The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Pius IV (1559-1565)
Consistory of February 26, 1561 (II)

(4) 1. SERIPANDO, O.E.S.A., Girolamo (1493-1563)

Birth. May 6, 1493, Troja, Apulia. Of a noble family. Son of Giovanni Ferrante Seripando and Elizabeta Galeotti (1). His first name is also listed as Geronimo; and as Gerolamo.

Education. Studied Greek, Chaldean, Hebrew, philosophy and theology in Naples; obtained a doctorate at the University of Bologna.

Early life. He was destined by his parents to be a lawyer but after they died, he entered the Order of the Eremites St. Augustine, in the congregation of S. Giovanni a Carbonara, Naples, May 6, 1507 (2).

Priesthood. Ordained, 1516. Called by the superior general, he went to Rome for a brief period and then was named lector in Siena, 1515; professor of theology at Bologna, 1517; director of the Studio S. Giacomo, Bologna, 1518; vicar general of the congregation of S. Giovanni a Carbonara, Naples, 1523; and vicar-general of his order, 1532-1534. Elected superior general of his order in the chapter celebrated in Naples in 1539; occupied the post for twelve years, resigning in 1551; he was succeeded by Cristoforo da Padova. Participated in the Council of Trent, 1545-1547/1548; he distinguished himself for his zeal for the integrity of the text of the Scriptures, and by his views on original sin and justification. Legate to the emperor and to the king of France in the pontificate of Pope Paul III (1535-1548). He declined the episcopal promotion to the see of Aquila, resigned as superior general and retired to a small convent. Two years later, in 1553, the city of Naples sent him on a mission before Emperor Charles V, who was in Brussels.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Salerno, March 30, 1554. Consecrated, May 15, 1554, probably at the Sistine Chapel, Rome, by Cardinal Giovanni Michele Saraceni Girifalco, assisted by Pierantonio di Capua, archbishop of Otranto, and by Giangiacomo Barba, O.E.S.A., papal sacristan. Consultor of the Holy Office, 1560.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 26, 1561; received the red hat and the title of S. Susanna, March 10, 1561. Legate to the Council of Trent, March 10, 1561; received the legatine cross on March 17, 1561. He was an elegant and prolific writer (3), a controversialist, and an eloquent orator admired by Emperor Charles V.

Death. March 17, 1563, of pneumonia, Trent (4). Buried temporarily in the church of S. Marco, Trent. Later, transferred to Naples, and buried in the Augustinian church of S. Giovanni in Carbonara (5).

Bibliography. Balducci, Antonio. Girolamo Seripando : arcivescovo di Salerno (1554-1563). Cava dei Tirreni : Arti Grafiche di Mauro, 1963; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 9-12; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1656-1657; Crisci, Generoso. Il cammino della chiesa salernitana : nell'opera dei suoi vescovi (sec. V-XX). Napoli : Libreria editrice Redenzione, 1976-. Contents: v. 1 [Dal'origine a 1630] -- v. 2 (1630-1834), "Girolamo Seripando, I, 503-558; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 38, 71 and 289; Fava, A. "La restaurazione cattolica della Diocesi di Salerno." Rassegna storica salernitana, II (1938), 105-125; Gutiérrez, D. "Hieronimy Seripandi: Diarium de vita sua (1513-1562)." Analecta Augustiniana. XXVI (1963), 5-193; Jedin, Hubert. Girolamo Seripando : sein Leben und Denken im Geisteskampf des 16. Jahrhunderts. 2 vols. Würzburg : Rita-Verlag, 1937 (Cassiciacum ; Bd. 2-3). Contents: 1. Bd. Werdezeit und erster Schaffenstag. -- 2. Bd. Vollendung, Untersuchungen und Texte; Jedin, Hubert. Papal legate at the Council of Trent, Cardinal Seripando. Translated by Frederic C. Eckhoff. St. Louis : B. Herder, 1947; Jedin, Hubert. "Seelenleitung u. Volkommenheitsstufen bei Kardinal Seripando." Sanctus Augustinus, vitae spiritualis magister. 2 vols. Settimana internazionale di spiritualità agostiniana (1956 : Rome, Italy). Roma : Analecta Augustiniana, 1959. Responsibility: Settimana internazionale di spiritualit` agostiniana, Roma 22-27 ottobre 1956; Marranzini, Alfredo. "La figura del vescovo secondo Girolamo Seripando." Una hostia. Studi in onore del Cardinale Corrado Ursi. A cura de Saturnino Muratori e Armando Rolla. Naples : M. D'Auria Editore, 1983, pp. 211-244; Pontieri, Ernesto. "Figure e aspetti della riforma cattolica in Campania; Girolamo Seripando a Salerno e Paolo Burali d'Arezzo a Napoli." Divagazioni storiche e storiografiche, Ser. II, Salerno (1971), 281-403; Pontieri, Ernesto. "Figure e aspetti della riforma cattolica in Campania; Girolamo Seripando a Salerno e Paolo Burali d'Arezzo a Napoli." Divagazioni storiche e storiografiche, Ser. II, Salerno (1971), 281-403; Pontieri, Ernesto. "Girolamo Seipando e la città di Salerno sua sede vescovile (1554-1563)." Rassegna storica salernitana, XXVI (1965), n. 3-4, 3-28.

Links. Biography by Francis Gigot, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in Italian, Enciclopedie on line, Treccani; his portrait, bibliography and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; "Padre Et Pastor Vostro": Girolamo Seripando And The Restoration Of The Episcopate In Salerno - Critical Essay, by Francesco C. Cesareo, academic journal article from The Historian, Vol. 61 (March 1999), No. 3, 579596; his portrait (1600-1699), diocese of Verona, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his portrait by Antonio Triva (or Matteo Ingoli) (1651-1665), patriarchate of Venice, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his monument in the church of S. Agostino, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is according to Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1656; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 11, indicates that his mother's name was Luigia Galeota.
(2) According to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 9, in 1506 he joined the Order of Preachers (Dominicans) but on the following day of his entering the order, his brother Antonio fu tratto con violenza took him home to continue his studies.
(3) These are some of his published works: Novae constitutiones ordinis S. Augustini (Venice, 1549); Oratio in funere Caroli V imperatoris (Naples; 1559); Prediche sopra il simbolo degli Apostoli (Venice, 1567); Commentarius in D. Pauli epistolas ad Galatas (Venice, 1569); Commentaria in D. Pauli epistolas ad Romanos et ad Galatas (Naples, 1601); De arte orandi (Lyons, 1670); and several of his letters, included by Lagomarsini in Poggiani epist. et orationes (Rome, 1762).
(4) This is according to his biographies in English and in German linked above; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 38, note 3; the latter source, on the same page, also indicates that he died on April 16, 1563 in Curia Romana.
(5) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1656:

HIERONYMO. SERIPANDO.
CARDINALI. CONCILII. TRIDENTINI. LEGATO.
CHRISTOPHORVS. PATAVINVS. SODALITII. EREMIT. MAG.
P.
VIXIT. ANNOS. LXX. MENS. V. DIES. XI.
Si quis bonos tumuli, quantum Sollampade lustrat. Terrarum, Cæliq; tuum est Seripande sepulchrum.

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(5) 2. BABOU DE LA BOURDAISIÈRE, Philibert (1513-1570)

Birth. 1513, Brisighella, diocese of Faenza, of a French family. His last name is also listed as Naldi, Babot and Babo. Son of Philibert Naldi Babou and Maria Gaudin. Brother and successor of Jacques Babou de la Bourdaisière, bishop of Angoulême.

Education. Studied Greek and Latin; obtained his degree at the University of Paris, Paris.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Angoulême, January 13, 1533; administrator until reaching the canonical age. Consecrated (no information found). Counselor and master of memorials in the court of Henri II of France. Dean of Saint-Martin-de-Tours. Went to Rome in February 1556. Ambassador to Rome of King Henri II of France; remained as ambassador of Kings François II and Charles IX.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 26, 1561; received the red hat and the title of S. Sisto, March 10, 1561. Administrator of Auxerre, December 16, 1562. Participated in the Council of Trent, 1562-1563. Opted for the title of S. Martino ai Monti, November 17, 1564. Did not participate in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Resigned the government of the diocese of Angoulême before June 4, 1567. Opted for the title of S. Anastasia, May 14, 1568. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 11, 1570 until his death, two weeks later.

Death. January 25, 1570, at night, suddenly, in the palace of S. Apollinare, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Luigi dei Francesi, Rome (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 32-33; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1661-1662; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 38, 70, 125 and 193.

Links. His epitaph in the church of S. Luigi dei Francesi, Rome, Requiem Datenbank; his portrait by François Clouet, Musée Condé, Chantilly, France; his engraving by Louis-Philippe Album, châteaux de Versailles et de Trianon, Versailles, France.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, linked above:

PHILIBERTO. NALDIO. BVRDESIO.
S. R. E. CARDINALI.
TRIVM. GALLIAE. REG. HENR. II.
FRANCISCI. II. CAROLI. IX. APVD.
PAVLVM. IV. ET. PIVM. IV. PONTT.
MAXX. LEGATIONE. PERPETVA.
EGREGIE. FVNCTO.
ARIA. GAVDINA. MATER.
PHILIBER. ET. FABRITIVS. NEPP.
PP.
VIXIT. ANNIS. LVII.
OBIIT. VII. KAL. FEB. MDLXX

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(6) 3. SIMONETA, Ludovico (ca. 1500-1568)

Birth. ca. 1500, Milan. Son of Palatine Count Alessandro Simoneta and Antonia Castiglioni. Milanese patrician. His last name is also listed as Simonetta. Nephew of Cardinal Giacomo Simoneta (1535).

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure in Milan.

Early life. Admitted to the Collegio degli Avvocati of Milan, 1533. Practiced law in Milan and Pavia.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Pesaro, December 19, 1537, after the resignation of his uncle Giacomo. Consecrated (no information found). Participated in the Council of Trent, 1545-1546/1547. In 1549 he went to Rome and was named lawyer of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature. Datary of His Holiness, May 17, 1560.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 26, 1561; received the red hat and the title of S. Ciriaco alle Terme, March 10, 1561. Resigned the government of the diocese before May 9, 1561. Legate to the Council of Trent, November 10, 1561. Prefect of the tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, June 8, 1563. Member of the Tribunal of the Inquisition and of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, 1564. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Opted for the title of S. Anastasia, November 15, 1566.

Death. April 30, 1568, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Maria degli Angeli, Rome.

Bibliography. Beltrami, Giuseppe. Notizie su prefetti e referendari della Segnatura Apostolica desunte dai brevi di nomina. Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1972, p. 3; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 26-28; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1660; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 38, 59, 63 and 274; Storti, Nicola. La storia e il diritto della Dataria Apostolica dalle origini ai nostri giorni. Napoli : Athena Mediterranea Editrice, 1969, p. 169.

Link. Biography, in German.

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(7) 4. HOHENEMS, Mark Sittich von (1533-1595)

Birth. 1533, fief of Hohenems, Germany. Of a noble family. Son of Wolf Ludwig von Hohenems and Chiara de' Medici, sister of Pope Pius IV. Cousin of Cardinals Gianantonio Serbelloni (1560) and Carlo Borromeo (1560). He is also listed as Marco Sittico III di Alta Ems; or Altemps (Latinization of Hohenems: Alta Emps).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Participated in the war of Tuscany under the command of Giangiacopo de' Medici. He also fought against the Turks (1). Knight of the Order of Santiago. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, March 23, 1560. He had a natural son, Roberto, whom he later legitimized (2)

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Cassano, May 29, 1560; named administrator until reaching the canonical age (3); consecrated, not earlier than 1564 and no later than February 1566, by Cardinal Carlo Borromeo, archbishop of Milan (no further information found); resigned the government of the see, May 11, 1561. Legate before Emperor Ferdinand and Maximilian, king of the Romans, for the convocation of the general council.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 26, 1561; received the red hat and the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, March 10, 1561. Elected by the cathedral chapter, he was preconized bishop of Konstanz, October 24, 1561. Legate perpetuo in Avignon. Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica. Legate to the Council of Trent, November 10, 1561. Governor of Fermo, December 27, 1561. Opted for the order of cardinal priests, July 30, 1563; his deaconry was restored to title. Governor of Norcia e Montagna, October 3, 1564. Legate in Marche, November 1, 1564. Governor of Ascoli, November 3, 1564. Legate to the Diet of Augsburg. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Opted for the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, May 15, 1565. Governor of Ancona and Cereti, August 18, 1565. Governor ad vitam of Castelo Stronconi, November 11, 1565. Governor of Capranica, 1565-1588. He received license to leave Rome for Konstanz in February 1566. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Opted for the title of S. Maria degli Angeli, October 3, 1577. Opted for the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, October 3, 1578. Opted for the title of S. Clemente, August 17, 1579. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, December 5, 1580. Participated in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. Resigned the government of the see before July 31, 1589. Could not continue as legate in Avignon because of illness, June 4, 1590. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. Legate in Viterbo, November 1592. Ceded the abbey of Mirasole to provide for Collegio Helvetico. He built Palazzo Altemps in Rome.

Death. February 15, 1595, Rome. Buried in the chapel he had founded in the church of S. Maria in Trastevere, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 40-43; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1665; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 38, 60, 62, 65, 67, 68, 73, 156 and ; Morera, Trento. I cardinali governatori di Capranica. Rome : Romagrafik, 1980, pp. 51-55; Panizon, Piero. Il cardinale lanzichenecco : potere e carriere nella Roma dei papi tra Controriforma ed era barocca. Torino : Ananke, 2010. Other title: Subtitle on cover; Marco Sittico III di Alta Ems; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 114, 121, 241, 285, 312, 430, and 452.

Links. His portrait and biography, in Portuguese, Wikepedia; his arms and biography, in German, Wikipedia; brief biographical data, in English, Encyclopedia of Austria; The Hohenems, in English, Encyclopedia of Austria; medal and biographical data, in Italian EncycloCapranica; his arms, fresco with his image and biography, in German, Wikipedia; his portrait, Wikipedia; his effigy and arms on a medal, Naturfreunde Vorarlberg; his portrait with Pope Pius IV by Bartholome Schnell (1616), Zeitreisef|hrer - Vorarlberg; The House of Hohenems and its bishops by Ursula Kampmann, in English, CoinsWeekly; biographical data, in Italian, under "Altemps", Araldica Vaticana.

(1) According to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 41, in spite of the requests of his uncle the pope that he enter the ecclesiastical life, he continued his military career until one day, when he was in the vicinity of S. Pietro in Vincoli, Rome, his chariot overturned and the accident could have cost him his life, but fortunately, the only loss was his sword, which was found broken over a rock. Terrified of the constant risks, he decided to abandon the military and follow his uncle's request.
(2) For him, the cardinal purchased the fiefs of Monte Porzio (1570) and Monte Compatri (1575); the marquisette of Soriano (1579); and the duchy of Gallese (1585). He was governor of Borgo, April 25 to September 1585.
(3) Bishop Benedetto Salini of Veroli was appointed his vicar for spiritual matters, July 3, 1560.

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(8) 5. GONZAGA, Francesco (1538-1566)

Birth. December 6, 1538, Palermo (1). Neapolitan and Venetian patrician. Of the dukes of Ariano. Son of Ferrante I Gonzaga and Isabella di Capua. Nephew of Cardinal Ercole Gonzaga (1527). Brother of Cardinal Giovanni Vincenzo Gonzaga, O.S.Io.Hier. (1578). Other cardinals of the family are: Francesco Gonzaga (1461); Sigismondo Gonzaga (1505); Pirro Gonzaga (1527); Scipione Gonzaga (1587); Ferdinando Gonzaga (1607); and Vincenzo Gonzaga (1615).

Education. Studied law. (No further educational information found).

Early life. Archpriest of Guastalla, 1538. Abbot commendatario of Acquanegra. Protonotary apostolic participantium, February 26, 1560.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 26, 1561; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano, March 10, 1561. Legate in Campagna e Marittima, 1561; succeeded his uncle Cardinal Ercole; 1563; and 1564-1565. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, July 16, 1562. Opted for the order of cardinal priests keeping the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, March 1, 1564.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop, in title, of Cosenza, with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age, March 2, 1562; named administrator of the see. Consecration (no information found). Resigned the government of the archdiocese before January 12, 1565. Elected bishop of Mantua, with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age, May 15, 1565. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V, and died during its celebration.

Death. Sunday January 6, 1566, at 9 p.m., in Rome, during the conclave; the body was removed at 1 a.m. in a litter (2). Buried in the middle of the church of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, Rome (3).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 43-44; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1665; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 38, 75, 183 and 234; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 180 and 708.

Links. His genealogy, A4, Libro d'Oro della Nobilità Mediterranea; his tomb and arms, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is according to his genealogy linked above; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 43, says that he was born in Mantua.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 38, citing Acta Camerarii, 9, f. 132'; and his genealogy, linked above; his epitaph, note 3, taken from Chacón, says that he died in 1565; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 44, also says that he died in 1565 during the conclave that elected Pius V.
(3) This is his epitaph taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D.     O.      M.
FRANCISCO. GONZAGAE.
CARDINALI
QVI. SI. SENECTVTEM.
PER. VENISSET. CVM. HERCVLE.
GONZAGA. CARDINALE. EIVS. PATRVO.
CVIVS. DISCIPLINAE. FVERAT.
ALVMNVS. CONFERRI. IVRE.
POTVISSET. TANTA. IAM. IN.
EO. RELIGIO. PRVDENTIA.
OMNIVMQ. VIRTVTVM.
INDOLES. ELVCEBAT. VIXIT. ANNOS. XXVIII. MENSES. VI.
DIES. XXV. OBIIT. ANNO. SALVTIS.
NOSTRAE MDLXVI.

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(9) 6. GESUALDO, Alfonso (1540-1603)

Birth. October 20, 1540, Calitri, archdiocese of Naples. Of the noble family of the signori of Calitri, princes of Venosa and counts of Conza. Son of Luigi IV Gesualdo, first prince of Venosa, fifth count of Conza, tenth signore of Gesualdo, and Isabella Ferella. Brother in law of Cardinal Carlo Borromeo (1560).

Education. He had un capitale non mediocre di scienza (1). (No further educational information found).

Early life. Protonotary apostolic.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 26, 1561; received the red hat and the title of S. Cecilia, March 10, 1561. Administrator of the archdiocese of Conza, April 14, 1561. Opted for the order of cardinal priests, keeping the title of S. Cecilia, October 22, 1563.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Conza, March 1, 1564. Consecrated, April 23, 1564 by Cardinal Francesco Pisani, bishop of Porto, assisted by (no information found). Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Governor of the city of Amelia, February 7, 1566; and again in 1578. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Opted for the title of S. Prisca, October 17, 1572. Resigned the government of the archdiocese before November 19, 1572. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 9, 1576 to January 6, 1577. Opted for the title of S. Anastasia, July 9, 1578. Opted for the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, August 17, 1579. Opted for the title of S. Clemente, December 5, 1580. Opted for the order of cardinals bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, March 4, 1583. Vice-protector of Hungary, July 16, 1584. Participated in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. Legate in Marche, for two years, May 13, 1585. Prefect of the S.C. of Rites, 1585. Protector of Portugal and the Two Sicilies before the Holy See, 1585. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Frascati, December 2 (2), 1587. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, March 2, 1589. Sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, proper of the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 20, 1591. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. Transferred to the see of Naples, retaining the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, February 12, 1596 (3).

Death. February 14, 1603, Naples. Buried in a marble monument with his jacent statue dressed with the pontifical vestments, at the side of the main altar of the metropolitan cathedral of Naples, next to the tomb of Cardinal Alfonso Carafa; later, the tomb was moved to the church of S. Restituta (4).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 45-47; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1666; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 38, 56, 57, 59, 61, 62, 68, 69, 175 and 255; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 286 and 695; Zigarelli, Daniello Maria. Biografie dei vescovi e arcivescovi della chiesa di Napoli con una descrizione del clero, della cattedrale, della basilica di s. Restituta e della cappella del tesoro di s. Gennaro. Napoli: Tipografico di G. Gioja, 1861, pp. 148-153.

Links. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; his episcopal lineageby Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; his engraving, arms and tomb, Araldica Vaticana; his genealogy, A1 B4 C1 D2 E2 F1 G3 H2 I3 J2 K4 L1 M1 N3, Libro d'Oro della Nobilità Mediterranea; his portrait with S. Gennaro by Giovanni Balducci, 16th century (1599), archdiocese of Naples, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his funeral monument by Michelangelo Naccherino and Tommaso Montani, 17th century (1603), archdiocese of Naples, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his jascent statue in his funeral monument by the same artists, 17th century (1603), archdiocese of Naples, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 45.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 56; the same source, III, 38, indicates that he opted on December 11, 1587.
(3) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 255; Zigarelli, Biografie dei vescovi e arcivescovi, p. 148, says that he was named on February 25, 1596.
(4) This is the epigraph on his tomb taken from Zigarelli, Biografie dei vescovi e arcivescovi, p. 152:

ALPHONSI . GESVALDI .
COMPSAE . COMITIS. VENVSIIQUE . PRINCIPIS . FILII .
S. R. E. EPISCOPI . CARDINALIS . OSTIENSIS .
SACRI . COLLEGI . DECANI .
ET . HVJVS Æ . NEAPOLITANAE . ECCLESIÆ .
BENEMERENTISSIMI. ARCHIEPISCOPI .
VENERANDI . HIC . SERVANTVR . CINERES .
POST . MVLTOS . LABORES .
MAGNIS . ONVSTVS . MERITIS .
AB . HVMANIS . SBLATVS . EVOLAVIT . AD . ÆTERNA .
DIE . XIIII . FEB. ANNO . MDCII.
A . C . F . P . C .

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(10) 7. GAMBARA, Gianfrancesco (1533-1587)

Birth. February 16, 1533, Brescia. Son of Brunoro II Gambara, count of Pralboino, field marshal in the army of Emperor Charles V, and Virginia Pallavicini, widow of Ranuccio Farnese. His last name is also listed as Gambarra. Nephew of Cardinal Uberto Gambara (1539). His mother married Giberto II Borromeo in third nuptials and thus, he became stepbrother of Cardinal Carlo Borromeo (1560).

Education. Started his studies at the University of Padua; continued at the University of Bologna; and later, at the University of Perugia he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. In 1548, upon the resignation of his uncle the cardinal, he became provost commendatario of the house of the Umiliati of S. Maria, Brescia (later S. Maria delle Grazie). Later, he succeeded him in the abbeys of S. Lorenzo, Cremona; and S. Tommaso d'Acquanegra; and the provostship of Verolanuova. Left his paternal house and followed his uncle the cardinal to the imperial court of Emperor Charles V. Later, went to Rome to the court of Pope Julius III, who named him privy chamberlain. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber in the pontificate of Pope Pius IV; later, its president.

Sacred orders. Cleric of Camerino.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 26, 1561; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro, March 10, 1561. Participated in the Council of Trent, 1562-1563. In 1564, in the name of Pope Pius IV, signed the bull that confirmed the acts of the council (1). Legate in Camerino, August 22, 1565 until January 20, 1566. Opted for the title of S. Pudenziana, November 17, 1565 (2). Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Viterbo, October 7, 1566. Consecrated, Sunday, October 13, 1566, Sistine Chapel, Vatican, by Pope Pius V, assisted by Cardinal Giacomo Savelli and by Cardinal Niccolò Gaetano Sermoneta. In the same ceremony were also consecrated Innico d'Avalos d'Aragona, bishop of Mileto, and Cardinal Guglielmo Sirleto, bishop of San Marco. Delegate for the sanitary vigilance of Rome against the threat of an epidemic, 1566. Named inquisitor general, July 4, 1567. Opted for the title of S. Prisca, July 3, 1570. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Opted for the title of S. Anastasia, October 17, 1572. Resigned the government of the diocese before March 28, 1576. Opted for the title of S. Clemente, July 9, 1578. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, August 17, 1579. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, December 5, 1580. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, March 4, 1583. Participated in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V.

Death. May 5, 1587, Rome. His body was taken to the church of S. Maria del Popolo, in Rome; and later buried, according to his will, in the church of S. Maria Vergine della Quercia, Viterbo.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 48-50; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1667; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 129; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 38, 56, 57, 59, 62, 65, 67, 69 and 336; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 170 and 688.

Links. Biography by Michele Di Sivo, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 52 (1999), Treccani; his drawing and biography, in Italian, Comune Gambara; Palazzo Gambara, Comune di Verolanuova; his portrait 16th century (1590-1599), diocese of Viterbo, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb) .

(1) According to his biography linked above, he was not solicitous in the execution of the conciliar acts and for this, he was harshly admonished by Cardinal Carlo Borromeo.
(2) It is not known when he opted for the order of cardinal priests; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 9, refers to him as cardinal priest when he opted for the title of S. Pudenziana.

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(11) 8. AMULIO, Marco Antonio (1506-1572)

Birth. 1506, Venice. His first name is also listed as Marcantonio and his last name as Da Mula. Venetian patrician. The family may have descended from King Amulio of Albania.

Education. Completed his humanistic studies in Venice; University of Padua, Padua (law).

Early life. Venetian ambassador before Emperor Charles V; later, before King Felipe II of Spain; and finally, before the Holy See. The pope intended to name him bishop of Verona but the Republic of Venice opposed the promotion; he was recalled to Venice and only because of the strong protest of the pope, he was reinstated.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 26, 1561 (1); received the red hat and the title of S. Marcello, March 10, 1561. Opted for the order of cardinal priests, March 17, 1561.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Rieti, November 23, 1562. Consecrated (no information found). Participated in the Council of Trent, 1562-1563; implemented in his diocese its reforms. Librarian of the Holy Roman Church, 1565-1572. Did not participate in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. With cardinals Giovanni Girolamo Morone and Alessandro Farnese, iuniore, was charged with making all the necessary preparations against the Turks. Together with Cardinal Michele Ghislieri, was deputized to receive the profession of faith of Abdisit, of the Order of St. Pacomius, patriarch of the Chaldeans, who had come to Rome to express his obedience to the pope. He was a distinguished orator and man of letters and counted Pietro Bembo, Bernardo Tasso, Pietro Aretino, l'Aretino, and Giangiorgio Trissino among his friends. Founded in Prato della Valle, Padua, the Collegio Amulio as well as the Compagnia del gran nome di Dio to assist the orphans and the children of the poor.

Death. March 17, 1572, Rome. Transferred to Venice, was buried in the sacristy of the church of S. Giobbe, of the Observant Franciscans.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 33-35; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1662-1663; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 38, 65 and 283.

Links. Biography, in Italian; third entry on the page; his dispatches as Venetian ambassador in Rome, in Italian; and the Da Amula Family.

(1) By accepting the promotion to the cardinalate, he disobeyed the disposition of the Republic of Venice prohibiting its ministers to accept any dignity from the princes of the territories where they resided.

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(12) 9. SALVIATI, O. S. Io.Hier., Bernardo (1508-1568)

Birth. 1508, Florence. Of a noble family. Eighth of the eleven children of Jacopoo Salviati and Lucrezia de' Medici. Brother of Cardinal Giovanni Salviati (1517), his predecessor in the see of Saint-Papoul. Nephew of Pope Leo X (1513-1521), on his mother's side. Uncle of Cardinal Antonmaria Salviati (1583). Other cardinals of the family were Antonmaria Salviati (1583); Alamanno Salviati (1730); and Gregorio Salviati (1777).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Knight of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem at a young age. Because of his valor, was named admiral of the order. Prior of the order in Capua and later in Rome. Ambassador of the order, together with Filippo Strozzi and Lorenzo Ridolfi, before Emperor Charles V in Barcelona; and later, before the king of France. He had a natural daughter. Promoted to the rank of captain. Queen Caterina de' Medici of France, his relative, successfully exhorted him to leave the military and enter the ecclesiastical life. Took the clerical habit.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Saint-Papoul, France, June 5, 1549. Consecrated (no information found). Named abbot commendatario of S. Dionigi, Milan, 1550; and of S. Saviour de Rothone, Vannes, 1553. Grand almoner of Queen Catarina de' Medici of France. Resigned the government of the diocese before August 8, 1561, in favor of his nephew Antonmaria Salviati, future cardinal.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 26, 1561; received the red hat and the title of S. Simeone Profeta, June 27, 1561. Administrator of the diocese of Clermont, August 8, 1561. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Opted for the title of S. Prisca, May 15, 1566. Resigned the administration before March 10, 1568.

Death. May 6, 1568, in his residence in Trastevere, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome.

<STRONG>Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 12-13; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1657; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 38-39, 69, 70, 170 and 270; Hurtubise, Pierre. Une famille-témoin, les Salviati. Città del Vaticano : Biblioteca apostolica vaticana, 1985. (Studi e testi ; 309 ; Variation: Studi e testi (Biblioteca apostolica vaticana) ; 309); Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 837.

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(13) 10. HOSIUS, Stanisław (1504-1579)

Birth. May 5, 1504, Kraków, Poland. Of German parents. Youngest of the three children of Ulrich Hos, from Pforzheim, procurator of the city of Wilna in the service of the Polish king, and Anna, widow of merchant Erhard Slaker. The other siblings were Anna and Jan. After the death of Anna, Ulrich married a second time, with Barbara Gleywicz, from Gliwice, and they had three children, Ulrich, Brygida and Barbara. He was related to Stanisław Józef Hosius, bishop of Poznań (1433-1438). His last name is also listed as Hozjusz (in Polish), Hozius, Hozjus, Hoe, Hos, Hose and Hosz.

Education. University of Kraków, Kraków (bachelor of arts, 1520); University of Padua, Padua (humanities under Lazaro Buonamico; and theology); University of Bologna, Bologna (humanities under Romulo Amasio; and law under Ugo Buoncompagni, future Pope Gregory XIII; obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, June 8, 1534). Spoke German, Polish, and Latin.

Early life. Lived in Kraków and Wilna when he was a youngster. Private secretary and tutor of the nephews of Piotr Tomicki, bishop of Kraków and vice-chancellor of Poland. Studied in Padua and Bologna. Returned to Kraków and became again secretary of Bishop Tomicki; at his death in 1535, he continued as secretary of the new vice-chancellor, Jan Choinski, bishop of Plock; became royal secretary after the death of Bishop Choinski in 1538. Provost of Wielun. Provost of Vislica. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Frauenburg, 1538. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Kraków, 1540. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Sandomir, 1542.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1543. Received the parishes of Golombie and Radlow in 1546.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Chełmźa (Kulmsee), July 12, 1549. Sent by King Sigismund II on a mission to the courts of King Ferdinand I at Prague, and Emperor Charles V at Brussels and Ghent; successfully completed an offensive and defensive alliance between Poland and these two monarchies. Consecrated, March 16, 1550, Laetare Sunday, Kraków, by Samuel Macieiowski, bishop of Kraków. Named Inquisitor hæreticæ pravitati to stop the spread of Protestant doctrines in the diocese of Pomesanien, July 25, 1550. Postulated bishop by the cathedral chapter of Ermland, March 2, 1551; preconized, May 11, 1551 (1). In June 1551, the provincial Synod of Piotrkow asked him to write a profession of the Catholic faith (2), which was accepted and subscribed by all the bishops. In May, 1558, the pope called him to Rome and he quickly became one of the most influential members of the Curia. Pope Pius IV named him legate to the imperial court of Vienna, to make arrangements with Emperor Ferdinand I for the reopening of the Council of Trent, and to try to bring about the conversion of Prince Maximilian of Bohemia, the emperor's son, who had converted to Protestantism; after several months, the logical exposition of the Catholic faith and the edifying example of the cardinal produced the return of the prince to the Catholic Faith.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 26, 1561; received the red hat and the title of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna, August 8, 1561; had refused the promotion several times before and would have refused it again, but both the emperor and the pope insisted on his accepting it. Legate to the Council of Trent, March 10, 1561; he actively defended the pope's authority, and was instrumental in the final success of the council; he obtained the acceptance of the council's decrees at the Diet of Parczow on August 7, 1564; he promulgated the Tridentine decrees in his diocese in August 1565. Opted for the title of S. Pancrazio, August 31, 1562. Opted for the title of S. Sabina, September 4, 1565. Opted for the title of S. Teodoro, September 7, 1565. Did not participate in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Legate a latere in Poland, December 1566. Ambassador of Poland before the Holy See, 1569 (3). He actively promoted the pope's efforts to restore the Church in England and Sweden. Opted for the title of S. Prisca, February 10, 1570. Opted for the title of S. Anastasia, June 9, 1570. Opted for the title of S. Clemente, July 3, 1570. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, May 18, 1571 to January 23, 1572. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Member of the new Congregatio Germanica, 1572. Grand penitentiary, January 8, 1574 until his death. Opted for the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, July 9, 1578. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, October 3, 1578.

Death. August 5, 1579, Capranica, diocese of Sutri, near Rome. Buried in the church of S. Maria in Trastevere, Rome (4).

Beatification. The diocesan process for his beatification started on August 5, 2006 in the archdiocese of Warmia (Ermland), Poland; the postulator of the cause of beatification is Fr. Jan Górny; information toward the middle of the page (5).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 13-25; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1657-1659; Eichhorn, Anton. Der ermländische Bischof und Cardinal Stanislaus Hosius : vorzüglich nach seinem kirchlichen und literarischen Wirken geschildert. Mainz : F. Kirchheim, 1854-1855; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 39, 59, 62, 64, 66, 68, 69, 70, 76, 182 and 327; Karp, Hans-Jorgen. "Hosius, Stanislaus (1504-1579)" in Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1448 bis 1648 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz, unter Mitwirkung von Clemens Brodkorb. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1996, pp. 314-318; Nitecki, Piotr. Biskupi Kościoła w Polsce w latach 965-1999. Słownik biograficzny. Przedmowa Henryk Gulbinowicz. Warszawa : Instytut Wydawniczy "Pax", Warszawa 2000, col. 153-154; Prokop, Krzysztof Rafał. Polscy kardynałowie. Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM, 2001, pp. 7, 9, 10, 63-75, 81, 92, 104, 162 and 350; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, p. 59-61; Zdrodowski, Francis J. The concept of heresy according to Cardinal Hosius. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America, 1947.

Links. Biography by Michael Ott, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia (5); biography, in German; portrait and biography, in Polish; his tomb in the church of S. Maria in Trastevere, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 327; his biography in English, linked above, indicates that the pope named him on April 27, 1551.
(2) This profession was later expanded into a detailed and expanded explanation of the Catholic faith, Confessio fidei catholicæ christianæ (Kraków, 1553; and Mains, 1557). It reached over 30 editions and translations in his lifetime.
(3) He appointed, with the approval of the pope and the Polish king, Bishop Martin Cromer as his coadjutor and administrator of the see of Ermland, before leaving for Rome on August 20, 1569.
(4) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1657: D. O. M. STANISLAO HOSIO Polono. S. R. E. Presbyt. Card. Varmiensi Episcopo, maioris Poenitentiario, vitæ sanctitatis, eruditionis eloquentiæ gloria celeberrimo, Catholicæ fidei propugnators ; cui, cum antiqua probitatis, & Episcopi vigilantiæpræstantiam, in humilitatem, charitate, castitate, & beneficentia expressesset, hæreticas sectas scriptis, & consiliis sapientissime, & feruenter oppugnasses, multos ab erroribus revocasset, gravissimisque tegationibus pro pace Ecclesiæ Dei ; quum apud Carolum V. & Ferdinand. Cæss. tum præcipue in sacro Concilio Tridentino, Pii IV. Pontificis nomine feliciss. perfunctus, Christianæ Republicæ plurimum profuisses, omnium virtutem laudibus, exemplis ad imitandum abundans, obdormsuit in Domino, Nonis Augusti, anno salutis MDLXXIX. ætatis sua LXX. Stanislaus Patruo & Stanislaus Rescitus patrono beneficentissimo executores testaments posuere.
(5) His biography in The Catholic Encyclopedia, indicates that he "was one of the greatest men of his time. He did more for the preservation of the Catholic religion in Poland than all the other Polish bishops combined. He was withal, a man of prayer, mortification, and great liberality towards the poor. Both clergy and laity looked upon him as a saint. Blessed Peter Canisius styles him 'the most brilliant writer, the most eminent theologian and the best bishop of his times' (Hipler, Hosii Epistolæ, I, 422). Editions of his works were published at Paris (1562), Lyons (1564), Antwerp (1566 and 1571), Venice (1573), and (best edition) Cologne (1584). His German sermons were edited by Hipler: Die deutschen Predigten und Katechesen der ermländischen Bischöfe Hosius und Cromer (Cologne, 1885). The publication of his numerous letters has been begun by Hipler and Zakrzewski, vols. I and II (Cracow, 1879 and 1888). The letters in these two volumes cover a period of 33 years (1525-1558). Other letters are found among those of Peter Canisius, edited by Braunsberger (Freiburg, 1897-1905)." Among his polemical treatises are Judicium et censura de judicio et censura Heidelbergensium Tigurinorumque ministrorum de dogmate contra adorandam Trinitatem in Polonia nuper sparso (1564); De loco et authoritate Romani Pontificis; and Palinodiæ Quadrantini (1567).

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(14) 11. FERRERO, Pier Francesco (1510-1566)

Birth. 1510, Biella, fief of his family, diocese of Vercelli. Of the noble family of the signori of Casavalone. Son of Godofredo Ferrero and his second wife, Margherita Sanseverino. His first name is also listed as Pier Giovanni Francesco and his last name as Ferreri. Brother of Cardinal Filiberto Ferrero (1549). Nephew of Cardinals Gianstefano Ferrero (1500); and Bonifacio Ferrero (1517). Uncle of Cardinal Guido Luca Ferrero (1565). Another member of the family was Cardinal Antonio Ferrero (1505).

Education. Uomo per prudenza e letterature chiarissimo (1). (No further educational information found).

Early life. Abbot of S. Stefano, Vercelli, 1527-1550.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Vercelli, December 20, 1536. Consecrated (no information found). Abbot commendatario of S. Michele della Chiusa 1538-1539. Abbot commendatario of S. Stefano di Ivrea, 1549-1560. Vice-legate in Bologna, 1540, when the legate was his uncle Cardinal Bonifacio. Delegate to the Council of Trent, 1552. Auditor of Cardinal Carlo Carafa in Brussels, 1557. Nuncio in Venice, 1560 until March 1, 1561.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 26, 1561; received the red hat and the title of S. Cesareo in Palatio, June 3, 1561. Opted for the title of S. Agnese in Agone, November 10, 1561. Resigned the government of the diocese, May 2, 1562. Opted for the title of S. Anastasia, October 7, 1566.

Death. November 14, 1566, Rome (2). Buried in the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome (3).

Bibliography. Biaudet, Henry. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes jusqu'en 1648. Helsinki ; Suomalainen tiedeakatemia, 1910, pp. 205-206; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 25-26; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1659; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 39, 59, 61and 330.

Link. His monument in the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) Brightest man for his prudence and literature, Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 25.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 39; and his genealogy, linked above; Biaudet, Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes jusqu'en 1648, p. 266, indicates that he died on November 12, 1566.
(3) This is the text of the inscription on his moniment, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1659:

D    ·    O    ·    M
PETRO. FRANCISCO. FERRERIO
TITVLI. SANCTÆ. ANASTASIÆ. SANCT. ROMANA. ECCLES. PRESBYTERO. CARDINALI
IOANNIS. STEPHANI. RONONIEN. ET BONIFACII. PORTVENS. CARD. EX. FRATRE. NEPOTI
PHILIBERTI. EPORIDIENSIS. CARD. FR.
GVIDO. CARDINALI. VERCELLENSIS
PATRVO. OPTIMO. ATQVE. OPTIME. DE. SE. MERITO. PSVIT
VIXIT. ANN. LIV
OBIIT. ANNO. SALVT. MDLXVI. PRIDIE. IDVS. NOVEMBRIS.

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(15) 12. PERRENOT DE GRANVELLE, Antoine (1517-1586)

Birth. August 20, 1517, Ornans, near Besançon, France. Son of Nicolas Perrenot de Granvelle, chancellor of Emperor Charles V.

Education. Began his studies in Dôle; studied at the Universities of Paris, Padua and Louvain (doctorates in philosophy and theology). He spoke seven languages.

Early life. His father introduced him to the affairs of state. Protonotary apostolic de numero participantium, 1529. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Besançon; later, archdeacon and gran cantore. Abbot of Arras. Archdeacon of Cambrai.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Arras, with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age, November 29, 1538. Consecration, May 21, 1542, Sunday after the Ascension, in Valladolid, by Cardinal Juan de Tavera, archbishop of Toledo. He seldom resided in his diocese, preferring to live in Brussels, where he took an active part in his father's political activities. With his father, participated in 1541 in the religious discussions in the Diet of Worms; and in 1542 in the Diet of Regensburg. On January 9, 1543, he addressed the Council of Trent in the name of Emperor Charles V. He took part in the Peace of Crepy, 1544. After the decisive battle in the "Schmalkaldischen Krieg" on April 24, 1547 he led the negotiations with Prince Johann Friedrich von Sachsen and Landgrave Philipp von Hessen. After the death of his father in 1550, he was named keeper of the imperial seal, but did not receive the title of chancellor, becoming instead undersecretary of state to Emperor Charles V. After the attack of Prince Moritz von Sachsen on Innsbruck in 1552, Emperor Charles V, accompanied by Granvelle, had to escape to Villach in Kärnten. Because of the difficult situation in which he found himself, the emperor had to sign on August 2, 1552, the Villach in Kärnten that had been drawn up by Granvelle. He conducted in 1553 the negotiations for the marriage of Prince Felipe of Spain with Mary Tudor, queen of England. After the abdication of Emperor Charles V in 1556, he became a minister of King Felipe II of Spain. In 1559, he concluded and signed in Château Cambrésis the peace between France and Spain. In 1559, he became first advisor of the Statthalterin in the Netherlands, Margarete von Austria. Named by King Felipe II of Spain member of the Council of State, 1560.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 26, 1561. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Malines, March 10, 1561; he was the first archbishop of that see, which had been elevated to metropolitan on May 12, 1559 as part of the ecclesiastical reorganization of the Low Countries by Pope Pius IV into 3 archdioceses and 14 dioceses. Received the red hat and the title of S. Bartolomeo all'Isola, July 6, 1562. Because of resistance to the ecclesiastical reorganization as well as the opposition of the nobility, King Felipe had to recall him from Brussels in 1564; he went to Besançon and dedicated himself to humanistic studies; he never again returned to the Low Countries. Sent to Rome in 1565 by King Felipe II, he actively participated in the organization of the Holy League, which resulted in the successful Battle of Lepanto. Did not participate in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Opted for the title of S. Prisca, May 14, 1568. Opted for the title of S. Anastasia, February 10, 1570. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, February 10, 1570 to May 18, 1571. Opted for the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, June 9, 1570. Became in 1570 Spanish envoy to Rome and concluded on May 25, 1571 an alliance against the Turks between Spain, Venice and the Holy See. Viceroy in Naples, from 1571 to 1575, when he returned to Rome. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. In 1577, King Felipe II allowed him to return to the Low Countries but he declined. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, July 9, 1578. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, October 3, 1578. After the fall of Antonio Pérez, he was appointed by King Felipe II in 1579 as president of the Spanish Council of State. In 1581, when the king traveled to Portugal, the government of the realm was transferred to the cardinal. President of the Council for the affairs of Italy. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church (1). Blessed the nuptials of Filiberto, duke of Savoy, and Infanta Catalina, eldest daughter of King Felipe II of Spain, celebrated in Zaragoza. Resigned the government of the archdiocese before January 24, 1583. Elected archbishop of Besançon by its cathedral chapter, June 25, 1584; preconized November 14, 1584. Did not participate in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. His vast correspondence constitutes an excellent source of information on the history of the sixteenth century (2).

Death. September 21, 1586, Madrid. Buried in the Augustinian church of San Felipe, Madrid. Later, transferred to Besançon, and buried in the tomb of his ancestors, next to his father, in the Carmelite church (3). His remains were scattered during the French Revolution.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 1030-1039; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 28-32; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1660-1661; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 39, 122, 134 and 239.

Links. Biography by Godefroid Kurth, in English The Catholic Encyclopedia; his portrait by Anthonis Mor, Web Gallery of Art; his portrait by Scipione Pulzone, 1576, The Courtauld Gallery, London, The Public Catalogue Foundation, BBC; his bust by Georges-Philippe Clesinger, Bibliothèque Besançon, Besançon, France; his portrait by Tiziano Vecellio, La Página del Arte y la Cultura en Español; his portrait by Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier, Châteaux de Versailles et de Trianon, France; his engraving, Bibliothèque royale de Belgique, Brussels, Belgium; his engraving by Lambert Suavius, Collection Rothschild, Musée du Louvre, Paris; his engraving by an anonymous artist, 18th century, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; his bust by Clesinger, Bibliothèque de Besançon, Besançon, France; his statue, Besançon, France; and his effigy on a medal, Francois Becuwe.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 39; but the same source, III, 81, does not list him among the camerlengos of the Holy Roman Church.
(2) According to his biography in English in The Catholic Encyclopedia, linked above, it "might also be said, writes the celebrated archivist, Gachard, that no minister ever wrote as much as the Cardinal de Granvelle." His correspondence has been edited partly in France by Weiss, "Les papiers d'itat de Granvelle" (9 vols., 4to, 1841-52), partly in Belgium, "La correspondence du cardinal Granvelle" (12 vols., 4to, 1878-96), the first three volumes by E. Poullet, the remainder by Ch. Piat.
(3) This is the inscription in his tomb, transcribed from Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1038-1039:

HOSPES    AULICUS.
H.  Quis cubat hic modica magnus tellure sepultus?
A.  Grandia cui celsos vela dabant titulos.
H.  Cur pedagus Vitæ sulcans : DURATE secundis Inquit?
A.  Ne quondam nominas parta cadant ;
Clara illa imperio Caroli, regnoqi Philippi,
Quorum Consilis præfuit arte potens.
H.  Ergo manu clavum strinxit, navimque gubernans
Duravit faits?
A.  Insuperabilibus.
H.  Atne diu?
A.  Decies septemos vixit in annos,
Sequanicique fuit gloria prima soli.
H.  Quo capitur portu?
A.  Cunctis qui meta laborum,
Seu pueri, juvens, bis puerive senes.
  H.  Suffice rex talem dubiis qui duret in undis,
Quas fera rex sacris gens ciet, atque tibi.

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(16) 13. ESTE, Luigi d' (1538-1586)

Birth. 1538, Arezzo (1). Second of the five children of Ercole II d'Este, duke of Modena and Ferrara, and Princess Renée, daughter of King Louis XII of France. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Ippolito I d'Este (1493). Nephew of Cardinal Ippolito II d'Este (1538). Other cardinals of the family are Alessandro d'Este (1599); Rinaldo d'Este (1641); and Rinaldo d'Este (1686).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Cleric of Ferrara.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ferrara, May 1, 1550 (2).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 26, 1561.

Sacred orders. Received the minor orders, June 2, 1561; named administrator of the see of Ferrara. Received the red hat and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, July 6, 1562. Administrator of the metropolitan see of Auch, France, October 8, 1563. Opted for the deaconry of S. Lucia in Silice, October 22, 1563 (3). Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Did not participate in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII (4). Governor of Tivoli from 1572 until his death. Protector of France before the Holy See, February 23, 1573. Opted for the deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria, July 31, 1577. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata, December 19, 1583. Cardinal protodeacon, 1584. Participated in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V.

Death. December 30, 1586, at 4 p.m., Montegiordano. Buried in the church of S.Luigi dei Francesi, Rome; his heart was buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Auch. A year later, his remains were transferred to the church of the Franciscans Observant of S. Maria Maggiore, Tivoli. He named his brother Alfonso as his universal heir.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 35-38; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1663; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 39, 67, 72, 73, 75, 126 and 196; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 400 and 641.

Link. His genealogy, Partie 2, 7 A, e, III, ii .

(1) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 35; and Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1663; his genealogy, linked above, says that he was born in Ferrara.
(2) According to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 196, on that day he was given "access" to the see of Ferrara; on March 3, 1554, was granted permission to request a new provision to that see in ten years.
(3) This deaconry became vacant in 1577 when Cardinal d'Este opted for the one of S. Angelo in Pescheria. It remained without an occupant until 1587 when it was suppressed by Pope Sixtus V.
(4) This is according to his biographical data in Italian, linked above; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1734, lists him among the participants; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 38, citing Chacón, and Ioannis Antonius Petramellarius' Io. Antonii Petramellarii Bononiensis, SS. Maruitij, & Lazari Hierosolymit. Equitis : ad Librum Onuphrii Panuinii De summis pontif. et s.r.e. cardinalibus a Paulo Quarto ad Clementis Octaui Annum Pontificatus Octauum : continuatio., (Bononiae : Apud haeredes Ioannis Rossii, 1599), also lists him among the participants but, on the same page, adds that Cardinal d'Este was still in France when the conclave was celebrated and could not participate and says that the manuscript of the diary of the conclave by Mucanzio, lists him among the cardinals that did not participate; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 45, indicates that 51 cardinals participated in the conclave but does not list their names.

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(17) 14. MADRUZZO, Ludovico (1532-1600)

Birth. 1532, Trent. His first name is also listed as Giovanni Ludovico and his last name as von Madrutz, von Madrutsch, de Madruce, Madrucci, Madrucei and Madruccio. Son of Baron Niccolò III di Madruzzo, baron of the Holy Roman Empire, and Baroness Helene von Lamberg. Nephew of Cardinal Cristoforo Madruzzo (1542). Uncle of Cardinal Carlo Gaudenzio Madruzzo (1604).

Education. Studied in Louvain, and later in Paris and Bologna.

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Brixen, February 1545. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Trent, 1550. Coadjutor, with right of succession of his uncle Cardinal Cristoforo Madruzzo, prince bishop of Trent, May 30, 1550. Provost of S. Vito d'Elvangen, 1551. Imperial commissary of the presidency and parliament of Innsbruck, 1553. Legate to the Diet of Augsburg, 1559; in that same year, delivered the eulogy of Emperor Charles V at the Diet (1). Also in 1559, as envoy of Emperor Ferdinand I before King François II, tried unsuccessfully to obtain the return of the territories of Metz, Toul and Verdun that had been occupied in 1552. Imperial ambassador in France, 1560.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 26, 1561; received the red hat and the title of S. Callisto, June 3, 1561. Participated in the Council of Trent, 1562-1563; charged with the redaction of the decree on the residence of bishops which was badly received by those affected. Opted for the deaconry of S. Onofrio, May 4, 1562.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1564. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V.

Episcopate. Elected prince bishop of Trent, at the resignation of his uncle Cardinal Cristoforo, November 14, 1567; he strove for the implementation of the decrees of the Council of Trent; did a visitation of the diocese from 1579 to 1581; and celebrated a diocesan synod in 1593. Opted for the order of cardinal priests, February 9, 1569. Consecrated, Sunday June 18, 1570, at the church of S. Onofrio, Rome, by Cardinal Stanislaw Hosius, bishop of Warmia, assisted by Thomas Goldwell, bishop of St. Asaph, and by Girolamo Galimberti, bishop of Gallese. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Named protector of Germany, 1573. Ambassador of Emperor Ferdinand I before the king of France to congratulate him on the victory against the Huguenots. Legate a latere in Germany to assist in the efforts against the heretics, 1581. Legate to the Diet of Augsburg, 1582. Participated in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. Opted for the title of S. Anastasia, October 1, 1586 (2). Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, March 20, 1591. Cardinal protoprete. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. Legate to the Diet of Ratisbon, 1593. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, August 18, 1597. President of the Congregation De auxiliis, to study the theological question of cooperating grace and freedom, 1597. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Frascati, February 21, 1600. In five conclaves he presented the veto of candidates objected to by the king of Spain. Because of his generosity towards the poor, he was called "Il Padre dei poveri".

Death. April 20, 1600, Rome. Buried in the Madruzzo chapel, in the church of S. Onofrio al Gianicolo, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 38-40; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1664; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 136; Costa, Armando. I vescovi di Trento, notizie-profili, Trento : Edizioni diocesane, 1977, pp. 160-163; Dal Prà, Laura. I Madruzzo e l'Europa, 1539-1658 : i principi vescovi di Trento tra Papato e Impero. Milano : Charta, 1993. Note: Exhibition catalog./ "Trento, Castello del Buonconsiglio; Riva del Garda, Chiesa dell'Inviolata, 10 luglio-31 ottobre 1993", p. 62-68; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 39, 58, 60, 61, 64, 76 and 318; Vareschi, Severino. ""Madruzzo (Madrutz, Madrutsch), Giovanni Ludovico Freiherr von (1532-1600)" in Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1448 bis 1648 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz, unter Mitwirkung von Clemens Brodkorb. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1996, pp. 446-450.

Links. Biography by Johann Rainer, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon; biographical entry by R. Becker, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Treccani; his sepulchral monument in the church of S. Onofrio, Rome; another view of the monument; his bust in his sepulchral monument; the Madruzzo Chapel in the church of S. Onofrio, Rome; biography, in Italian; his portrait by Giovanni Battista Moroni, Art Institute of Chicago; and another biography, in Italian.

(1) The eulogy was printed in Frankfürt in 1566.
(2) He was absent because of illness and Cardinal Giulio Santorio opted for him.

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(18) 15. AVALOS D'ARAGONA, O.S. Iacobis, Innico d' (1535/1536-1600)

Birth. 1535/1536, Naples. He is also listed as Ignazio D'Avalos y de Aragona. Son of Alfonso d'Avalos d'Aquino d'Aragona, marquis of Vasto and Pescara, and Maria d'Aragona, of the dukes of Montalto. He was called Cardinal d'Aragona. He is also listed as Ignazio d'Avalos y de Aragona. Cardinal Gaspar de Ávalos de la Cueva (1544) belonged to another branch of the family.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Knight of the Order of Santiago. Chancellor of the kingdom of Naples.

Priesthood. Received the priestly ordination (no further information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 26, 1561; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Lucia in Silice, June 3, 1561. Administrator of Turin, January 3, 1563 until May 1564. Governor of Orvieto, May 29, 1563 until February 12, 1564. Opted for the deaconry of S. Adriano, July 30, 1563. Opted for the order of cardinal priests, January 19, 1565. Governor of Benevento, January 22, 1566; again in 1567. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Mileto, August 19, 1566. Consecrated, Sunday, October 13, 1566, Sistine Chapel, Vatican, by Pope Pius V, assisted by Cardinal Giacomo Savelli and by Cardinal Niccolò Gaetano Sermoneta. In the same ceremony were also consecrated Gianfrancesco Gambara, bishop of Viterbo, and Cardinal Guglielmo Sirleto, bishop of San Marco. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, March 3, 1567. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Resigned the government of the diocese before February 9, 1573. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 8, 1578 to January 9, 1579. Governor of Benevento, 1578; again in 1584. Participated in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, October 13, 1586. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Frascati, March 2, 1589. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, March 20, 1591. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. Administered the city of Rome as legate during the absence of Pope Clement VIII in Ferrara.

Death. February 20, 1600, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 44-45; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col.1665-1666; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. `19; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 39, 58, 59, 64, 72, 73, 244 and 309; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1500-1699). Españoles obispos en españa, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 34), p. 77; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 138, 139, 320 and 613.

Links. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; his portrait, 18th century (1750-1799), diocese of Frosinone-Veroli-Ferentino, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

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(19) 16. PACHECO DE TOLEDO, Francisco (ca. 1508-1579)

Birth. Ca. 1508, Ciudad Rodrigo, diocese of Salamanca, Spain. Son of Juan Pacheco and Ana de Toledo. He is also listed as Pacheco Osorio (paternal last names); Pacheco de Cerralbo, because his father was señor of Cerralbo; and Pacheco de Villena, last name that he adopted when he accompanied his uncle Cardinal Pedro Pacheco de Villena (1545) to Rome.

Education. University of Salamanca, Salamanca.

Early life. Destined to the ecclesiastical life at a very early age. Admitted to the courts of Emperor Charles V (I of Spain), and King Felipe II of Spain.

Priesthood. Ordained a priest by his uncle the cardinal (no further information found). Went to Rome with his uncle in 1545, earning the appreciation of Pope Julius III, who named him canon of the cathedral chapter of Salamanca. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Toledo. Spanish delegate before the dukes of Florence. Inquisitor general of Spain, July 4, 1557.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 26, 1561; received the red hat and the title of S. Susanna, July 14, 1564. Papal legate to the Milanese. Protector of Spain before the Holy See. Opted for the title of S. Pudenziana, February 7, 1565. Opted for the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, November 17, 1565 (1). Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Burgos, August 8, 1567 (2). Consecrated, Sunday, October 26, 1567, church of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, Rome, by Cardinal Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle, archbishop of Malines, assisted by Cardinal Francesco Gambara, bishop of Viterbo, and by Cardinal Iñigo Avalos de Aragón, O.S. Iacobis, bishop of Mileto. Ambassador of King Felipe II before the Holy See to obtain the league of the pope and Venice against the Turks, 1570; the league ended with the victorious battle of Lepanto. Member of the S.C. of the Holy Office. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 23, 1572 until January 9, 1573. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Promoted to the rank of archbishop when the diocese of Burgos was elevated to metropolitan see, October 22, 1574.

Death. August 23, 1579, Burgos. Buried in the chapel of Cerralbo, Ciudad Real.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 47-48; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1666-1667; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 131; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 39, 62, 69, 71 and 142; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1500-1699). Españoles obispos en españa, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 34), p. 78.

Link. Chapel of Cerralbo and biographical data, in Spanish.

(1) According to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 62, on February 7, 1565, the pope had reserved the title for him when it became vacant.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 142; Guitarte, Episcopologio Español (1500-1699), p. 78, indicates that he was elected on August 5, 1567.

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(20) 17. NAVAGERO, Bernardo (1507-1565)

Birth. 1507, Venice. Venetian patrician. Son of Gianluigi Navagero, Venetian patrician, and Lucrezia Agostini. Uncle of Cardinal Agostino Valier (1583) and grand-uncle of Cardinal Pietro Valier (1621).

Education. Studied philosophy in Padua and Venice under Antonio Genova and Vincenzo Madio.

Early life. Member of Collegio dei X Savi of Venice. Married Istriana Lando, grand-daughter of Venetian Doge Pietro Lando, and had two children; she died young and he never remarried (1). Ambassador in Dalmatia. Ambassador before the Emperor, 1543; later, ambassador in Germany. Avogadore di Comun. Mayor of Padua in 1547 and 1559. Ambassador before the king of France, 1548. Balí of Constantinople, 1549-1551. Member of Collegio dei X Savi, 1552. Reformer of the studio of Padua. Counselor of the Doge. Venetian ambassador in Rome, September 1555 to March 1558.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 26, 1561. Promoted to the order of cardinal priests, June 2, 1561. Received the red hat and the title of S. Niccola fra le Immagini, June 3, 1561. Opted for the title of S. Pancrazio, July, 6, 1562, retaining in commendam the title of S. Niccola fra le Immagini until February 7, 1565. Opted for an unknown title, August 31, 1562.

Episcopate. Named administrator of the diocese of Verona, September 15, 1562. Together with Cardinal Giovanni Girolamo Morone, legate a latere to the Council of Trent, March 7, 1563; received the legatine cross, March 17, 1563; participated in the council from April to December 1563. Opted for the title of S. Susanna, February 7, 1565. Resigned the administration before April 13, 1565.

Death. April 13, 1565, suddenly, Verona. Buried near the choir of the cathedral of Verona (2). News of his death reached Rome on May 31, 1565, Ascension Day.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1261; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 50-52; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1667-1668; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 39, 68, 71 and 331; Gachard, Louis-Prospe. Trois années de l'histoire de Charles-Quint (1543-1546) : d'après les dépêches de l'ambassadeur vénitien, Bernardo Navagero. Brussels : C. Muquardt, 1865; Valiero, Agostino; Barozzi, Pietro; and Volpi, Gio. Antonio. Augustini Valerii Patricii Veneti S.R.E. Cardinalis, Episcopi Veronensis opusculum numquam antehac editum De cautione adhibenda in edendis libris ; nec non Bernardi Cardinalis Naugerii vita, eodem Valerio auctore. Accessere Petri Barroci Episcopi Patavini Orationes tres e Mss. nunc primum erutae. Nonnullae item aliae patriciorum Venetorum quarum duae nondum typis descriptae fuerant. Patavii : Excudebat Iosephus Cominus, 1719, pp. 61-98.

Link. His dispatches as Venetian ambassador in Rome, in Italian.

(1) According to Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1261, he sought consolation in prayer and studies and lived a solitary life, only leaving home to serve the Republic of Venice.
(2) This is the text of his brief epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1667: BERNARDI. NAVAGERII. CARDINALIS. PERPETVI. ECCLESIÆ. VERONEN. ADMINISTRATORIS. OSSA.

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(21) 18. CORREGIO, Girolamo di (1511-1572)

Birth. 1511, Corregio. Son of Giberto X di Corregio and Veronica Gambara. Count of the Holy Roman Empire. Nephew of Cardinal Uberto Gambara (1539). He is also listed as Austriacus di Corregio (1).

Education. University of Bologna, Bologna.

Early life. Entered the ecclesiastical life under the protection of his uncle Cardinal Uberto. Went to Rome. Nuncio extraordinary in France to express the pope's condolences to King François I for the premature death of his son the duke of Orleáns, 1540. Nuncio extraordinary before the Emperor, 1546. Entered the court of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese. Plenipotentiary minister of the duke of Parma to the Congress of Gand, 1551. Sent to the Spanish court to treat with King Felipe II the restitution of Piacenza to Ottavio Farnese, duke of Parma; because of his success, the duke gave him the castles of Medsano and Correggio, which he later valiantly defended against the duke of Ferrara.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 26, 1561. Promoted to the order of cardinal priests, June 2, 1561. Received the red hat and the title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, June 3, 1561. Opted for the title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, May 5, 1562. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Opted for the title of S. Martino ai Monti, May 14, 1568.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Taranto, May 13, 1569. Consecrated, January 22, 1570, at the Sistine Chapel, Rome, by Cardinal Otto Truchsess, bishop of Albano and of Augsburg, assisted by Antonio Helius, titular patriarch of Jerusalem, and by Marcantonio Maffei, archbishop of Chieti. Opted for the title of S. Prisca, June 9, 1570. Opted for the title of S. Anastasia, July 3, 1570. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Extraordinary legate in Ancona to fortify the maritime defense against the Turkish menace, 1572.

Death. October 9 (2), 1572, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Silvestro nel Quirinale, Rome.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 766; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 52-53; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1668-1669; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 39, 59, 64, 67, 69, 71 and 308; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 114 and 643.

Links. Portrait and biographical data, in Italian (towards the end of the page); biography, in Italian.

(1) The name Austriacus was a distinction conferred in 1452 by Emperor Friedrich III. The signori di Corregio were invested with Diplomi Imperiali on December 16, 1520; April 29, 1553; May 17, 1559; and December 30, 1564. Their independent state was absorbed by the duchy of Modena in the 17th century.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 39; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, indicates that he died on October 8, 1572.

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BARBARO, Daniele Matteo Alvise (1514-1570)

Birth. February 8, 1514, Venice. Venetian patrician. Nephew of and coadjutor of Patriarch Giovanni Grimani.

Education. University of Padua, Padua (philosophy, mathematics, and optics).

Early life. Official historian of the Republic of Venice. Ambassador in England. Venetian cleric.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected patriarch of Aquileia, December 17, 1550. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 26, 1561 and reserved in pectore; his creation was never published (1). Participated in the Council of Trent, January 14, 1562 until its closing in 1563. He was a prolific writer in the arts, letters, and mathematics. A humanist, he counted Andrea Palladio, Pietro Bembo, and Torquato Tasso among his friends.

Death. April 13, 1570, Venice. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, ; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. ; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 39 and 114.

Link. Brief biographical data, in Italian; biographical data, in English; his portrait, by Tiziano Vecellio; his portrait by Tiziano Vecellio, Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain; his engraving by Tiziano Vecellio, Regensburg Library, Regensburg, Germany; his portrait, attributed to Veronese; and his engraving by an anonymous artist.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentoris Aevi, III, p. 39, citing Acta camerarii 9, f. 37' and Acta vicecancellarii 8, f 75.

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