The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Pius V (1566-1572)
Consistory of March 24, 1568 (II)


(2) 1. ESPINOSA Y ARÉVALO, Diego (1502-1572)

Birth. September 1502 (1), Martín Muñoz de las Posadas, diocese of Segovia, Spain. Of a noble but impoverished family. Son of Diego de Espinosa and Catalina de Arévalo. He had two brothers, Pedro and Hernando; and a sister, Catalina. Grand-uncle of Cardinal Gil Carrillo de Albornoz (1627). His last name is also listed as Espinosa de los Monteros.

Education. Studied at the University of Salamanca, where he obtained a licenciate in civil and canon law.

Early life. Professor at Colegio Mayor de Cuenca, Salamanca. Appellate judge in the archiepiscopal curia of Zaragoza. Provisor of the diocese of Sigüenza. Auditor of the Chancillería of Valladolid and later, auditor in Casa de Contratación of Sevilla, 1542. Regent in the Royal Council of Navarra, 1556. Counselor in the Supreme and Royal Council of Castilla, May 3, 1562.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1564. President of the Supreme and Royal Council of Castilla, August 10, 1565. At the request of the king, the pope named him Inquisitor general of Spain, September 8, 1566; took possession, December 4, 1566; retained the office until his death. In 1567, because of the problems occasioned by the rebels in Flanders, King Felipe II decided to go to that province in person and left Espinosa as regent of the kingdom. To give his minister greater dignity, the king asked the pope for his promotion to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 24, 1568; received the red hat and the title of S. Bartolomeo all'Isola, May 14, 1568.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Sigüenza, July 5, 1568. Consecrated, 1568 (no further information found). Opted for the title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, August 20, 1568. Member of the junta for the process and imprisonment of Prince Carlos. Did not visit his diocese until the end of March 1569 (2). Did not participate in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII.

Death. September 5, 1572, near 10 a.m., of a very brief illness (3), Madrid. Buried in the chapel that he had founded in the parish church of Nuestra Señora de la Asunción, Martín Muñoz de las Posadas (4).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 114-116; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 1702; "Espinosa, Diego de." Enciclopedia universal ilustrada europeo-americana. 70 vols. Madrid : Espasa-Calpe, 1958, c1907?-1930, 236; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 43, 61, 71 and 297; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1500-1699). Españoles obispos en españa, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 34), p. 80.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Spanish, Historia de Martin Muñoz de Las Posadas; biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; El cardenal Diego de Espinosa, inquisidor general y obispo de Sigüenza by Javier Davara, in Spanish, La Plazuela; El Cardenal Diego de Espinosa consejero de Felipe II, el monasterio de Iranzu y la peste de Pamplona en 1566 by José Luis de Orellana y Unzué, in Spanish, dialnet.unirioja.es; V Centenario del Nacimiento del Cardenal Dieho de Espinosa, Martín Muñoz de las Posadas; El cardenal Espinosa, La Llanura, Revista digital de la Alhóndiga de Arévalo, Asociación de Cultura y Patrimonio; Palacio Cardenal Espinosa (Segovia), fuenterrebollo.com; Diego Espinosa, El segoviano, que a los mas altos cargos del Estado, ha sido requerido by Mariano Gómez de Caso Estrada, dipsegovia.es, Enero 2011;Tras la huella del Cardenal Espinosa, El Adelantado de Segovia, 14/06/2013; El legado segoviano del 'primer ministro' de Felipe II, El Norte de Castilla, 09.03.14; Notas sobre la carrera del inquisidor general Diego de Espinosa by José Antonio Escudero, in Spanish, Revista de la Inquisició, 2001, 10: 7-16.

(1) This is according to all the sources consulted except his biography, linked above, that says that he was born in September 1513.
(2) In 1569, the king ordered to him to buy some place, and told him that he would honor his house with he title of marquis, but the cardinal did not accept and instead requested that he be granted an open fair to the Villa de Martín Muñoz de las Posadas. Also, King Felipe II ordered the cardinal to build a house in honor of his family, but he did not accede alleging that "it seemed to him very bad, that exemplary ministers built palaces, that put in scruple to all those that passed by and was given rise to commentaries in the court". The king insisted and the cardinal imposed the condition of placing the real arms to signify that it had been a mandate of the king. Thus the palace that carries his name was constructed in the main square of the village.
(3) His death was so sudden that the last document of the Inquisition that had he signed had been dated August 28, 1572. There have been different versions about the real cause of his death; it is believed that because of the king's decision to replace him in the presidency of a council, he suffered an accident and believing that he had died, an autopsy was performed although he was still alive.
(4) This is his epitaph in Spanish taken from the biography linked above:

DON DIEGO DE ESPINOSA, OBISPO DE SIGVENZA,
CARDENAL DE SAN ESTEVAN, PRESIDENTE DE LOS
CONSEJOS REAL Y DE LA INQVISICION, DOTO ESTA
CAPILLA CON NVEVE CAPELLANES PERPETVOS. DON
DIEGO DE ESPINOSA, SV SOBRINO, APOSENTADO MAYOR
DEL REY FELIPE SEGVNDO, PRIMER PATRON, LO MANDO
PONER AÑO M.D. LXII.

In the same church are buried his parents and his nephew. In a visit to Villa de Martín Muñoz de las Posadas, after attending mass at its church, King Felipe II said to his sons, "Aquí está enterrado el mejor de mis Ministros..." (Here is buried the best of my ministers).

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(3) 2. SOUCHIER, O.Cist., Jérôme (1508-1571)

Birth. 1508, Auvergne (1), France. Of a noble family.

Education. Entered the Order of the Cistercians in the monastery of Montpeyroux, diocese of Clermont. Studied at Collège Cistercien, Paris (doctorates in philosophy and theology). Admitted among the theologians of La Sorbonne University, Paris.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Abbot of Clairvaux, 1550-1571. Participated in the Council of Trent, 1562-1563. Abbot of Cîteaux and superior general of his order, 1567-1571; he retained the seat of the abbey of Clairvaux. Enacted a series of ordinances, Ordinationes, based on the principles of the Council of Trent. French kings Henri II, François II and Charles IX highly appreciated him and sought his advice.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 24, 1568; received the red hat and the title of S. Matteo in Merulana, January 24, 1569.

Death. November 10, 1571, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, Rome, after a private funeral celebrated by the monks of his order (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 116-118; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 1701-1704; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 43 and 67; Hermans, Vincent. "Le Cardinal Jérôme Souchier," Collectanea Cisterciensia, XXX, no. 3 (1968) 206-207; Marton, Bernard A. "Cardinal Jérôme Souchier, Abbot of Clairvaux and Cnteaux (15531571)." Analecta Cisterciensia, XXVIII (1972) 77-166.

Webgraphy. Brief biographical data, in English, History of the Order; his tomb, S. Croce in Gerusalemme, Rome, Requiem Datenbank; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 116, which also says that others indicate he was born in Champagne. His epitaph, note 2, indicates that he was from Auvergne.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph, transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli in Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1704:

D. O. M.
DONNO. HIERONYMO SOCHERIO. ARVERNIO. PARISIENSI.
THEOLOGO. PRÆSTANTISSIMO.
QVI. HENRICO. II. FRANCISCO. II. ET. CAROLO IX.
GALLORVM. REGIBVS. CAROLO. CARDINALI. LOTHARINGIO.
BONISQ. OMNIBVS. EXIMIE. CARVS. CLARÆVALL.
ABBAS. IN. TRIDENTINA. SYNOD. SENTENTIAS.
DOCTRINNÆ. PIETATIS. AC. PRVDENTIÆ. PLENISSIMAS.
DIXIT. INDE. CISTERCII. ELECTVS. ABBAS. IPSIVSQ.
ORDINIS. GENERALIS. A. PIO. V. PONT. MAX. DELATAM. ABSENTI.
CARDINALTVS. DIGNITATEM. VT. ACCIPERET. VIX. ADDVCI.
POTVIT. DEINDE. IN. VRBEM. ACCITVS. SINGVLARI. OPVM.
ATQVE. GLORIÆ. CONTEMPTV. ET. VITÆ. MODERATIONE.
OMNIBVS. ADMIRATIONI. FVIT.
VIXIT. ANN. LXIII. OBIIT. X. KAL. NOVEMBR. MDLXXI.
MONACHI. CLARÆVALLENSES. PONI. CVRARVNT.
Siste rogo, & precibus, Lector, venerare sepulchrum,
Siste, feres paruæ præmia magna moræ.
Vita prior mortem, sed mors, tibi prima secundam
Vitam, quæ nunquam est interitura, dabit.

The text of the epitaph as it appears in the photograph linked above, says that he died on X NOVEMB. MDLXXI, which is the date that Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 43, gives; the transcription in Chacón says that he died X. KAL. NOVEMBR. MDLXXI, which would have been October 22, 1571.

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(4) 3. DELLA CHIESA, Gianpaolo (1521-1575)

Birth. 1521, Tortona. Of a noble family. Relative of Pope Pius V. His first name is also listed as Gian Paolo.

Education. Studied at the University of Padua; and at the University of Pavia, where he earned a doctorates in civil and canon law.

Early life. Distinguished himself among all the lawyers of Milan. Went to Spain; defended before King Felipe II the cause of the duke of Terranova with such eloquence and knowledge that he earned the admiration of the king. Named senator of Milan and governor of Pavia; occupied this post for two years. After the death of his wife, the Milanese senate sent him to Rome to solve the controversy between that body and Cardinal Carlo Borromeo; he earned the appreciation of the pope, who named him abbot commendatario of S. Pietro di Mulegio, diocese of Vercelli. Referendary of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice. When his uncle Serafino della Chiesa, of the Canons Regular Lateranense, declined the promotion to the cardinalate offered by Pope Pius V, Gianpaolo was promoted in his stead.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 24, 1568; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Callisto, April 5, 1568. Prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, May 3, 1568 until his death. Abbot commendatario of S. Abbondio di Como, from 1568 approximately. Together with five other cardinals was appointed by the pope to hear the cause against Cardinal Innocenzo del Monte (1). Opted for the order of cardinal priests, May 10, 1570; and for the title of S. Pancrazio, May 14, 1570. Member of the Congregation for the League against the Turks and the Congregation of the Census. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII.

Death. January 11, 1575, Rome. Buried in his title, S. Pancrazio (2).

Bibliography. Beltrami, Giuseppe. Notizie su prefetti e referendari della Segnatura Apostolica desunte dai brevi di nomina. Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1972, pp. 3 and 4; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 118-119; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 1704-1705; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 43, 61 and 68; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), pp. 140 and 154.

Webgraphy. Biography by Ugo Rozzo, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 36 (1988), Treccani; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) The cardinal had been incarcerated on May 17, 1569, in Castello Sant'Angelo, Rome, accused of publicum scandalum.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph transcribed by Andrea Vittorelli in m, II col. 1705: IO. PAVLO. AB. ECCLESIA. DERTONESI. S. R. E. TIT. S. PANCRATII. PRESBYTERO. CARD. VIRO. INGENIO. MEMORIA. FACVNDIA. ET. PROBITATE. SINGVLARII. C.EXIMIO. A. PIO V. PONT. MAX. SIGNATVRÆ. IVSTITIÆ. PRÆFECTO. LVDOVICVS. VICECOMES. AFFINI. OPTIMO. ET. AMANTISSIMO. P. VIXIT. ANNOS. LIV. OBIIT. IDIBVS. IANVARII. ANNO. IVBILEI. MDLXXV.

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(5) 4. CARAFA, Antonio (1538-1591)

Birth. March 25, 1538, Naples. Son of Rinaldo I Carafello Carafa Stadera, Neapolitan patrician, and Joannella (Giovanna) Carafa della Spina, of the signori of Montefalcone. Of the Montenero branch of the family. Nephew of Pope Paul IV. Brother of Cardinal Carlo Carafa (1555). Cousin of Cardinal Alfonso Carafa (1557). Other cardinals of the family were Filippo Carafa (1378); Oliviero Carafa (1467); Gianvincenzo Carafa (1527); Diomede Carafa (1555); Decio Carafa (1611); Pier Luigi Carafa, seniore (1645); Carlo Carafa della Spina (1664); Fortunato Ilario Carafa della Spina (1686); Pierluigi Carafa, iuniore (1728); Francesco Carafa della Spina (1773); Marino Carafa di Belvedere (1801); and Domenico Carafa della Spina (1844).

Education. Went to Rome after the election of his uncle the pope with the hope of acquiring an excellent ecclesiastical career. He received a solid spiritual, moral and scientific education under the impulse of the pope at the school of future Cardinal Girolamo Sirleto, O.S.A., with whom he maintained a close and lasting friendship; he also received his formation from Father Alfonso Salmeron in that same school. Besides, he studied law at the University of Padua in 1563-1564, after he had to leave Rome because of the persecution against the Carafas.

Early life. In 1555, he entered the Roman Curia because of the good offices of his cousin Alfonso. Named privy chamberlain of His Holiness and coppiere of Pope Paul IV in 1557. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, April 24, 1559. Protonotary apostolic. In 1559 had to leave Rome because of the persecution of Pope Paul IV against the Carafas. Went to Abruzzo, then to Padua, and finally to Naples. When the Carafas were rehabilitated by Pope Pius V, he returned to Rome; the new pope declared unjust and null the sentence against Antonio on May 29, 1566; and again he occupied his Vatican canonship on June 1, 1566. Member of the Commission for the Reform of the Breviary, 1566. Pope Pius V annulled the sentence of Pope Pius IV against the Carafas on September 26, 1567.

Sacred orders. Received the diaconate shortly after his nomination as canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 24, 1568 (1); received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Eusebio, title pro illa vice declared deaconry, April 5, 1568. Member of the Cardinalitial Congregation for the Conversion of the Infidels and the Missionary Problems, 1568. Member of the Commission for the Reform of the Roman Missal, 1568; and for the Correction of the Vulgate, 1569. Member of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, 1569. Prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace, January 29, 1569 until his death. Protector of the Order of the Benedictine Olivetani, April 9, 1570. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin, April 8, 1573. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata, November 8, 1577; he was absent from the Curia because of illness and Cardinal Bonelli opted for him. Cardinal protodiacono. Member of the Commission for the Revision of the Bible dei Settanta, of which he was initially the president. Opted for the order of priests and the title of S. Eusebio, December 12, 1583. Opted for the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, November 28 (2), 1584. Abbot of S. Maria di Ferrara. President of the Commission for the Revision of the Vulgate. Participated in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. Librarian of the Holy Roman Church, after the death of Cardinal Guglielmo Sirleto on October 6, 1585. Prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, from 1586 until his death. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. He wrote works on the Bible as well as in canon law.

Death. Saturday January 13, 1591, in the Theatine house of S. Silvestro al Quirinale, Rome, where he had established his residence. Buried in the church of S. Silvestro al Quirinale, Rome (3). In his testament, the Maronite College in Rome was named his heir; also, he asked to be buried without pomp and in silence.

Bibliography. Beltrami, Giuseppe. Notizie su prefetti e referendari della Segnatura Apostolica desunte dai brevi di nomina. Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1972, p. 4 and 5; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 119-122; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col.1705-1706; Del Re, Nicola. "I cardinali prefetti della sacra congregazione del concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), p. 110-111; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 43, 63, 64, 73 and 75; Papa, Giovanni. "Il Cardinale Antonio Carafa prefetto della S. Congregazione del Concilio" in La Sacra Congregazione del Concilio. Quarto centenario dalla fondazione (1564-1964). Studi e ricerche. Città del Vaticano : [s.n.], 1964, p. 309-338; Pastor, Ludwig von. The history of the popes, from the close of the Middle Ages. 40 vols. Edited by Ralph Francis Kerr. St. Louis : B. Herder Book Co., 1929, XVII, 159-160.

Webgraphy. Biography by M. Gabriella Cruciani Troncanelli, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 19 (1976), Treccani; his genealogy, A3 B3 C3 D3; his arms and portraits, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) Pastor, History of the popes, XVII, p. 159, indicates that he "had already been destined for the Roman purple by Paul IV., but under Pius IV. he not only saw all hope of his promotion vanished, but he even lost his canonry of St. Peter's. Pius V. again reverted to the intention of Paul IV., obviously with the intention of restoring the good name of the Carafa Pope and his family in the person of Antonio Carafa."
(2) Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 43, indicates that other sources, which he does not identify, say that he opted on November 14, 1584.
(3) Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1705, transcribes his brief epitaph: ANTONII. CARAFÆ, S. R. E. PRESB. CARD.

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