)

Birth. July 16, 1540 (1), Naples. Of the marquises of Montebello. Eldest child of Antonio Carafa, marquis of Montebello and count of Bagno, and Brianna Beltrano, of the counts of Mesagne. Grand-nephew of Pope Paul IV. Nephew of Cardinal Carlo Carafa (1555). Cousin of Cardinal Antonio Carafa (1568). Other cardinals of the family were Filippo Carafa (1378); Oliviero Carafa (1467); Gianvincenzo Carafa (1527); Diomede Carafa (1555); Decio Carafa (1611); Pier Luigi Carafa, seniore (1645); Carlo Carafa della Spina (1664); Fortunato Ilario Carafa della Spina (1686); Pierluigi Carafa, iuniore (1728); Francesco Carafa della Spina (1773); Marino Carafa di Belvedere (1801); and Domenico Carafa della Spina (1844).

Education. Studied Greek, Latin and Italian literature under Giovan Paolo Flavio, noted in the literary circles of Naples; received the spiritual and religious formation, including the Holy Scriptures and Patristic, from his grand-uncle the cardinal.

Early life. Entered the court of his grand-uncle Cardinal Gian Pietro Carafa, at the palace of S. Maguto, in 1548. Named by his uncle canon of the chapter of the metropolitan cathedral of Naples. First privy chamberlain of His Holiness. Protonotary apostolic.

Sacred orders. Cleric of Naples.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 15, 1557; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Nicola fra Imagini, March 24, 1557.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Naples, April 9, 1557; named administrator without jurisdiction until he would reach the canonical age. Legate a latere before King Felipe II of Spain, September 20, 1557 until April 20, 1558. Regent of the Apostolic Chamber, November 28, 1558. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Portico Octaviae, December 16, 1558. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Domnica, March 6, 1559. Librarian of the Vatican Library, 1559. Participated in the conclave of 1559, which elected Pope Pius IV. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, April 26, 1560. On June 7, 1560, falsely accused of having unlawfully taken certain things from the Apostolic Chamber, was detained in Castelo Sant'Angelo for several months; deprived of the post of regent of the Apostolic Chamber, fined 100,000 gold scudi (2) and ordered to leave Rome, he was freed from prison on April 2, 1561. Having obtained the good will of Pope Pius IV again, he was allowed to return to his archdiocese in 1562. Participated in the Council of Trent, 1562-1563.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 16, 1564, Naples, by Cardinal Niccolò Caetani di Sermoneta. Celebrated a diocesan synod which opened on February 4, 1565. Asked the pope to grant dispensation to receive the episcopal consecration without having reached the canonical age of 27; the papal brief was issued on June 1, 1565; received the episcopal consecration on June 30, 1565, at the metropolitan cathedral of Naples, from Antonio Scarampi, bishop of Nola and nuncio in Naples, assisted by Giulio Pavesi, O.P., archbishop of Sorrento, and by Paolo Emilio Verallo, bishop of Capaccio.

Death. August 29, 1565, at 11 a.m., of gravissima febre, Monteoliveto, Naples. He had prepared his will the day before. Buried in the choir, on the left side of the main altar, of the metropolitan cathedral of Naples (3).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 364-365; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 1633; De Maio, Romeo. Alfonso Carafa, cardinale di Napoli (1540-1565). Città del Vaticano : Biblioteca apostolica vaticana, 1961 (Studi e testi, 210); Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 36, 63, 68, 74, 75 and 255; Zigarelli, Daniello Maria. Biografie dei vescovi e arcivescovi della chiesa di Napoli con una descrizione del clero, della cattedrale, della basilica di s. Restituta e della cappella del tesoro di s. Gennaro. Napoli : Tipografico di G. Gioja, 1861, pp. 126-130; Oldoini, Agostino. Athenaeum Romanum : in qvo summorum pontificum, ac pseudopontificum, nec non s.r.e. cardinalium et pseudocard. scripta publich exponuntur. Perusiae [i.e. Perugia] : Ex typographia Camerali, apud haeredes Sebastiani Zechini, 1676. Republished in 1969 by Gregg International Publishers Limited, 1 Westmead, Farnborough, Hants., England, p. 55-57.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his genealogy, A7 B2 C1 D4 E1, Libro d'Oro della Nobilità Mediterranea; his portrait (1750-1799), archdiocese of Naples, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his sepulchral monument (1566-1572), archdiocese of Naples, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his jascent statute in his sepulchral monument.

(1) This is according to De Maio, Alfonso Carafa, cardinale di Napoli (1540-1565), p. 200; deducting from his epitaph, in note 3, he would have been born on August 14, 1540.
(2) According to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 364-365, to help him pay the fine, the Sacred College gave him 10,000 scudi and so did the Roman princes; to complete the amount, he sold some of his patrimonial assets.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph, composed by Pope Pius V, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1633:

D.     O.     M.
ALFONSO. CARAFÆ
S. R. E. CARD.
ARCHIEPISCOPO. NEAPOLITANO
ADOLESCENTI. NON. MINVS. VIRTVTE. SVA
QVAM. MAIORVM. SPLENDORE. CLARO
PATRVI. PAVLI. IV
PONT. MAX. RELIGIONEM
INTEGRITATEMQVE. REFERENTI. EA. SAPIENTIA. PRÆDITO
VT. IN. SECVNDIS. REBVS
SUMMAM. EIVS. TEMPERANTIAM
IN. ADVERSIS. MIRAM. CONSTANTIAM. OMNES
LAVDAVERINT
PIVS. V. PONT. MAX. POSVIT
VIXIT. ANNIS. XXV. DIES. XV.
OBIIT. MDLXV. IV. KALENDAS. SEPTEMBRIS.

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(17) 9. VITELLI, Vitellozzo (1531-1568)

Birth. 1531, Città di Castello. Son of Captain Alessandro Vitellozzi, signore of Amatrice, and Angela di Troilo Rossi, marchioness of S. Secondo. He had five brothers, Giacomo, Vincenzo, Cesare, Alfonso, and Antea; one half-brother, Camillo II Vitelli, of the counts of Montone; and two half-sisters, Costanza Vitelli and Sister Porzia (Faustina) Vitelli.

Education. Studied at the University of Padua, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure. He had the title of magister.

Sacred orders. Cleric of Città di Castello.

Early life. Chamberlain of His Holiness. Collector of taxes of the Knights of Sts. Peter and Paul. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, September 1, 1552.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Città di Castello, March 20, 1554; constituted administrator until reaching the canonical age of 27. Consecrated (no information found). Granted the faculty to take possession of the diocese, April 24, 1554; letters not issued; went to Rome in February 1556. Governor of Civitavecchia, 1554. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, 1555.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 15, 1557; received the red hat and the deaconry of Ss. Sergio e Bacco, March 24, 1557. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Portico Octaviae, March 6, 1559. Participated in the conclave of 1559, which elected Pope Pius IV. Ceased as bishop of Città di Castello before February 7, 1560. Administrator of the diocese of Imola, February 7, 1560 until October 24, 1561. Legate in Campagna and Marittima, 1560. Governor of Collescipoli, January 22, 1563. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata, November 17, 1564. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, November 17 (1), 1564 until his death. Legate in Campagna and Marittima, August 22 (2), 1565 until January 30, 1566. Governor of Pontecorvo, December 1, 1565. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace, (no date found) until his death. Member of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office. Protector of France before the Holy See. Administrator of the diocese of Carcassone, 1567.

Death. November 19, 1568, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Maria in Via Lata, Rome.

Bibliography. Beltrami, Giuseppe. Notizie su prefetti e referendari della Segnatura Apostolica desunte dai brevi di nomina. Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1972, p. 6; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 365-368; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 1633-1634; Corbucci, Vittorio ; Rossa, Angela ; Vitelli, Vitellozzo. La tirannia del Cardinale Vitellozzo Vitelli e di Angela Rossa i Città di Castello : su nuovi documenti tratti dall'Archivio segreto Vaticano e dal communale tifernate. Foligno : Campilelli, 1925; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 36, 75, 76, 81, 152, 169 and 213; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), pp. 114-115, 121 and 139; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 180, 214, and 981.

Webgraphy. Portrait, arms and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his genealogy, Geni.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 81; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae, p. 115, says that he was appointed on November 10, 1564.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 36; Weber, Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809, p. 180, says that he was named on September 18, 1565.

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(18) 10. CONSIGLIERI, Giovanni Battista (1491-1559)

Birth. 1491, Rome. Son of Baldassare Consiglieri and Mariana de Statis. The family was originally from Bologna (1). His last name is also listed as Ghislieri, Ghisleri and Consigliari.

Education. Studied literature, Greek and Latin.

Early life. Got married and had two daughters (2); after the death of his wife, entered the ecclesiastical state.

Sacred orders. Roman cleric. Protonotary apostolic. President of the Apostolic Chamber.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 15, 1557 (3); received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Lucia in Septisolio, March 24, 1557. Opted for the deaconry of S. Nicola in Carcere, December 16, 1558.

Death. August 25, 1559, Rome, during the vacant see. Buried next to the altar of SS. Sagramento in his deaconry.

Bibliography. Ancel, René. "L'activité réformatrice de Paul IV. Le choix des cardinaux." Revue des questiones historiques, XLI (July 1909), 67-103; Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 984; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, ; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 1634-1635; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 36,

(1) According to Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 984, the family was a branch of the Ghislieri family and because of the civil wars in Bologna moved to Rome and adopted the name Consiglieri. Another branch of the family moved to Bosco, near Alessandria, and from it came the future Pope Pius V. Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1635, indicates that Pope Pius V issued a diploma in 1572 allowing Gian Pietro Consiglieri, nephew of the cardinal, to take back the last name Ghislieri.
(2) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 368; the same author indicates that Chacón mistakenly says that they had two sons; Ancel, "L'activité réformatrice de Paul IV", p. 89, says that he was married twice and that his second wife was a widow.
(3) According to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 368, Pope Paul IV wanted to elevate Paolo Consiglieri, together with the pope one of the four founders of the Clerics Regular Theatines, to the cardinalate. But Paolo told the pope that the honor went beyond his merits and his strength because he was not versed in political affairs and was of an advanced age. He asked the pope to promote his brother Giovanni Battista in his place. Pope Paul IV acquiesced and created Giovanni Battista a cardinal.

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