The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Pius IV (1559-1565)
Consistory of March 12, 1565 (IV)

(24) 1. BOZZUTI, Annibale (1521-1565)

Birth. February 2 (or 3), 1521 (1), Montecalvo Irpinio, Naples. Of a noble family. Son of Ludovico Bozzuti, and Lucrezia Guindazzi, Neapolitan patrician. His last name is also listed as Bozzuto.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Cleric of Naples. Ambassador before Emperor Charles V, 1547. Protonotary apostolic participantium in the pontificate of Pope Paul III. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, June 4, 1549. Pro-legate in Bologna, June 6, 1549; confirmed, February 10, 1550. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Governor of Borgo during the vacant see of 1550 and prefect of the conclave.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Avignon, June 15, 1551. Consecrated (no information found). Governor of Borgo during the vacant see of 1555 and prefect of the conclave. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, February 28, 1556; president in the pontificate of Pope Paul IV. Governor of Civitavecchia, January 26, 1558. Resigned the government of the archdiocese in 1562.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 12, 1565; received the red hat and the title of S. Silvestro in Capite, May 15, 1565.

Death. October 6, 1565, at 11 p.m., Chiace, near Naples. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Naples (2). News of his death reached Rome on October 8, 1565.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 55-57; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1670; Del Re, Niccolò. "Il governatore di Borgo." Studi Romani : rivista bimestrale dell'Istituto di Studi Romani, II (1963), p. 23; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp, 40, 70 and 127; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 149, 163, 214 and 522.

Webgraphy. Biography by Roberto Zapperi, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 13 (1971), Treccani; his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This must have been the date of his birth since his epitaph, transcribed in note 2, indicates that he lived 44 years, 8 months and 4 days; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 40, says that he died on October 6, 1565. His biography in Italian, linked above, says that he was born around 1520.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1670: HANNIBAL BOZZVTVS Patritius Neapolitanus, familiæ ante GDX, cardinalitia, Orator ad Carolum V. Cæsarem August. anno ætatis sua XXVI, summis de rebus a patria missus Bonon. Prolegatus a Paulo Tertio Pont. Max. præpositus Archiepiscopatus Avinionensis a Iulio III. decoratus : bis, vacua Sede, primum Iulii III. deinde Marceli II. Vicarius in primis fait, Vaticano, et Conclaus præfectus, rerum omniam maximarum diligendorumq; universæ ditionis Ecclesiasticæ Magistratuum potestate, Clericatu etiam Camaræ Apostolica gratuita Pauli IV. liberalitate honestatus ; demum a Pio IV. Presbyt. Card. tt. S. Silvestri creatus, intra septem menses dolore calculi, salutis anno MDLXV, ætat. XLIV. mens. VIII. die IV. ex hac vita ereptus est. Fabritius Bozzutus Frater ex testamento hæres C. L. P.

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(25) 2. COLONNA, seniore, Marco Antonio (1523-1597)

Birth. 1523, Rome. Second of the six children of Camillo Colonna and Vittoria Colonna. The other siblings were Camillo, Prospero, Porzia, Faustina and Lavinia. Roman noble. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Pompeo Colonna (1517). Other members of the family who were elevated to the cardinalate were Giovanni di San Paolo Colonna (1193); Giovanni Colonna (1212); Giacomo Colonna (1278); Pietro Colonna (1288); Giovanni Colonna (1327); Agapito Colonna (1378); Stefano Colonna (1378); Oddone Colonna (1405; later Pope Martin V); Prospero Colonna (1426); Giovanni Colonna (1480); Ascanio Colonna (1586); Girolamo Colonna (1627); Carlo Colonna (1706); Prospero Colonna (1739); Girolamo Colonna di Sciarra (1743); Prospero Colona di Sciarra (1743); Marcantonio Colonna, iuniore (1759); Pietro Colonna (1766), who took the last name Pamphili. His first name is also listed as Marcantonio.

Education. Trained in piety and learning by Felice Peretti Montalto, O.F.M.Conv., future Pope Sixtus V; studied philosophy and theology (1).

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Early life. Abbot commendatario of Subiaco, 1559-1585.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Taranto, July 9, 1560. Consecrated (no information found). Participated in the Council of Trent, 1562-1563.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 12, 1565; received the red hat and the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, May 15, 1565. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Salerno, October 13, 1568. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Resigned the government of the see before June 25, 1574. Opened the Holy Door of the patriarchal Lateran archbasilica in the Jubilar Year of 1575. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 9, 1579 to January 8, 1580. Opted for the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, December 5, 1580. Legate in Marche, October 25, 1581. Participated in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. Prefect of the S.C. of the Index in the pontificate of Pope Sixtus V. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, October 13, 1586. Cardinal protoprete. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, May 11, 1587. Legate in Campagna e Marittima, May 13, 1587. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Librarian of the Holy Roman Church, 1591-1597. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. He was a generous protector of the poor.

Death. March 13, 1597, Zagarolo. Buried in the Franciscan church of S. Maria, Zagarolo.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 57-60; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. ; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 40, 289 and 308; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 181, 286 and 588-589.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his genealogy, A1 B7 C1 D1 E2, Libro d'Oro della Nobilità Mediterranea; portraits, engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana; the Colonna family vy James Loughlin, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia.

(1) His genealogy, linked above, indicates that he was a Jesuit. None of the other sources consulted mention it.

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(26) 3. GALLIO, Tolomeo (1527-1607)

Birth. September 25, 1527 (1), Cernobbio, diocese of Como. Son of Ottavio Gallio and Elisabetta Vailati. His first name is also listed as Bartolomeo and Ptolomeo; and his last name as Gallo and Galli. He was called the cardinal of Como.

Education. Classic studies in Como under his preceptor, Benedetto Giovio; sent to Rome at a young age under the protection of Paolo Giovio, bishop of Nocera. Studied law.

Early life. Entered the service of Cardinal Antonio Trivulzio, and later that of Cardinal Taddeo Gaddi as his secretary; finally, became the private secretary of Cardinal Giovanni Angelo de' Medici, future Pope Pius IV, October 1559 until 1565. Archdeacon of Monopoli, 1559.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Martorano, September 13, 1560. Consecrated (no information found). Promoted to the metropolitan see of Manfredonia, July 6, 1562.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 12, 1565; received the red hat and the title of S. Teodoro, deaconry pro illa vice declared title, May 15, 1565. Opted for the title of S. Pancrazio, September 7, 1565. Retired to his see of Manfredonia in 1565. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Opted for the title of S. Agata in Suburra, deaconry pro illa vice declared title, May 14, 1568. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Secretary of State, 1572-1585. Resigned the government of the archdiocese before April 8, 1573. Abbot commendatario of S. Abbondio di Como, 1575. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 8, 1580 to January 9, 1582. Participated in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. Opted for the title of S. Maria del Popolo, April 20, 1587. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, December 2, 1587. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Sabina, March 2, 1589. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Frascati, March 20, 1591. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, February 21, 1600. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, proper of the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, February 19, 1603. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V.

Death. February 3, 1607, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Maria della Scala, Rome; later, his remains were transferred to Como and buried in the tomb he had built in the church of S. Giovanni di Piedemonte. On December 3, 2007, in commemoration of the fourth centennial of his death, Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B., secretary of State, presided a mass celebrated in the cathedral of Como and delivered the homily.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 59-60; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1671; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 40, 56, 57, 58, 59, 66, 68, 72, 76, 237 and 301; Fratarcangeli, Margherita. "Il cardinal Tolomeo Gallio tra patrimonio immobiliare e 'collezionismo architettonico'." Periodico della Società Storica Comense, LXIII (2001), 13-63; Zedler, Johann Heinrich, and Carl Günther Ludovici. Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste. 64 v. Graz, Adakemische Druck, 1961- . Reprint. Originally published : Halle : J. H. Zedler, 1732-50. Vols. 19-64 ed. by Carl Günther Ludovici, X, 195.

Webgraphy. Biography by Giampiero Brunelli, on Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 51 (1998), Treccani; biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati.

(1) This is according to his second biography in Italian linked above; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 60, says that he died in 1607 at 82; and Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, X, 195, says that he was born in 1525.

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(27) 4. NICOLINI, Angelo (1505-1567)

Birth. Florence, 1505 (1). His first name is also listed as Agnolo. Son of Matteo Nicolini.

Education. University of Pisa, Pisa (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, 1523).

Early life. In 1530 he married Alessandra di Vincenzo Ugolini and had four children (2); his wife died in 1550. He was a counselor and loyal supporter of Cosimo I de' Medici of Tuscany, who entrusted him with sensitive and relevant missions (3) and named him a senator. Ambassador of Tuscany before Pope Paul III; and later, in 1538, before Emperor Charles V (4). First governor of Siena from 1557.

Priesthood. Received the priestly ordination (no further information found).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Pisa, July 14, 1564 (5). Consecration (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 12, 1565; received the red hat and the title of S. Callisto, May 15, 1565. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V.

Death. August 15, 1567, at 6 p.m., Siena. Transferred to Florence, was buried in the church of S. Croce in that city (6). The news of his death reached Rome on August 17, 1565.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 60-62; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1672; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 40, 61 and 274.

Webgraphy. The Nicolini family and his biography, in Italian; and his genealogy.

(1) This is according to his biography and his genealogy, both linked above; his epitaph, transcribed in note 6, indicates that he died in 1567 at 66 years of age, therefore, he must have been born either in 1501 or in 1502, if the expression indicates that he was in the 66th year of his life.
(2) They were Matteo (1534-1551), Lorenzo (?-1538), Giovanni (1544-1611) and Maria, who married Roberto di Filippo de' Ricci.
(3) He defended Cosimo's hereditary rights against the claims of Princes Margarita, Alessandro de' Medici's widow and Charles V's natural daughter; and against those of Caterina de Medici, future queen of France.
(4) He negotiated and concluded the delicate matter of the dowry of Princess Margarita, natural daughter of the emperor.
(5) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 274; he adds that other sources, which he does not specify in his work, say that he was elected on June 19, 1563.
(6) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, 1672: ANGELO. NICOLINO. MATTHÆI. FILIO. ANGELI. NEPOTI. I. C. D. AC. SENATORI. CLARISSIMO. COSMI. HETRVRIÆ. MAGNI. DVCIS. CONSILIARIO. QVI. PRIMO. AD. PAVLVM. III. PONT. MAX. ET. CAROLVM. V. IMP. LEGATIONIBVS. EGREGIE. FVNCTVS. DEINDE. SENARVM. GVBERNATORI. PRÆPOSITVS. ITEMQ. PISANÆ. ECCLESIÆ. ARCHIEP. POSTREMO. A. PIO. IV. IN. CARDINALIVM. COLLEGIVM. COOPTATVS. INTEGRITATEM. ET. INNOCENTIAM. SVAM. OMNIBVS. PROBAVIT. OBIIT. ANNO. SALVT. MDLXVII. ÆTAT. LXVI. IOANNES. FILIVS. LEGITIMO. MATRIMONIO. PROCREATVS. PATRI. OPTIMO. POSVIT.

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(28) 5. PISANI, Luigi (1522-1570)

Birth. 1522, Venice. Venetian patrician. Eldest of the eight children of Giovanni Pisani, Venetian ambassador to France, and Benedetta Gritti, sister of Doge Andrea Gritti of Venice. Nephew of Cardinal Francesco Pisani (1517). His first name is also listed as Alvise; and as Aloisius; and his last name as Pisano.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. He was a protégé of his uncle the cardinal, who promoted his ecclesiastical career.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Padua, 1555 (1). Consecrated (no information found). Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber; later its president. Prefect of the Annona, August 1561 until May 1562. Participated in the Council of Trent, 1562-1563.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 12, 1565. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Received the red hat and the title of S. Vitale, February 8, 1566. Opted for the title of S. Marco, June 2, 1568.

Death. June 3, 1570 (2), Venice. Buried near the main altar of the church of S. Maria delle Grazie, Venice (3).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 62-63; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1672; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 40, 65, 71 and 267; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 775.

Webgraphy. The Vanity of a Cardinal: Alvise Pisani and His Inventory (1570) by Stephanie Mason, "Artibus et Historiae", no. 67 (XXXIV), pp. 175-184; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; his portrait, 16th century (1577-1578), diocese of Padua, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 267; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 62, says that he was named by Pope Clement VII in 1528, when his uncle resigned the government of the diocese.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, II, 40; the same source, II, 267, indicates that he died on June 29, 1570.
(3) This is the simple inscription on his tomb, taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1672:

ALOYSIO PISANO CARDINALI
SORORES PIENTISIMAE
EX TESTAMENTO
POSVERE.
OBIIT ANNO MDLXX

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(29) 6. SANTACROCE, Prospero (1514-1589)

Birth. September 24, 1514, Rome. Son of Tarquinio Santacroce and Ersilia de' Massimi. His first name is also listed as Prospero Publicola. Uncle of Cardinal Antonio Santacroce (1629). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Marcello Santacroce (1652). Great-grand-uncle of Cardinal Andrea Santacroce (1699).

Education. Attended the University of Padua, where he earned a doctorate.

Early life. Roman cleric. Consistorial lawyer, 1537. Auditor of Fabio Mignanelli, nuncio extraordinary before the emperor, 1538. Auditor of the causes of the Apostolic Palace. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, 1543. Auditor of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, legate a latere in Germany, 1544; accompanied the cardinal to the Diet of Worms in May 1545.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Kisamos, Crete, March 22, 1548. Consecrated (no information found). Nuncio before the King of the Romans, April 5, 1548 until April 25, 1550; participated in the Diet of Prague, where he argued with the Hussites. Provost in commendam of Aix, April 17, 1551. Nuncio in France, July 15, 1552 until May 23, 1554; again, 1561-1565. Nuncio extraordinary in Spain, 1560. Governor of Bologna, April 2, 1560. Nuncio in Portugal, July 6, 1560 until May 10, 1561; while nuncio in Portugal, he became the first European to cultivate tobacco in his garden for the purpose of smoking it, which is why the original name for tobacco in Italian is "erba Santacroce".

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 12, 1565. Did not participate in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Received the red hat and the title of S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni, February 8, 1566. Administrator of the archdiocese of Arles, retaining the see of Kisamos, June 17, 1566. Opted for the title of S. Maria degli Angeli, April 12, 1570. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Resigned the government of the see before December 10, 1572. Resigned the administration of Arles before March 15, 1574. Opted for the title of S. Adriano, deaconry pro illa vice declared title, May 5, 1574. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 9, 1581 to January 8, 1582. Opted for the title of S. Clemente, March 4, 1583. Participated in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, March 2, 1589.

Death. October 2, 1589 (1), Rome. Buried patriarchal Liberian basilica (2), Rome; later, his remains were transferred to the church of S. Maria in Publicolis, Rome.

Bibliography. Biaudet, Henry. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes jusqu'en 1648. Helsinki ; Suomalainen tiedeakatemia, 1910, p. 284; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 63-71; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1673; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 40, 56, 62, 63, 65, 72, 116 and 166; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, pp. 46-48; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 149 and 893.

Webgraphy. His bust in S. Maria Maggiore, Rome, The Australian National University; his tomb in S. Maria in Publicolis, Rome, Requiem Datenbank; another view of his tomb, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is according to his biography in German, linked above; and Squicciarini, Nunzi apostolici a Vienna, p. 47; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 40 and 56, says that he died on November 8, 1589; the latter date seems somewhat improbable given that the successor of the late cardinal in the see of Albano, Cardinal Gabriele Paleotti, was named on November 8, 1589, the same date on which Eubel says that Cardinal Santacroce died.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1671:

PROSPERO. SANTACRVCIO. S. R. E.
CARD. EPISCOPO. ALBANO.
QVI. OB. EXIMIAS. ANIMI. INGENIIQ.
VIRTVTES. POST. PRIMARIA. PALATINA.
OFFICIA. ET. ECCLESIASTICAS.
DIGNITATES. A. PIO. IV.
PONT. MAX. CARDINALIS.
CREATVS. LEGATIONIBVS. GERMANICA.
LVSITANICA. HISPANICA.
ET GALLICA. FLAGRANTE. INTESTINO.
BELLO. PROVINCIA. EGREGIA.
CVM. LAVDE. FVNCTVS. MAXIMISQ.
TOTO. VITÆ. CVRSV.
PRO. REPVBL. SVSCEPTIS. LABORIBVS.
OBIIT. ÆTATIS. ANNORVM. LXXVI.
MDLXXXIX. MARCELLVS. EX.
FRATRE. NEPOS. PSVIT.

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(30) 7. DELFINO, Zaccaria (1527-1584)

Birth. March 29, 1527 (1), Venice. His last name is also listed Dolfin and Dolfino. Of a Venetian patrician family (2).

Education. University of Padua, Padua (humanties, philosophy and law).

Early life. Entered the ecclesiastical state and went to Rome in 1550. Papal prelate in the pontificate of Pope Julius III. Protonotary apostolic in the pontificate of Pope Paul IV.

Priesthood. Ordained in 1550.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Hvar (Lesina), Dalmatia, May 5, 1553. Consecrated (no information found). Nuncio in Germany, February 7, 1554 to August 1555. Accompanied Cardinal Giovanni Girolamo Morone, legate a latere to the Diet of Augsburg in January 1555; when Cardinals Morone and Otto Truchess von Waldburg, who were also at the Diet, had to return to Rome in March because of the death of Pope Julius III, he remained as the only papal representative in Augsburg; in July he also returned to Rome to bring a report on the Diet to the new pope, Paul IV. Nuncio before Ferdinando II of Sicily in the pontificate of Pope Paul IV. Nuncio in Austria, March 22, 1561 until October 1565. Participated in the Council of Trent, 1562-1563; he was charged with conveying the decisions of the council to the German bishops.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 12, 1565; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Aquiro, deaconry pro illa vice elevated to title, September 7, 1565 (3). Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Did not participate in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Vice-protector of Germany and member of the Congregatio Germanica, 1573. Resigned the government of the diocese before March 22, 1574. Opted for the title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, April 15, 1578. Opted for the title of S. Anastasia, August 17, 1579. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 8, 1582 to January 10, 1583.

Death. December 19, 1583 (4). Buried in front of the steps to the main altar in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome.

Bibliography. Biaudet, Henry. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes jusqu'en 1648. Helsinki ; Suomalainen tiedeakatemia, 1910, p. 263-264; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 71-72; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1673; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 40, 59, 71, 74, and 273; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, pp. 51-55.

Webgraphy. His portrait by Niccolò Bambini, 18th century (1710-1720), archdiocese of Udine, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

(1) This is according to Squicciarini, Nunzi apostolici a Vienna, p. 51, and to his biography in German linked above; Biaudet, Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes jusqu'en 1648, p.263, indicates that he was born on May 29, 1527; and Andrea Vittorelli in his addition to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, III, col. 1673, says that he was born "Anno 1527. 4. Kal. Iunij..."
(2) Both Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 71; and Squicciarini, Nunzi apostolici a Vienna, p. 51, say that he was a nephew of Cardinal Francesco Dolfino but no record has been found of the existence of such cardinal.
(3) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 74; the same author indicates on that page that other sources, which are not mentioned, say that he received the title on February 8, 1566.
(4) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 59; the same source, III, p. 40 indicates that he died on January 9, 1584; and Squicciarini, Nunzi apostolici a Vienna, p. 55, says that he died on December 29, 1583. The date January 9, 1584, seems to be wrong because on that same day Cardinal Gianfrancesco Commendone opted for the title of S. Anastasia and it is highly unlikely that the option would have taken place the day of the death of the titular cardinal.

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(31) 8. BOBBA, Marcantonio (?-1575)

Birth. (No date found), Casale Monteferrato. Eldest child of Palatine Count Alberto Bobba. Of the signori of Rossignano. His last name is also listed as Boba.

Education. Studied at the University of Turin, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Gained the favor of Emmanuel Filiberto, duke of Savoy, who named him senator of Turin.

Sacred orders. Ordained around 1556. Abbot commendatario of Pinerolo, Segusia, Caramagna and S. Giusto di Susa

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Aosta, June 14, 1557. Consecrated, August 15, 1557, Rome, by Cardinal Giovanni Angelo de' Medici assisted by Barso de Merlis, bishop of Bobbio, and by Luigi Simonetta, bishop of Pesaro. Ambassador of Savoy before the Holy See, 1559. Participated in the Council of Trent, January 17, 1563 until its closing; ambassador of the duke of Savoy before the council; member of the commission on canons and marriage, June 21, 1563.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 12, 1565. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Received the red hat and the title of S. Silvestro in Capite, February 8, 1566. Together with Cardinals Giovanni Ricci, Gianfrancesco Commendone and Alessandro Sforza, was named by Pope Pius V inspector of rivers, ports and public roads of Rome. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Opted for the title of S. Marcello, June 2, 1572. He was a good friend of Cardinal Carlo Borromeo.

Death. March 18, 1575, Rome. Buried in the Carthusian church of S. Maria degli Angeli, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 72-73; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col.1674; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 41, 65, 70 and 123.

Webgraphy. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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(32) 9. BONCOMPAGNI, Ugo (1502-1585)

Birth. January 7, 1502 (1), at 2 a.m., Bologna. Fifth son of Cristoforo Boncompagni, rich merchant and Bolognese patrician, and Angela Marescalchi. His last name is also listed as Buoncompagni. Uncle of Cardinals Filippo Boncompagni (1572); and Filippo Guastavillani (1574).

Education. Studied at the University of Bologna, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, in 1530.

Early life. Professor of law at the University of Bologna, 1531-1539; among his students were the future cardinals Alessandro Farnese, Cristoforo Madruzzi, Otto Truchsess von Waldburg, Reginald Pole, Carlo Borromeo, and Stanisław Hosius. In 1539 decided to enter the ecclesiastical state and went to Rome called by Cardinal Pietro Paolo Parisio. In the pontificate of Pope Paul III he was named abbreviatore del Parco Maggiore, February 23, 1539; sollecitatore of apostolic letters, March 2, 1539. Received the ecclesiastical tonsure in Bologna on June 1, 1539. Second judge collaterale of the Campidoglio, October 15, 1539. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, January 7, 1545. Participated in the Council of Trent in 1545 as one of the papal jurists; member of the special commission to study the problems related with the question of the obligation of episcopal residence and the disciplinary reform, January 20, 1547; went to Bologna when the council decided to move to his native city on March 11, 1547; sent to Rome as part of the conciliar representation charged with justifying the translation of the assembly to Bologna; remained in Rome when the council was suspended. While he was in Bologna, he had an illegitimate son, Giacomo (2). Civil lieutenant of the auditor of the Apostolic Chamber. Bought the post of pontifical secretary, April 7, 1552. Named in 1554 pro-legate in Campagna e Marittima by Cardinal legate Giovanni Battista Cigala; occupied the post for eight months. Named member of the commission to study the general reform of the Church in January 1556. Accompanied Cardinal Carlo Carafa in his diplomatic mission to France in May 1556; and to King Felipe II of Spain in Brussels in the fall of 1557. In May 1558, he was named member of the commission charged with examining the legitimacy of the succession established by Emperor Charles V in favor of his brother Ferdinand I; the pope considered sending him as nuncio before the emperor and elected him a bishop; the diplomatic charge did not materialize because the pontiff decided to send a cardinal legate instead of a nuncio.

Sacred orders. Received the minor and the major orders just before his episcopal consecration.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Viesti, July 20, 1558. Consecrated (no information found). Vice-regent of the Apostolic Chancery, November 1558. Member of the newly established Council of State, January 1559. Resigned the government of the diocese before October 20, 1560. Participated in the Council of Trent, 1562-1563.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 12, 1565; received the red hat and the title of S. Sisto, May 15, 1565. Prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace. Named legate a latere to Spain to investigate the accusation of heresy against Bartolomé Carranza de Miranda, archbishop of Toledo, July 13, 1565. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Prefect of the Signature of Briefs during the pontificate of Pope Pius V, during which he kept a very low profile. Participated in the conclave of 1572 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope on May 13, 1572. Took the name Gregory XIII. Crowned, May 25, 1572, by Cardinal Innocenzo del Monte, protodeacon of S. Maria in Via Lata. Created thirty four cardinals in eight consistories. Established permanent nunciatures in Vienna, 1581; Cologne, 1582; and Lucerne, 1586; during his pontificate the number of permanent nunciatures reached thirteen. He reformed the Julian Calendar, which after the adjustment became known as the Gregorian Calendar. In 1582, the Corpus Iuris Canonici, a critical edition of the Decretum Gratiani, was published. He established twenty-three seminaries in different countries and entrusted them to the Society of Jesus; also, he founded in Rome in 1577 the Greek College, in 1579 the English College and in 1584 the Maronite College; in 1578 the Hungarian College, which he combined with the German one in 1580, establishing the Collegium Germanicum et Hungaricum; besides, he was the second founder of the "Collegium Romanum", which became the world famous Gregorian University.

Death. Wednesday, April 10, 1585, near 11 p.m., Rome, after a brief illness. Buried, patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome.

Bibliography. Borromeo, Agostino. "Gregorio XIII", Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Rome : Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, 2000, III, 180-200; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 73-78; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1674; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 41, 70 and 332; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), p. 95; Kelly, John N. D. The Oxford History of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, pp. 269-271; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 179 and 510-511.

Webgraphy. Biography by Michael Ott, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; portrait, arms and biographical information, in English; his tomb in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, The Australian National University; another view of his tomb, patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, Web Gallery of Art; his portrait by Scipione Pulzone, called "Il Gaetano", Collezione Principe Boncompagni Ludovisi, Rome; his engraving by Luigi Barocci, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his engraving; his bust and statue by Alessandro Menganti, Musei Civici d'Arte Antica, Bologna; another view of his bust by Alessandro Menganti; and his effigy on a medal.

(1) This is according to his biographies in English and German linked above; his second engraving, also linked above, indicates that he was born on February 7, 1502; Kelly, The Oxford History of Popes, p. 269; and Borromeo, "Gregorio XIII", III, 180, say that he was born on January 1, 1502.
(2) Born on May 8, 1548, his mother was a young woman named Maddalena Fulchini. According to Borromeo, "Gregorio XIII", p. 181, on April 28, 1547, after the death of his father, Ugo received his part of the inheritance which comprised half of their palace in Bologna. with the desire to assure his rights, without having to abandon the ecclesiastical career, he decided to find a woman who would give him a son. He found her in Maddalena, who at the moment was at the service of his sister-in-law, Laura. On July 5, 1548, he legitimized the child and entrusted his education to Laura. Besides, he provided a dowry for Maddalena and arranged her marriage to Simone Scamni, a mason. This event made him lose the favor of Pope Julius III, who ascended to the supreme pontificate on February 7, 1550. Giacomo was later named by his father governor of Castello S. Angelo, Rome.

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(33) 10. SFORZA, Alessandro (1534-1581)

Birth. 1534, Rome. Son of Bosio II Sforza, 4th count of Santa Fiora e Cotignola, and Costanza Farnese, natural and legitimated daughter of Pope Paul III (1534-1549). Known with the appellative of Cardinal of Santa Fiora. Brother of Cardinal Guido Ascanio Sforza di Santa Fiora (1534). Uncle of Cardinal Francesco Sforza (1583). Great-uncle of Cardinal Federico Sforza (1645).

Education. Had the title of magister. (No further educational information found).

Early life. Magister. Papal chaplain. Scriptor of apostolic letters. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, January 12, 1554. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, April 18, 1554. Because of an incident involving two French vessels that he made go from the port of Civitavecchia to Gaeta, Pope Paul IV deprived him of all charges and benefits; after the vessels were returned and at the request of some cardinals, the pope restored him to his former position on October 8, 1557.

Sacred orders. Received the subdiaconate.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Parma, April 26, 1560. Consecrated (no information found). Prefect general of the Annona, July 1, 1560. Participated in the Council of Trent, 1562-1563. Governor of Arnulphorum, 1565.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 12, 1565; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Via, May 15, 1565. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Together with Cardinals Giovanni Ricci, Gianfrancesco Commendone and Marcantonio Bobba, was named by Pope Pius V inspector of rivers, ports and public roads of Rome. Legate a latere in Bologna and Romagna, January 5, 1570. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. In the pontificate of Pope Gregory XIII (1572-1585) he was named archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, where he opened the Holy Door for the Jubilee of 1575; and protector of Spain. Resigned the government of the diocese before March 30, 1573. Prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, January 12, 1575. Legate in the entire State of the Church, in addition to his legation in Bologna, to eradicate the banditism, July 11, 1580.

Death. May 16, 1581, suddenly (1), Macerta. Transferred to Rome and buried in the sepulchre of his family in the patriarchal Liberian basilica (2).

Bibliography. Beltrami, Giuseppe. Notizie su prefetti e referendari della Segnatura Apostolica desunte dai brevi di nomina. Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1972, p. 4-5; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 78-80; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1675; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 41, 67 and 270; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), p. 154-155; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 150, 286, 364, 365, and 914-915.

Webgraphy. His genealogy, A2 B4 C1 D2 E1 F1 G10, Libro d'Oro della Nobilità Mediterranea.

(1) According to Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809, p. 286, he died poisoned by a medication prepared by his favorite, Scipione Accorambono.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1675: D. O. M. ALEXANDER. SFORTIA. S. R. E. CARD. PAVLI. III. P. M. NEPOS. BONON. ET. FLAM. SVB. PIO. V. ET. GREG. XIII. LEGATVS. SIGNATVRÆ. IVSTITIAÆ. PRÆFECTVS. HVIVSQVE. BASILICÆ. ARCHIPRESBYTER. SIBI. MORTIS. MEMOR. POSVIT. ANNVM. AGENS. XLVII.

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(34) 11. PASQUA, Simone (1492-1565)

Birth. November 17 (or 18), 1492, Taggia, Genoa. He is also listed as de Nigro Pasca and Simeone dei Nigeri or Nigris.

Education. Studied medicine, theology and was latinae et graece doctus (1).

Early life. Cleric of Genoa. Ambassador of the pope in the Republic of Genoa. Ambassador of the pope in England to congratulate King Felipe II for his marriage to Queen Mary I Tudor. Physician of Pope Pius IV, who had known him since his childhood.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Luni-Sarzana, February 14, 1561. Consecrated (no information found). Participated in the Council of Trent, 1562-1563; arrived in the city on December 1, 1561.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 12, 1565; received the red hat and the title of S. Sabina, May 15, 1565. Opted for the title of S. Pancrazio, September 4, 1565.

Death. September 4 (2), 1565, at the Apostolic Palace, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Pancrazio, Rome; later, transferred to Genoa and buried in the tomb of his family in the Franciscan church of S. Maria della Pace (3).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 80-81; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1675-1676; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 41, 68, 70 and 231.

(1) Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 41, note 5.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 41; the same source, on p. 68, indicates that he died on September 4/5, 1565.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1675: QVI. DORMIVNT. IN. TERRÆ. PVLVERE. EVIGILABVNT. SIMONI. GALEATII. F. PASQVA. THEOLOGO. ET. PHILOSOPHO. ROMANA. GRÆCAQ. FACVNDIA. CLARISSIMO. S. R. E. CARD. S. SABINÆ. QVI. CVM. PRÆCLARE. DOMI. FORISQ. DE. REPUB. MERITVS. ESSET. ROMAM. A. PIO. IV. PONT. MAX. ACCITVS. LVNENSIS. PRIMVM. EPISC. FACTVS. AC. POST. EGREGIE. NAVATAM. DEI. ECCLESIÆ. TRIDENTINO. IN. CONCILIO. OPERAM. IN. AMPLISSIMVM. ORDINEM. EST. COOPTATVS. VIRO. INTEGERRIMO. ET. IN SVMMA. GRAVITATE. IVCVMDISSIMO. STEPHANVS. FRATER. GERMANVS. MOERENS. P. VIXIT. ANNOS. LXXII. MENSES. X. DIES. XVII. OBIIT. ROMÆ. PRIDIE. NONAS. SEPTEMBR. MDLXV.

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(35) 12. ORSINI, Flavio (1532-1581)

Birth. 1532, Rome. Son of Ferrante Orsini, duke of Gravina, and Beatrice Ferrillo. His first name is also listed as Fulvio (1). Roman noble. Neapolitan patrician. Of the dukes of Monterotondo. The family gave the church several popes and cardinals: Celestine III (1191-1198); Nicholas III (1277-1280); Benedict XIII (1724-1730); Matteo Orsini (1262); Latino Malabranca Orsini, O.P. (1278); Giordano Orsini (1278); Napoleone Orsini (1288); Francesco Napoleone Orsini (1295); Giovanni Gaetano Orsini (1316); Matteo Orsini, O.P. (1327); Rinaldo Orsini (1350); Giacomo Orsini (1371); Poncello Orsini (1378); Tommaso Orsini (1383?); Giordano Orsini, iuniore (1405); Latino Orsini (1448); Cosma Orsini, O.S.B. (1480); Giovanni Battista Orsini (1483); Franciotto Orsini (1517); Alessandro Orsini (1615); Virginio Orsini, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1641); and Domenico Orsini d'Aragona (1743).

Education. Studied law and literature; obtained a doctorate in utroque iure.

Early life. Roman cleric. Domestic prelate of His Holiness.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Muro, November 29, 1560. Consecrated, March 15, 1561, chapel of the consecrator at Piazza Navona, Rome, by Cardinal Giovanni Michele Saraceno, assisted by Giovanni Giacomo Barba, bishop of Terni and papal sacristan, and by Giulio Galetti, former bishop of Alessano. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Purchased the post of auditor of the Apostolic Chamber, May 1, 1561. Resigned the government of the diocese before July 6, 1562. Transferred to the see of Spoleto, December 16, 1562 (2).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 12, 1565; received the red hat and the title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, May 15, 1565. Opted for the title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro, November 17, 1565. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Administrator of the metropolitan see of Cosenza, January 24, 1569; resigned before September 16, 1573. Legate to King Charles IX of France, to bring papal support in the conflict with the Huguenots and to enlist him in the fight against the Turks, 1572. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Opted for the title of S. Prisca, July 9, 1578, retaining in commendam his former title until his death. Protector of Flanders. Prefect of the Signature of Briefs.

Death. May 16, 1581, at the baths of Pozzuoli (3), near Naples, where he was trying to recover his health. Buried in the church of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 94-95; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1680-1681; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 41, 64, 65, 69, 183-184, 251 and 303; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), pp. 120 and 138.

Webgraphy. The Orsini family, in English.

(1) Storia del Comune di Spoleto, chapter 24, pages 6 and 7, describes the entrance of the new bishop of Spoleto and the epigram placed in a triumphal arch referred to Fulvi (Fulvio): Fulvi qui fulvo nomen deducis ab auro.
(2) His nephew, Pietro Orsini, was named his coadjutor with right of succession on April 11, 1580.
(3) Storia del Comune di Spoleto, chapter 25, p. 1, note 2, indicates that he died in Spoleto on August 2, 1581; and the epitaph does not make any reference to his cardinalate. These facts have raised questions about the identity of the bishop and the possibility that they were two different persons.

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(36) 13. VISCONTI, Carlo (1523-1565)

Birth. 1523, Milan. Of a distinguished family. Other members of the family were Pseudocardinal Bartolomeo Aicardi Visconti (1440); and Cardinals Alfonso Visconti (1599); and Antonio Eugenio Visconti (1771).

Education. Chiaro ugualmente per dottrina che prudenza (1). (No further educational information found).

Early life. Senator of Milan. Ambassador of Milan before King Felipe II of Spain in 1560. Protonotary apostolic. Cleric of Milan.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ventimiglia, December 5, 1561. Consecrated, December 15, 1561 (no further information found). Participated in the Council of Trent, 1562-1563. Nuncio extraordinary in Spain, 1563. Nuncio extraordinary in Austria, 1564.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 12, 1565; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Vito e Modesto, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, May 15, 1565. Transferred to the see of Montefeltro, July 6, 1565.

Death. November 12, 1565, at 2 a.m., after a long and grave illness, Monte Caballo, Rome. Buried in his title (2)

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 81-83; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1676; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 41, 76, 195 and 334.

Webgraphy. His portrait by anonymous Lombard artist (17th century), 1640-1660, DEA / Veneranda Biblioteca Ambrosiana/De Agostini/Getty Images.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 81.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1676: D. O. M. CAROLO. VICECOMITI. MEDIOLANENSI. S. R. E. CARDINALI. QVI. PIO. IV. PONT. MAX. EX. SENATV. REGIO. AD. EPISCOPATVM. INDE. AD. CARDINALATVM. PROVECTVS. MVLTIS. AD. REGES. IMPERTAORESQ. LEGATIONBVS. SVMMA. CVM. LAVDE. FVNCTVS. VETVSTISSIMÆ. GENTIS. SVÆ. NOBILITATI. PRÆCLARE. OMNI. PARTE. RESPONDIT. VIXIT. ANN. XLII. OBIIT. ROMÆ. IDIBVS. NOVEMBRIS. ANNO. SALVTIS. MDLXV. CAROLVS. VICECOMES. ABIZATI. COMES. MAGNO. PATRVO. B. M. P.

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(37) 14. ALCIATI, Francesco (1522-1580)

Birth. February 2, 1522, Milan. Of a noble family. His last name is also listed as Alciato. Relative of Pope Pius IV.

Education. Studied law in Bologna and in Pavia under his uncle Andrea Alciati, famous jurisconsult who named him his heir; obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, and was well versed in Latin and Greek. He was denominated Alciatino to differentiate him from Andrea.

Early life. Professor of law in Milan. Member of Collegio dei Giurisconsulti of Milan. Cleric of Milan. Professor of civil law at the University Pavia, replacing his former professor, February 1, 1550 until 1560; there he taught the future cardinal and saint Carlo Borromeo. Called to Rome by Pope Pius IV in 1560 at the instance of Cardinal Borromeo. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Internuncio before the king of Bohemia.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Città or Civita (1), September 5, 1561 (2). Consecrated (no information found). Datary of His Holiness, November 19, 1561 until 1565. Named by Cardinal Markus Sitticus von Hohenems Altemps, governor of Fermo, his superintendent in Rome to judge the appeal of all the causes of the region, September 14, 1562. Pro-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 12, 1565; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Lucia in Septisolio, May 15, 1565. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Susanna, June 3, 1565. Prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, September 1565 until his death; at first he acted as a delegate of Cardinal Carlo Borromeo, the first prefect of the congregation but soon became prefect on his own authority. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Portico Octaviae, pro illa vice elevated to title, May 13, 1569. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Pope Pius V named him vice-penitentiary and, later, when he established a new collegio di penitenzieri, named him cardinal grand penitentiary on June 22, 1569. Protector of the Order of the Carthusians. Protector of Spain and Ireland before the Holy See. Member of the Holy Office and the S.C. of Bishops. Nuncio before the duke of Austria. Member of the Congregation for the Correction of the Decree of Gratian. He was protector of the Milanese Order of Sant'Ambrogio ad Nemus.

Death. April 20, 1580, Rome. Buried in the Carthusian church of S. Maria degli Angeli, Rome (3).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 95-97; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1681-1682; Del Re, Nicola. "I cardinali prefetti della sacra congregazione del concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), pp. 109-110; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 41, and 168; Storti, Nicola. La storia e il diritto della Dataria Apostolica dalle origini ai nostri giorni. Napoli : Athena Mediterranea Editrice, 1969, p. 169; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 241 and 448-449.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian; and biography, in German.

(1) Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1681, erroneously says that he was named bishop of Ciudad Rodrigo, Spain (Civitatem in Latin, the same form of Città or Civita); and also of Ario in Crete and Clermont in France.
(2) This is according to Del Re, "I cardinali prefetti della sacra congregazione del concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)", p. 109; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 168, indicates that he was named on September 5, 1571; but this same source on p. 41, says that he was bishop-elect of Città at the time of his promotion to the cardinalate in 1565.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1681: D. O. M. ET. MEMORIÆ. FRANCISCI. ALCIATI. MEDIOLANEN. TT. S. MARIÆ IN. PORTICV. S. R. E. PRESB. CARD. VIRTVTE. HVMANITATE. OFFICIO. I. V. SCIENTIA. AC. CÆTERIS. OMNIBVS. DISCIPLINIS. FLORENTISSIMI. CARTHVSIENSIS. FAMILIÆ. PROTECTORIS. VIXIT. ANN. LVIII. MENS. II. DIES. XVIII. OBIIT. ANN. SALVT. MDLXXX. KAL. MAIII.

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(38) 15. CASTIGLIONI, Francesco Abbondio (1523-1568)

Birth. February 1, 1523, Milan. Son of Palatine Count Girolamo Castiglioni and Guida Francesca Castiglioni. Palatine count and Milanese patrician. Other members of the family were Pope Celestine IV; and Cardinals Branda Castiglioni (1411); Giovanni Castiglione (1456); and Giovanni Castiglione (1801).

Education. Studied Greek and Latin; and later, at the University of Pavia, theology; canon and civil law; and poetry.

Early life. Cleric of Milan. Took Abbondio as a second name when he was named abbot commendatario of S. Abbondio, Como, 1551. Abbot commendatario of the Cistercian monastery of Aquaefrigidae, Como.

Sacred orders.(No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Bobbio, January 9, 1562. Consecrated (no information found). Participated in the Council of Trent, 1562-1563.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 12, 1565. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Nicola inter Imagines, title declared pro illa vice deaconry, February 8, 1566.

Death. November 14, 1568, Rome. Buried in his tomb in the church of S. Maria del Popolo, Rome (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 83-84; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1676-1677; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 41, 68 and 136.

Webgraphy. His genealogy, A1 B2 C1 D3 E1 F3; and his bust in his tomb in the church S. Maria del Popolo, Rome.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Enzo Bentivoglio and Simonetta Valtieri, Santa Maria del Popolo a Roma (Roma : Bardi, 1976), p. 75:

D. O. M.
FRANCISCO ABVUNDIO CASTILLIONEO. MEDIOLANEN
HIERON. SENAT. MEDIOL. PRAESIDIS FILIO. S. R. E. PRESB. CARD.
COELESTINI IV. P.M. OCTAVIANI. GOTTIFREDI. BRANDAE. ET IOANNIS. CARD.
GENTILI. PIO. IIII. P.M. VALDE. CHARO. ATQ. AB. EODEM. OB. FIDEM. AC.
PIETATEM. QUAM. EPISCOPUS. BOBIEN. IN TRID. CONCILIO. PRAESTITIT.
IN. AMPLISSIMUM. COLLEGIUM. COOPTATO.
VIXIT ANN. XLV. OBIIT. MD. LXVIII. KAL. DECEMBER.
IOSEPH. CASTELLION. I. C. HAERES. PATRUELI. ET. IO. IACOBO. ARCHIEPISC.
BARENSI. PATRUO. COMMUNE. M. P.

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(39) 16. FERRERO, Guido Luca (1537-1585)

Birth. May 18, 1537, Turin. Of a noble family. Son of Sebastiano Ferrero, signore of Casalvolone, Ponzana e Villata, and Maddalena Borromeo, daughter of Federico Borromeo, 6th count of Arona. Grand-nephew of Cardinals Gianstefano Ferrero (1500); and Bonifacio Ferrero (1517). Nephew of Cardinals Filiberto Ferrero (1549); and Pier Francesco Ferrero (1561). Cousin of Cardinal Carlo Borromeo (1560). Another member of the family was Cardinal Antonio Ferrero (1505).

Education. Studied under his uncle Cardinal Pier Francesco; wrote in Latin and Greek with gradissima facilità (1).

Early life. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, 1559, Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1559. Abbot commendatario of S. Michele della Chiusa, 1560; of S. Stefano di Ivrea, 1560-1570; of S. Stefano della Cittadella di Vercelli, 1560; of S. Maria di Contignano until 1580.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Vercelli March 2 (2), 1562. Consecrated, August 19, 1562 (no further information found). Nuncio in Venice, 1564.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 12, 1565. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V; he left the conclave because of illness. Received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Eufemia, title pro illa vice declared deaconry, February 8, 1566. Opted for the deaconry of Ss. Vito e Modesto, March 6, 1566. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Resigned the government of the diocese before October 17, 1572. Governor of Spoleto, 1572-1578. Prior of S. Maria di Pellionex, 1572. Abbot commendatario of Nonantola, 1572-1582; of S. Pietro di Muleggio, 1574-1582; of S. Giusto di Susa, 1575; of S. Maria di Pinerolo, 1580. Provost of S. Martino degli Umiliati, Vercelli, 1575. Legate in Romagna, October 25, 1581. Governor of Faenza, ca. 1583. Participated in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V.

Death. May 16, 1585, Rome. Buried in the patriarchal Liberian basilica (3), Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 84-86; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1677-1678; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 41, 63, 76 and 330; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 228, 365, 386 and 664 .

Webgraphy. His tomb in the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 85.
(2) This is according to Eubel Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 330; and Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809, p. 664; his genealogy, linked above, indicates that he was elected on May 2, 1562.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph taken from the photograph of his tomb, linked above, from Requiem Datenbank:

D    ·    O    ·     M
GVIDO · FERRERIVS · TITVLO · SS · VITI · ET · MODESTI
S·R·E·PRESBYTER · CARD · VT · VIVENS · VIVENTI · PATRVO
PETRO FRANCISCO · CARD · ET · DIGNITATI · ET. VOLUNTATI · CONVICTISS · FVIT
ITA · MORIES · CORPORE · AB · ILLO ABESSE · NOLVIT
CVM · QVO · ETIAM · SVMMA · DEI · BENIGNITATE · FRETVS · CELESTI
AC · SEMPITERNA · FELICITATE
SE · FRVITVRVM
SPERAT
OBIIT · DIE · XVI · MAII · ANNO· MDL.XXXV ·

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(40) 17. CRIVELLI, Alessandro (1514-1574)

Birth. 1514 (1), Milan. Youngest of the four children of Antonio Crivelli, count of Lomello, and Costanza Landriani. His last name is also listed as Cribelli. Relative of Pope Urban III (1185-1187).

Education. Entered the military at a young age. (No further educational information found).

Early life. Colonel in the imperial army. Senator and member of the "Consiglio dei 60" of Milan. Married Margherita de Scarampi and had three children, Antonio, Girolamo and Luigi. After the death of his wife on March 10, 1561, he left the military and became a priest. Called to Rome by Pope Pius IV.

Priesthood. Ordained to the priesthood (no further information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Cerenza e Cariati, Calabria, March 10, 1561 (2). Consecrated (no information found). His episcopal motto was A semitis impiorum elongor. Nuncio in Spain, November 1561 to November 1565.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 12, 1565. Did not participate in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V (3). Received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, title pro illa vice declared deaconry, February 8, 1566. Opted for the order of cardinal priests (no date found); his deaconry was restored to title. Resigned the government of the diocese before January 23, 1568. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Ara Coeli, November 20, 1570. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII.

Death. December 22, 1574, Rome. Buried in the tomb he had built in the church of S. Maria in Ara Coeli (4), Rome.

Bibliography. Biaudet, Henry. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes jusqu'en 1648. Helsinki ; Suomalainen tiedeakatemia, 1910, p. 263; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 87-89; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1678-1679; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 41, 42, 64, 66 and 202.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian, Scuola Media di Lomello; biography by Agostino Borromeo, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 31 (1985), Treccani; his engraving, motto and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to his first biography in Italian linked above; and his epitaph in note 3. His second biography in Italian, also linked above, says that he was born around 1511. Biaudet, Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes jusqu'en 1648, p. 263, indicates that he was born in 1508.
(2) This is according to his biography in Italian, lnked above, which also says that he was elevated to the episcopate in 1562; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 202, indicates that he was elected bishop of Cerenza e Cariati on March 10, 1561, which is the date that the Italian biography says that his wife died; the coincidence of dates is odd but none of the sources consulted has clarified the apparent conflict.
(3) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 42; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 89, indicates that he participated in the conclave in which Pope Pius V was elected in 1565-1566; his biography in Italian, linked above, says that he arrived thirty minutes after the election of the new pope.
(4) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1678:

AD. TE. VITA. PER. TE. SALVS. IN TE. REQVIES
ALEXANDER. CRIBELLIVS. MEDIOLANENSIS
TIT. SANCTÆ. MARIÆ. DE. ARÆCELI. S. R. E. PRESBYTER CARDINALIS
SEXAGESIMVM. AGENS. ANNVM. SIBI. POSVIT
ANNO. MDLXXI. MENSE. DECEMBRI. DIE. XXII
OBIIT. DIE. XII DECEMBRIS. MDLXXV.

The same source indicates that he died on December 22, 1574, as does Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 41.

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(41) 18. CRÉQUI CANAPLES, Antoine de (1531-1574)

Birth. July 17, 1531, France. Son of Jean de Créqui, signeur of Canaples, and Marie d'Acignè. He inherited the great wealth of his family after the death of his two brothers and left it to his sister's son Antoine de Blanchefort. His last name is also listed as Créquy.

Education. Sent to Paris in 1539 to receive a "convenient" education. Di mediocre letteratura (1). (No further educational information found).

Early life. Cleric of Terouanne. Abbot commendatario of Saint-Julien de Tours, 1552. Designated bishop of Therouanne in 1553 but never occupied the see. Chancellor of the Order of Saint-Michel. Abbot commendatario of the Cistercian monastery of Valloires. Abbot commendatario of Saint-Pierre de Sélincourt; and of Saint-Martin-aux-Jumeaux. Knight of l'Ordre du Roi. Provost of Saint-Pierre de Selincourt. Nominated bishop of Nantes by King Henri II of France in 1552 but did not obtain the bull of appointment until 1561 (2).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Nantes, December 15, 1553.

Priesthood. Ordained, on the morning of April 22, 1554, by Gilles de Gaude, titular bishop of Raphanea. Consecrated bishop, April 22, 1554, Nantes, chapel of the bishopric, by François de Laval, bishop of Dol, assisted by Gilles de Gaude, titular bishop of Raphanea, and by François de Créqui, former bishop of Therouanne. Transferred to the see of Amiens, which he exchanged with Cardinal Nicolas Pellevé, July 14, 1564. Abbot commendatario of Saint-Vaast de Moreuil from 1569. Abbot commendatario of Saint-Pierre de Cravicuria, diocese of Amiens. State counselor of King Charles IX of France.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 12, 1565. Did not participate in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Trifonio, title declared pro illa vice deaconry, March 13, 1566. Did not participate in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII.

Death. June 20 (3), 1574, Amiens. The funeral oration was delivered by Jacques Séguier, canon and chancellor of Amiens. According to his will, his body was embalmed and buried in the abbey of Moreuil (4); and his heart was placed in a lead reliquary and buried in front of the main altar of the cathedral of Amiens.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 776-777; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 86-87; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1679; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 41, 71, 106 and 253.

Webgraphy. His engraving and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Famille de Créquy, in French, Wikipedia.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 86.
(2) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 87, says that the delay was due to the complaints about the condotta del suo vivere (conduct of his life) made by Louis d'Ailly, vice-governor of Amiens.
(3) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, V, 41; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 776, says that he died on June 5, 1574.
(4) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 87, indicates that he was buried either in that cathedral or in the abbey of Moreuil; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 777, says that he was buried in that abbey near Amiens.

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(42) 19. COMMENDONE, Gianfrancesco (1523-1584)

Birth. March 17, 1523, Venice. Relative of Pope Paul IV (1555-1559).

Education. University of Padua, Padua (humanities and law).

Early life. Venetian cleric. Went to Rome in 1550 and was introduced to Pope Julius III by the Venetian ambassador. He was named papal chamberlain and protonotary apostolic. Accompanied Cardinal Girolamo Dandino, legate a latere before Emperor Charles V in Flanders as a datary. Sent in a mission to Queen Mary I Tudor of England to obtain the restoration of the Catholic faith, 1553.

Sacred orders. Received the minor orders.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Kephalonia and Zacynthus, October 25, 1555. Consecrated (no information found). Accompanied Cardinal Scipione Rebiba, legate a latere, on a mission before Emperor Charles V and King Felipe II of Spain in Flanders in the summer of 1556. Bishop Commendone was to stay as nuncio before King Felipe, but he was recalled to Rome soon afterwards and sent, on September 16, 1556, as extraordinary envoy to Urbino, Ferrara, Venice, and Parma to enlist their support against the occupation of Campagna by Spanish troops. In 1560, Pope Pius IV decided to reopen the Council of Trent and sent Bishop Commendone to Germany to invite the Catholic and Protestant Estates to participate in the assembly; after traveling extensively throughout Germany, he returned to Rome in December 1561; his mission failed as far as having the Protestants' participation in the council; but his exemplary life and his pleas to restore the religious unity greatly impressed many Protestants. Sent by the legates of the Council of Trent in a mission to Emperor Ferdinand at Innsbruck in January 1563, to discuss the demands that he had made upon the council. Nuncio in Poland, September 1563 to December 1565; he obtained from King Zygmunta the promise to enforce the conciliar reforms as well as the entrance of the Jesuits in Poland. Cardinal Carlo Borromeo recommended his elevation to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 12, 1565. Did not participate in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Pope Pius V sent him as legate to the Diet of Augsburg in March 1566. Received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Ciriaco alle Terme, title declared pro illa vice deaconry, November 15, 1566. Together with Cardinals Giovanni Ricci, Marcantonio Bobba and Alessandro Sforza, was named by Pope Pius V inspector of rivers, ports and public roads of Rome. In September 1568 he was sent as legate to Emperor Maximilian to convince him not to grant new religious concessions to the Protestants in Lower Austria and to suspend the ones that he had already granted. The cardinal was also given the mission, by papal brief of October 10, 1568, to visit the churches and monasteries of Germany and the adjacent territories. Legate before Emperor Maximilian II and King Zygmunta of Poland to organize a crusade against the Turks, November 1571. After the death of the Polish king the following year, he promoted the candidacy of Duke Henry of Anjou to become the new king, thus causing the anger of the emperor. Did not participate in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Named by Pope Gregory XIII in 1573 member of the new Congregatio Germanica. Opted for the order of priests (no date found). Opted for the title of S. Maria degli Angeli, July 5, 1574. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 10, 1583 to January 16, 1584. Opted for the title of S. Anastasia, January 9, 1584. Opted for the title of S. Marco, May 14, 1584 (1).

Death. December 26, 1584, Padua. Buried, Capuchin monastery (2), Padua.

Bibliography. Biaudet, Henry. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes jusqu'en 1648. Helsinki ; Suomalainen tiedeakatemia, 1910, p. 262; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 88-92; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1679; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 41, 60, 63, 65 and 162; Graziani, Antonio Maria. La vie du cardinal Jean François Commendon : oú l'on voit ses voyages, ambassades, legations & negotiations, dans les plus considerables cours des empereurs, rois, princes & republiques de l'Europe. Translated by Esprit Fléchier. Paris : Chez la veuve Sebastien Mabre-Cramoisy, 1694. Note: Translation of: De vita Ioannis Francisci Commendoni cardinalis. "Translated from the Latin work of A.M. Graziani." Other title: De vita Ioannis Francisci Commendoni cardinalis.

Webgraphy. Biography by Michael Ott, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his engraving, arms and portraits, Araldica Vaticana; his portrait, 17th century (1690-1699), diocese of Padua, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

(1) He was absent and ill and Cardinal Filippo Boncompagni opted for him.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1679: IO. FRANCISCO. TITVLO. SANCTI. MARCI. S. R. E. PRESB. CARD. COMENDONO. ANTONIO. CAVCVS. PATRITIVS. VENETVS. AVVNCVLO. B. M. M. P. VIXIT. ANNOS. LXI. MEN. IX. DIES. VIII. OBIIT. VII. KAL. IANVARII. MDLXXXIV.

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(43) 20. LOMELLINI, Benedetto (1517-1579)

Birth. 1517, Genoa. Of a noble and opulent family. Son of David Lomellini and Bianca Centurione. Another cardinal of the family was Giovanni Girolamo Lomellini (1652).

Education. Obtained a doctorate in law in Rome.

Early life. Practice as a lawyer. Cleric of Genoa. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Abbreviator de parco maiori, September 27, 1543. Secretary apostolic, December 1, 1551. Domestic prelate of His Holiness. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, July 27, 1562. Prefect of the Annona, November 13, 1562. Accompanied Cardinal Carlo Carafa in his legation before King Felipe II of Spain in Flanders.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 12, 1565; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Aquiro, May 15, 1565.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ventimiglia, July 6, 1565. Transferred to the see of Luni-Sarzana, September 7, 1565. Opted for the title of S. Sabina, September 7, 1565. Consecrated, Sunday, November 21, 1565, church of S. Pietro in Montorio, by Cardinal Clemente Dolera, O.F.M.Obs., assisted by Giorlamo Melchior, bishop of Macerata, and by Carlo Cicada, bishop of Albenga. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Legate in Campagna e Marittima, 1571. Transferred to the see of Anagni, March 17, 1572. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII.

Death. Friday, July 24, 1579, at 4 a.m., Rome (1). Buried in the church of S. Gregorio al Monte Celio (2), Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 92-94; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1680; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 127; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 41, 70, 74, 107, 231 and 334; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), pp. 99, 108, 113, 118, 121 and 131; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 180 and 741.

Webgraphy. Biography by Massimo Carlo Giannini, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 65 (2005), Treccani; his arms and engraving, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1680. Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 41; and his biography in Italian, linked above, say that he died on July 26, 1579.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1680: D. O. M. BENEDICTO LOMELLINO, qui eruditione insignis, Romanæ Aula varios honores emensus, a Pio Quarto Pont. Max. in Card. Colleg. fuit adlectus, cuiq; ob eximiam pietatem, fidem, iustitiam, summamq; humanitatem, maior, voto hominum, præoptata dignitas, morte prærepta gloriam intendit, Lofredus Lomellinus suppl. Libellorum magister, Cameræ Apostolicæ Clericus, & patroni optimi conservandam posuit. Obiit VII. Kalend. Augusti, anno à Salvatore nato MDLXXIX. annum agens LXII.

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(44) 21. SIRLETO, Guglielmo (1514-1585)

Birth. 1514, Guardavalle, near Stilo, Calabria. His father, Tommaso, was a physician.

Education. Studied Hebrew, Greek, Latin, philosophy, mathematics, and theology in Naples; he had raro talento, e prodigiosa memoria (1) (a rare talent and prodigious memory).

Early life. Went to Rome in 1540 and was admitted into the household of Cardinal Marcello Cervini, one of the presidents of the Council of Trent in its early sessions and future Pope Marcellus II (1555); he prepared for the cardinal several documents dealing with important matters that were discussed in that assembly. Named secretary of Memorials and custodian of the Vatican Library by Pope Marcellus II; prepared a complete descriptive catalogue of the library's Greek manuscripts and a new edition of the Vulgate. Preceptor of the pope's nephews Ricciardo and Erennio Cervini. Protonotary apostolic de numero participante in the pontificate of Pope Paul IV. Tutor to two of the pope's nephews, Alfonso and Antonio Carafa. The pope considered promoting him to the cardinalate but his death prevented him from carrying out his intention. After the death of Pope Paul IV, he taught Greek and Hebrew in the Theatine house at S. Silvestro al Quirinale, Rome, where he resided; Carlo Borromeo, future cardinal and saint, was one of his students. Although he was residing in Rome, the cardinal legates who presided over the Council of Trent consulted him often. Cardinal Borromeo recommended that his uncle Pope Pius IV elevate Sirleto to the cardinalate.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 12, 1565; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna, May 15, 1565. Opted for the order of cardinal priests, October 26, 1565. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Named administrator of the diocese of S. Marco, 1566.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of S. Marco, September 6, 1566. Consecrated, Sunday, October 13, 1566, Sistine Chapel, Vatican, by Pope Pius V, assisted by Cardinal Giacomo Savelli, and by Cardinal Niccolò Caetani di Sermoneta. In the same ceremony were also consecrated Cardinal Gianfrancesco Gambara and Cardinal Innico d'Avalos d' Aragona, O.S. Iacobis. Transferred to the see of Squillace, February 27, 1568. Librarian of the Vatican Library, March 18, 1572 (2). Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Resigned the government of the diocese in favor of his nephew Marcello Sirleto, May 29, 1573. President of the Comission for the Reform of the Calendar, 1582. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 16, 1584 to January 7, 1585. Participated in the conclave of 1585, wihch elected Pope Sixtus V. He participated in the preparation of the Roman Catechism and was president of the Commissions for the reform of the Roman Breviary and the Missal; also, he was the director of the new edition of the Roman Martyrology.

Death. October 6, 1585, Rome; he was assisted in his deathbed by Filippo Neri, future saint. Buried in his title (3); Pope Sixtus V attended his burial.

Bibliography. Calabretta, Leonardo ; Sinatora, Gregorio. Il Card. Guglielmo Sirleto, 1514-1585 : atti del convegno di studio nel IV centenario della morte, Guardavalle, S. Marco Argentano, Catanzaro, Squillace, 5-6-7 ottobre 1986. Catanzaro : Istituto di scienze religiose di Catanzaro-Squillace, 1989; Capialbi, Vito. Biografia di Gugliemo Cardinal Sirleto, bibliotecario della Vaticana. Naples : Presso Nicola Gervasi al Gigante N. 23, 1822; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 97-102; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1682-1684; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 129; Dejob, Charles. Documents tirés des papiers du cardinal Sirleto et de quelques autres manuscrits de la Vaticane sur les Juifs des états pontificaux. Versailles, Cerf et fils, 1884. Caption title: "Extrait de la Revue des études juives. juillet-septembre 1884"; Denzler, Georg. Kardinal Guglielmo Sirleto : (1514 - 1585.) Leben u. Werk. Ein Beitrag z. nachtridentin. Reform. München : Hueber, 1964. Dissertation: Diss., München. (Series: Münchener theologische Studien ; 1, Bd. 17); Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 41, 64, 234 and 303; Paschini, Pio. Tre ricerche sulla storia della Chiesa nel Cinquecento. Roma : Edizioni liturgiche, 1945. Contents: Le Compagnie del Divino Amore e la beneficenza pubblica nei primi decenni del Cinquecento.--Un vescovo disgraziato nel Cinquecento.--Guglielmo Sirleto prima del cardinalato; Paschini, Pio. Guglielmo Sirleto ed il decreto tridentino sull'edizione critica della Bibbia. Lecco : Tipografia "La Grafica", 1935; Sirleto, Guglielmo. Illvstriss. D. Sirleti S.R.E. Cardinalis, annotationes variarvm lectionvm in Psalmos : ad Sacri Bibliorvm apparatvs instrvctionem. Uniform Title: Annotationes varium lectionum in Psalmos. Antverpiæ : Excudebat Christophorus Plantinus, 1572; Sirleto, Guglielmo. Kardinal Wilhelm Sirlets Annotationen zum Neuen Testament : eine Verteidigung der Vulgata gegen Valla und Erasmus. Freiburg im Breisgau : Herdersche Verlagshandlung, 1908. (Biblische Studien ; Bd. 13, Heft 2); Vaz da Mota, João. Funebris oratio in illustriss. et reverendiss. S.R.E. Cardinalem Gulielmum Sirletum. Romae : Apud Ioannem Osmarinum Giliotum, 1585.

Webgraphy. Biography by Nicholas Weber, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; engravings, arms and portraits, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 97.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 41; his biography in English, linked above, says that he was named in 1570.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1682:

GVILIELMO. SIRLETO. CARD. STILI. IN. CALABRIA. NATO.
HVIVS. ECCL. TITVLARI. S. SEDIS. APOST. BIBLIOTHECARIO.
HEBRAICÆ. FRÆCÆ. LATINÆQ. LINGVÆ. PERITISS.
HVMANARVM. DIVINARUMQ. DISCIPLINARVM. .SCIENTIA. CLARO.
ERVDITORVM. ET. APVPERVM. PATRONO.
AC. PARENTI. BENEFICENTISS. OB. PROBITATEM. EIVS. PIETATEMQ.
A. PIO. IV. P. M. SACRO. INSTANTE. COLLEGIO. CARD. CREATO.
VIXIT. ANNOS. LXXI. OBIIT. ANNO. MDLXXXV.

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(45) 22. PALEOTTI, Gabriele (1522-1597)

Birth. October 4, 1522, Bologna. Second of the five children of Alessandro Paleotti and Gentile della Volpe. Baptized, October 12, 1522, in the cathedral of S. Pietro, Bologna. Distant relative of Alfonso Paleotti, his successor as archbishop of Bologna.

Education. University of Bologna, Bologna (doctorate in utroque iure, both civil law, May 14, 1546, and canon law, October 23, 1546).

Early life. Professor of civil law at the University of Bologna. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Bologna, 1549-1555. Advocate of chamber of the Bolognese senate, 1552. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, March 18, 1556. Canon consultant in the Council of Trent, 1562. Named by Pope Pius IV to accompany and assist the cardinal legates in the works of the Council of Trent (1). After the council he was named to a commission of cardinals and prelates that later became the S.C. of the Tridentine Council.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 12, 1565; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, May 15, 1565. Opted for the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, September 7, 1565. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Bologna, January 30 (2), 1566. Opted for the order of priests, January 30, 1566.

Priesthood. Ordained, February 9, 1566, patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome. Consecrated bishop, Sunday, February 10, 1566, patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Carlo Borromeo, assisted by Cardinal Marcantonio Colonna, and by Cardinal Guido Luca Ferrero, bishop of Vercelli. He applied with great zeal the conciliar reforms in his diocese and his work in Bologna is compared to that of Carlo Borromeo in Milan. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Opted for the title of S. Martino al Monte, July 4, 1572. Promoted to archbishop when the see of Bologna was elevated to the rank of metropolitan archdiocese, December 10, 1582. Participated in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, May 11, 1587. Cardinal protoprete. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, retaining the see of Bologna, November 8, 1589. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Called to Rome by Pope Gregory XIV. His relative Alfonso Paleotti, titular archbishop of Corinto, was named his coadjutor with right of succession in Bologna on February 13, 1591. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Sabina, March 20, 1591. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII.

Death. July 23 (3), 1597, Rome. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of S. Pietro, Bologna.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, ; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1684-1685; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 127; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 41-42, 56, 58, 63, 64, 67 and 137; Prodi, Paolo. Il cardinale Gabriele Paleotti (1522-1597). Rome : Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, 1959. (Uomini e dottrine, 7).

Webgraphy. Biography by Alphonse Van Hove, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in Italian archdiocese of Bologna; portraits, engravings and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his portrait, 18th century (1700-1799), archdiocese of Bologna, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his portrait and arms, 19th century (189-1899), archdiocese of Bologna, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

(1) His Diarium, a journal of the proceedings of the council, constitutes a very relevant source for the history of the assembly. Its complete text was published in the third volume of Concilium Tridentinum. Diariorum, Actorum, Epistularum, tractatuum nova collectio, edidit Societas Goerresiana (Editio secunda stereotypa. Friburgi Brisgoviae : Herder, 1963-1976.13 v.).
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 137; his biography in English, linked above, indicates that he was elected on January 13, 1566.
(3) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 42; his biography in English, linked above, says that he died on July 22, 1597.

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(46) 23. CRASSO, Francesco (1500-1566)

Birth. 1500, Milan. Son of Pietro Antonio Crasso. His last name is also listed as Grasso. Noble Milanese of the signori of Zibido al Lambro.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, in Milan.

Early life. Senator of Milan, December 28, 1535. President of the Magistrato delle entrate, 1548. Counselor of the duke of Milan. Governor of Siena. Governor of Cremona. Ambassador of Milan before Emperor Charles V while he was in Genoa. After the death of his wife, with whom he had several children, he became an ecclesiastic and went to Rome. Pope Pius IV, his good friend, named him protonotary apostolic participantium. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota. Governor of Bologna, January 5, 1565. At the instance of Carlo Borromeo, future cardinal and saint, he was elevated to the cardinalate.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 12, 1565. Opted for the order of cardinal priests, October 26, 1565. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Lucia in Septisolio, pro illa vice elevated to title, February 8, 1566. Opted for the title of S. Eufemia (1), March 6, 1566.

Death. August 29 (2), 1566, Rome. Transferred to Milan and buried in the chapel of S. Francesco in the church della Pace, of the Franciscans Observant (3).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 109-110; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1686; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 42, 63 and 73; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 150 and 603; Zedler, Johann Heinrich, and Carl Günther Ludovici. Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste. 64 v. Graz, Adakemische Druck, 1961- . Reprint. Originally published : Halle : J. H. Zedler, 1732-50. Vols. 19-64 ed. by Carl Günther Ludovici.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 42; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 109, says that he opted for the title of S. Cecilia.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 42; the result of the information contained in his epitaph, transcribed in note 3, indicates that he died on September 1, 1566, which is the date that Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, also gives.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1686: FRANCISCO CRASSO, Petri Antonio filio, I. C. Advocato Fisci, Præfecto rerum capitalium, Senæ Prætori, Urbini tertio Magistro, Quæsiuræ ordinariorum Senatori, Consiliario principali, Quæstori Præfecto Vrbis Sena \rum, & Bononiæ; Cardinali, qui vixit ann. LXVI. mortuus est Romæ Kalendis Septembris, anno MDLXVI. & in monumentum Cellæ huis, quam diuo Francisco vivens fecit, inferri voluit. Petrus Antonius, & Hippolytus parenti optimè merito PP.

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LA VALETTE, O.S.Io.Hieros., Jean Parisot de (1494-1568)

Birth. 1494 (1), in the castle Labro in Rouergue, Gascogne, France. Second of six children of Guillot (or Guillaume) de la Valette-Cornusson, signeur of Cornusson and Boismenon and gentleman of the royal household, and Jeanne de Castres. The other siblings were: Guillot, Guillaume (prior of the monastery of Saint-Saturnin), François (archbishop of Vabres, 1561-1585), Antoinette and Beatrix. Grand-uncle of François II de la Valette-Cornusson, archbishop of Vabres (1600-1622); great-grand-uncle of François III de la Valette-Cornusson, archbishop of Vabres (1622-1644). His last name is also listed a Parisot de La Valette; and de la Vallette Parisot.

Education. He spent his early childhood in the Castle Labor, receiving his strict Christian education from his mother. When he was five years old, his father, wanting to make him an outstanding rider, took him hunting falcons. At twelve, he killed his first wild boar with a spear; and sometimes, he hunted deers and wolves; his passion for hunting made him learn to use the weapons of the time: bow or crossbow, spear and hunting dagger. His father also transmitted his passion for birds of prey, the falcon in particular. Jean's childhood was eventful and Spartan but happy, imbued with an unshakable Christian faith, in a spirit of loyalty, always prone to charity and courage to the test. The introduction to hunting and battle modeled a powerful athlete's body , large for the times (5' 11" it is said), with a phenomenal strength. At age thirteen, this teenager had become an accomplished man. Like many young nobles of that time, he was irresistibly drawn to the East; it was a family tradition, but also the manifestation of his great faith, expressing his desire for adventure and glory then enjoyed by soldiers of Christ. Besides French, he spoke Italian, Spanish, Greek, Arabic and Turkish.

Early life. As was the custom then, the family Valletta poured a large sum of money to the Hospitaller Order, which had a strong presence in Rouergue after the demise of the Knights Templars, in order to include at least have one male child of that generation as noble Knight Saint John of Jerusalem. Given his predispositions, Jean was chosen by his father to proudly give Christ the best of him; and the same was approved by the mother for the same reasons. In 1508, he entered as a novice the priorate of the Knights Hospitaller (2) to study the matters that a knight should be formed in: theology, the statutes of the order, mastery of several languages, medicine and the practice of arms; at eighteen, he took his vows and became professed. In 1514, he was named grand prior of Saint-Gilles, which was the most important priorate, with Toulouse, of the Langue Provence, and which had sixty commanderies. He never revisited his family estates, or returned to his native country. He was present during the Great Siege of Rhodes in 1523, and accompanied Grand Master Philippe Villiers de L'Isle-Adam, after the Order's expulsion from Rhodes by the Ottoman Turks under Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. After losing the battle, along with his companions he went into exile. In 1523, Emperor Karl V offered the island of Malta and the city of Tripoli to the Knights Hospitaller; the accord between the emperor and the order was concluded on March 24, 1530. He settled in Malta in 1530. He was the commandant of the fortress and the governor of Tripoli from 1537 until 15551. In 1541, he was captured and made a galley slave for a year by Barbary pirates under the command of Turgut Reis; he was redeemed from slavery by his Order. In 1554, he was promoted to captain general of the order's fleet; this was a great honor to the Langue of Provence, as throughout most of the order's history, the position of grand admiral was usually held by a knight grand cross of the Italian Langue. Tripoli was taken by Dragut in 1556. In that same year, La Valette rebuilt Fort Saint-Elme. Elected unanimously 49th grand master of the Order of Malta on August 21, 1557; occupied the post until his death. In 1560, he formed an alliance with Juan de la Cerda, admiral of King Felipe II of Spain, to recover Tripoli, but the Spanish squadron wasted time conquering the island of Jorba. The Moors of Barbary, commanded by Piale and Dragut, destroyed twenty two warships of the Christians, and 4,000 Christians were killed or died of disease. Thanks to La Valette's intrepidity, the galleys of the order were able to save several Christian ships and to capture many corsairs. At his own private expense La Valette had two galleys built and the wealthier commanders followed his example. The vessels of the Order were commanded by experienced navigators who knew all the ports and even the smallest bays of the Mediterranean. He obtained official representation for his Order at the Council of Trent. He commanded the defense of Malta in 1565 when it was attacked by Ottoman troops. Despite the significant advantages of the Turks, the Maltese defended themselves for four months until the arrival of relief. The siege of Malta lasted from May 18, 1565 until the following September 8. The Ottoman force were formed by no less than 30,000 soldiers, including the Janissaries, as well as the sultan's fleet of some 193 ships.

Cardinalate. The defense of Malta brought him great fame and prestige throughout Europe. Pope Pius IV decided to promote him to the cardinalate, but he refused to accept the promotion in order to maintain independence from the papacy and because, as he maintained, the grandmaster of the Knights Hospitaller must engage in military action, which is unsuitable for a cardinal (3).

Later life. After the great siege, he commissioned the construction of the new city of Valletta in 1566, laying the first stone with his own hands. This took place on the slopes of Mount Xeberras, where Fort Saint Elmo stood, a fort which the Turks thought would fall within three or four days, but which, due to the bravery of the defenders, held out for 30 days. The city named after its founder - Humilissima Civitas Vallettae - became known as the most aristocratic and exclusive fortress in Europe - a city most often referred to as "Superbissima" - the "Most Proud". Valletta remains the Maltese capital to this day. In his later years La Valette's vigorous administration was troubled by rebellion among the Spanish cavaliers on the island and by what he considered to be ingratitude on the part of Pope Pius V, who, instead of permitting La Valette to nominate his own candidate for the leadership of the order's grand priory in Rome, appointed a papal nephew to the post.

Death. August 21, 1568, in Malta, he died peacefully as a result of heatstroke, which he suffered while hunting. Initially, his body was buried in the chapel of Our Lady of Philermos. Then when the Notre Dame des Victoires church was completed, the coffin of the grand master was solemnly carried aboard the captain galley of the Order, accompanied by two other galleys adorned with black cloth, dragging in the water the standards taken from the Turks. In the port of Murciet, the house of the dead, his officers and servants were the first to land bearing torches. The clergy bore his body and sang psalms. The new Grand Master, Pietro di Monte; and all the lords of the council followed. The coffin was placed in the ground and the office of the dead was celebrated with all the honors due to a great man; later his remains were transferred to the cathedral of Saint John in Valletta; his supine bronze effigy covers his tomb (4). Cardinal Hugh Loubenx de Verdalle, grand master of the order, is buried opposite to Grand master La Valette.

Bibliography. Desportes, Catherine. Le siège de Malte : la grande défaite de Soliman le Magnifique, 1565. Paris : Perrin, 1999; Lochhead, Ian Colin ; Barling, T. F. R.The siege of Malta 1565. London, Literary Services & Production Ltd., 1970; Macheiner, Dorothea. Fra Jean eine Vermutung. Mödling : Ed. Roesner, 2009. (ArtesLiteratur); Macheiner, Dorothea. Der Kopf des Großmeisters Wer war Fra Jean de Valette?. Mödling : Ed. Roesner, 2011. (Artes Literatur); Maumy, Jean. La Valette : Grand maître de la victoire. Paris : Harmattan, 2006. (Roman historique); Miller, S. J. T. "La Valette, Jean Parisot de." New Catholic Encyclopedia. 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale, 2003, vol. 8., 384-385; Pickles, Tim ; Hook, Christa. Malta 1565 : last battle of the Crusades. Oxford ; Long Island City, NY : Osprey, 2010, ©1998. Campaign (Osprey Publishing) ; 50); Tambon, Jacques. Jean Parisot de La Valette, 1494-1568 : la foi et le glaive d'un chevalier hospitalier. Wimereux : Sagittaire, 2010.

Webgraphy. Biography by Louis Bréhier, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his portrait, engraving and biography, in English, Wikipedia; portraits, engraving, arms and biography, in French, Wikipedia; his engraving and biography, in Polish, Wikipedia; Jean de Valette, The Badass of the Week; Jean Parisot de La Valette , in French, Arche des combattants; Grand Master Jean Parisot de la Valette: The very heart of the defense of Malta, in English, nobility.org; Famille de La Valette-Parisot, in French, Wikipedia; Knights Hospitaller, in English, Wikipedia; Siege of Malta (1565), in English, Wikipedia; Order of Malta, Official site, in English; Flag of Grandmaster Jean Parisot de la Vallette, in English, Flags of the World; Valletta, capital of Malta, in English, Wikipedia; St. John's Co Cathedral Tombs Information and Layout Map, in English, St. John's Co Cathedral; Garstka zakonniksw zatrzymuje imperium, 18 maja 1565 (A handful stopped a religious empire), in Polish, Kartki z historii; The Great Siege of Malta 1565 - 45 minute documentary - trailer , You Tube; The Great Siege of Malta 1565 & GM. Jean Parisot De La Valette, You Tube.

(1) Some authors say that he was born on February 4, 1495.
(2) The Order is currently known as The Sovereign Military and Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem, called of Rhodes, called of Malta. In 1309, after the loss of Jerusalem, of Saint-Jean d'Acre and of Cyprus, the island of Rhodes became the see of the knights of Saint John of Jerusalem.
(3) His second biography in English (Wikipedia), linked above, adds "This has been attributed to his sense of modesty and his humility as a warrior monk. However, it has often been overlooked that as a Grand Master of the Order, he automatically had the same precedence as the most junior Cardinal within the Church and enjoyed a Cardinal's distinction without being involved in the internal politics of the Holy See. Even from its beginnings, the Grand Master of the Order owed allegiance only to the Pope, and to this day is recognised as the head of an Order which has diplomatic recognition with the United Nations and 100 other countries."
(4) The inscription on his tomb, which was composed by his Latin secretary, Sir Oliver Starkey, the last knight of the English Langue at the time of the Great Siege, states, translated into English:

Here lies La Valette.
Worthy of eternal honour,
He who was once the scourge of Africa and Asia,
And the shield of Europe,
Whence he expelled the barbarians by his Holy Arms,
Is the first to be buried in this beloved city,
Whose founder he was.

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