The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Pius V (1566-1572)
Consistory of May 17, 1570 (III)


(6) 1. MAFFEI, Marcantonio (1521-1583)

Birth. November 29, 1521 (1), Bergamo. Of a noble family. Roman patrician. Third of the eight children of Girolamo Maffei and Antonia Mattei. Brother of Cardinal Bernardino Maffei (1549). Uncle of Cardinals Orazio Maffei (1606) and Marcello Lante (1606). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Gregorio Naro (1629). His first name is also listed as Marco Antonio.

Education. Studied at the University of Ferrara, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, in September 1547)\.

Early life. Roman cleric. Consistorial lawyer, 1549. Canon of the patriarchal Lateran basilica. Vice-governor of Viterbo, 1552.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Chieti, July 14 (2), 1553; succeeded his brother Barnardino. Consecrated (no information found) . Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, ca. 1554. Governor of Viterbo, September 27, 1555 until 1557. Vicegerent of the vicariate of Rome, 1560 until January 1566. Named nuncio in Poland by Pope Pius V (3). Vicar general of Rome (?). Datary of His Holiness, 1566 (4) until 1570. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, October 1569. Resigned the government of the archdiocese, keeping its denomination, before January 14, 1568 (5). Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, July 29, 1568, at the death of his brother Achille.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 17, 1570; received the red hat and the title of S. Callisto (6), June 9, 1570. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Prefect of Apostolic Briefs in the pontificate of Pope Gregory XIII.

Death. August 22 (7), 1583, Rome. Buried in the chapel of his ancestors in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome (8).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 122-123; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1706-1707; Del Re, Niccolò. Il vicegerente del vicariato di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1976, p. 42; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 43, 61 and 311; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), pp. 111, 120, 137, 140 and 154; Storti, Nicola. La storia e il diritto della Dataria Apostolica dalle origini ai nostri giorni. Napoli : Athena Mediterranea Editrice, 1969, p. 169; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 579; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 429 and 747-748.

Link. Biography by Renato Sansa, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 67 (2007), Treccani.

(1) This is according to Del Re, Il vicegerente del vicariato di Roma, p. 42; if there are no errors in the transcription of the epitaph (note 8), he would have been born on September 29 (or 30), 1531.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 311; and Del Re, Il vicegerente del vicariato di Roma, p. 42; Katterbach, Referendarii utriusque Signaturae, p. 111, indicates he was named on July 17, 1553.
(3) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 123; and Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1707; Henry Biaudet, Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes jusqu'en 1648 (Helsinki ; Suomalainen tiedeakatemia, 1910), does not mention him at all.
(4) This is according to Del Re, Il vicegerente del vicariato di Roma, p. 42; Katterbach, Referendarii utriusque Signaturae, p. 111, indicates that he was named in July 1567.
(5) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 311, that indicates that the cardinal resigned and his successor, Giovanni Oliva, was appointed on January 14, 1568; Del Re, Il vicegerente di Roma, p. 42, says that he resigned on June 14, 1568.
(6) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 43 and 61; and his epitaph in note 4; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 123; and Ferdinando Ughelli, in his addition to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1707, say that he was assigned the title of S. Vitale but that other sources indicate that he was given the title of S. Callisto.
(7) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 43; Del Re, Il vicegerente di Roma, p. 42, indicates that he died on November 21, 1583.
(8) This is the text of his brief epitaph transcribed by Andrea Vittorelli in Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1706: MARC. ANTONIO HIERONYMI. FILIO. MAFFÆO. S. R. E. PRESBYTERO. CARD. TIT. S. CALLISTI. VIXIT. ANNOS. LI. MENSES. XI. DIES. XXII. OBIIT. XI. KALENDAS. SPTEMBRIS. MDLXXXIII.

Cool Archive

(7) 2. CERVANTES DE GAETE, Gaspar (1511-1575)

Birth. 1511, Trujillo, diocese of Plasencia, Spain. His second last name is also listed as Gaeta. Related, on his mother's side (whose last name he placed before the one of his father's, Gaete) to Miguel de Cervantes y Saavedra, the author of El Quijote, who lived with the cardinal for a while.

Education. University of Salamanca, Salamanca, 1527-1531 (bachellor's in canon law, August 11, 1531); Colegio de San Salvador, Salamanca, 1540-1542 (licentiate in canon law, nemine discrepante, June 18, 1542).

Priesthood. Ordained for the diocese of Plasencia (no further information found). Canon of the cathedral chapter of León. Inquisitor, provisor and vicar general of the archdiocese of Sevilla while keeping his canonry in León. Inquisitor in Zaragoza, 1555-1561.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Messina, November 19, 1561. Consecrated, 1561 (no further information found). Participated in the Council of Trent, January 18, 1562 until 1563; he attended all the general congregations and signed all the conciliar decrees. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Salerno, March 1, 1564. Member of the commission that studied the case of Archbishop Bartolomé Carranza de Miranda, O.P., archbishop of Toledo, 1567. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Tarragona, July 23, 1568; remained in Rome and did not arrive in his archdiocese until May 1572.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 17, 1570; received the red hat and the title of S. Vitale, June 9, 1570. Opted for the title of S. Martino al Monte, June 16, 1570. Opted for the title of S. Balbina, January 23, 1572. Did not participate in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII.

Death. October 17, 1575, Tarragona. Buried between the chapels of S. Miguel and the Once mil Vírgenes in the metropolitan cathedral of Tarragona (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 124-125; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1707-1708; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 44, 60, 67, 71, 242, 289 and ; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1500-1699). Españoles obispos en españa, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 34), p. 71; Gutiérrez, Constancio. "Cervantes de Gaete, Gaspar." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975, I, 400.

Links. His bust and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; His tomb, metropolitan cathedral of Tarragona, Spain, Requiem Datenbak; and another view of his tomb, third photo on the page, Diputació Tarragona..

(1) This is the text of his epitaph transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli, in Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1708:

MICHAELI ARCHANGELO SACRUM GASPAR CERVANTI GAETE
EX INQUISITORE ARCHIEPISCOPO MESSANENSI; ITEM SALERNITANO
ITEM TARRACONENSI; PRAESBYTERO CARDINALI SANCTISSIMO ET
VIGILANTISSIMO DE TARRACONENSIBUS OPTIME MERITO EX
TESTAMENTO; VIXIT ANNOS LXIII; PRAEFUIT ECCLESIAE ANNOS
VII OBIIT XVI CALENDAS NOVEMBRIS MCLXXV

Cool Archive

(8) 3. SANTORIO, Giulio Antonio (1532-1602)

Birth. June 6, 1532, Ercole, Caserta, archdiocese of Capua, Kingdom of Naples. Of a noble family. Son of Leonardo Santorio and Carmosina Baratucci. His last name is also listed as Santori. He was denominated Cardinal Santaseverina.

Education. Studied at the University of Naples, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Worked as a lawyer in Naples. Gave up his career to become a priest. Cleric of Capua.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1557 (no further information found). Pastor of Sant'Orso d'Ercole, Caserta; and in charge of the diocesan Inquisition in 1559. Vicar general of Caserta, 1560-1563. Vicar general of Cardinal Alfonso Carafa, archbishop of Naples, for one year, 1563-1564. Member of the Inquisition in Caserta, Naples and Rome. Accused of taking part in a conspiracy to make an attempt on the life of Pope Pius IV, he was acquitted and rehabilitated with the support of Cardinals Carlo Borromeo and Michele Ghisleri, O.P., future Pope Pius V. Named privy chamberlain and consultor of the Holy Office by Pope Pius V.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Santa Severina, March 6, 1566. Consecrated, March 12, 1566 in the Pauline Chapel, Vatican Apostolic Palace, by Cardinal Scipione Rebiba, titular patriarch of Constantinople, assisted by Annibale Caracciolo, bishop of Isola, and by Giacomo de Giacomelli, bishop emeritus of Belcastro.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 17, 1570; received the red hat and the title of S. Bartolomeo all'Isola, June 9, 1570. Did not participate in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. President of the Congregation for the Greeks, 1573. President of the Congregation for French Affairs. Abbot of the abbey of Beato Anastasio di Carbone, diocese of Anglona e Tursi. Prefect of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition; participated in the processes for heresy against Cardinal Giovanni Morone, philosophers Giordano Bruno and Tommaso Campanella, and King Henri IV of France. On November 25, 1584, consecrated the Jesuit church Gesù, Rome. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 9, 1589 to January 8, 1590. Participated in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. In 1586 he printed a handbook of rites for the use of priests that became the foundation of the Roman Ritual. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. Pope Clement VIII offered him the see of Naples or the Apostolic Penitentiary and he chose the post of grand penitentiary on February 8, 1592; replaced the new pope in that office; occupied the post until his death. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, February 20, 1595. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, August 18, 1597. President of the Congregation super negotiis Sancta Fidei et Religionis Catholicae, instituted in 1599, considered the precursor of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide. He supported the establishment of the S.C. of the Propagation of the Faith and of the Pontificio Collegio Greco in Rome. He wrote numerous liturgical, historical and canon law works, as well as as his diaries, partially published, and his autobiography that was published in 1889-1890.

Death. May 9, 1602, Rome (1). Buried in the chapel that he had founded in the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome (2).

Bibliography. "Autobiografia di mons. Giulio Antonio Santorio, cardinale di S. Severina", in: Archivio della Reale Società Romana di Storia Patria, Rome, XII-XIII (1889-90), 327-372; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 128-131; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1709-1710; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 44, 61 and 298; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 37 and 46; Jedin, Hubert. Die Autobiographie des Kardinals Giulio Antonio Santorio <+ 1602>. Mainz : Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur ; Wiesbaden : in Kommission bei Franz Steiner Verlag,1969. (Abhandlungen der geistes- und sozialwissenschaftlichen Klasse / Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur; 1969, 2). Note: Mainz: Verl.d. Akad. d. Wiss. u.d. Literatur;
Wiesbaden: Steiner in Komm. (1969). 35 S. 8 (4) [Giulio Antonio Santoro]
(Akad.d. Wiss.u.d. Lilteratur; Abhandlungen [I.] d. Geistes- u. sozialwiss. Kl. 1969,2); Ricci, Saverio. Il sommo Inquisitore : Giulio Antonio Santori tra autobiografia e storia (1532-1602). Rome : Salerno Editrice, 2002. (Piccoli saggi, 15); Zedler, Johann Heinrich, and Carl Günther Ludovici. Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste. 64 v. Graz, Adakemische Druck, 1961- . Reprint. Originially published : Halle : J. H. Zedler, 1732-50. Vols. 19-64 ed. by Carl Günther Ludovici.

Links. His episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; his tomb, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 44; his biography in German, linked above, and Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, indicate that he died on May 28, 1602; his epitaph, also linked above, says: OBIIT SEPT. IDUS IUNII, and according to this, he would have died either on the 6th or on the 7th of June because the idus of June fell on the 13th and seven days before it would have been the 6th, unless the same idus was counted, as it seems it was done, and then it would have been on the 7th.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from the photograph linked above, in Requiem Datenbank:

DEO SALVATORI
IVLIO ANT · SANCTORIO CASERTANO
S · R · E · CARD · S · SEVERINAE
NVNCVPATO EPISCOPO PRAENEST ·
SVMMO INQVISITORI
ET MAIORI POENITENTIARIO
MORVM CASTIMONIA
CHRISTIANA LIBERALITATE
DISCIPLINARVM ERVDITIONE
ET ELOQVENTIA CLARISSIMO
IVR · SEDIS APOST · PROPVGNATORI ACERRIMO
PLVRIVM RELIGIONVM
ET EXTERRARVM NATIVM PROTECTORI PERVIGILI
PARI ANIMI MAGNITVDINE
INTER PROSPERA ET ADVERSA
A PIO V · SANCTISS · PONT ·
IN SACRVM CARDINAL · COLLEG · COOPTATO
IN MAGNA EXISTIMATIONE HABITO
ET AB OMNIBVS ETIAM SVBSEQ · PONT ·
PROPTER EIVS FIDEM
RELIGIONEM ET PIETATEM

PAVLVS AEMILIVS ARCHIEP · VRBINAS
ET IVLIVS ANT · ARCHIEP · COSENTINVS
GERMANI FF · PATRVO MERITISS ·
MONVMENTVM EXCITANDVM
ET SACELLVM PERFICIVNDVM CVRARVNT
VIXIT ANNOS LXX
IN CARDINALATV VERO XXXII
OBIIT SEPT · IDVS IVNII ANNO MDCII

Cool Archive

(9) 4. CESI, seniore, Pierdonato (1521-1586)

Birth. 1522 (1), Rome. Roman patrician. Son of Venanzio Cesi, called Chiappino, and Filippa Uffreduzzo. Second cousin of Cardinals Paolo Emilio Cesi (1517) and Federico Cesi (1544). Relative of Cardinals Bartolomeo Cesi (1596) and Pierdonato Cesi, iuniore (1641).

Education. Studied at the University of Ferrara; at the University of Perugia (law); at the University of Bologna (law); also, studied law under Andrea Alciato; obtained a doctorate.

Early life. Returned to Rome after finishing his studies in Ferrara and entered the court of Cardinal Federico Cesi. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace in the pontificate of Pope Paul III. Domestic prelate of His Holiness.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected administrator of the diocese of Narni, June 25, 1546; resigned administration before July 12, 1566. Participated in the Council of Trent, 1547. Governor of Romagna, March 1, 1556; president, September 17, 1556 until 1559. Vice-legate of Bologna, April 29, 1560 until 1563. Governor of Civitavecchia, 1563. Governor of Bologna, January 22, 1564 January 5, 1565. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, March 23, 1565. Governor of Civitavecchia, 1566.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 17, 1570; received the red hat and the title of S. Barbara. Opted for the title of S. Vitale, June 16, 1570. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Legate in Bologna, July 4, 1580 until 1584. Opted for the title of S. Anastasia, May 28, 1584. Participated in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V.

Death. September 29, 1586. Buried in the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 131-133; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1710-1711; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 44, 60, 71 and 253; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 150, 151, 214, and 573-575; Zedler, Johann Heinrich, and Carl Günther Ludovici. Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste. 64 v. Graz, Adakemische Druck, 1961- . Reprint. Originially published : Halle : J. H. Zedler, 1732-50. Vols. 19-64 ed. by Carl Günther Ludovici.

Links. His Palazzo Camuccini, Cantalupo in Sabina, in Italian; his tomb in the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome; another view of his tomb; and closer view of his epitaph.

(1) This is according to Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 133, indicates that he died in 1586 at 65; his epitaph (note 3), indicates that he died at 54 in 1586; and in the photograph of his epitaph, linked above, it can be clearly seen that he lived LXIV (not LIV) years and IV (not VI) months. Accordingly, he would have been born on May 13, 1522.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph in Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1710: D. O. M. PETRO. DONATO. CÆSIO. S. R. E. CARD. A. PIO. QVINTO. PONT. MAX. AS. PRINCIPES. ET. RESPVBL. ITALIÆ. COMMOVENDAS. IN. HÆRETICOS. MISSO. DEMVM. CARDINALI. CREATO ET. AD. CONSILIVM. GRAVISSIMARVM. RERVM. PRÆCIPVE. SACRI. FOEDERIS. ADHIBITO. A. GREG. XIII. BONONIÆ. LEGATO. HARVM. ÆDIVM. AMPLIATORI. TEMPLIQ. APSIDIS. FVNDATORI. VIXIT. ANNOS. LIV. MENSES. VI. DIES. XVII. OBIIT. III. KALEND. OCTOBRIS. MDLXXXVI. FEDERICVS. CÆSIVS. HÆRES. PATRVO. POSVIT.

Cool Archive

(10) 5. GRASSI, Carlo (1520-1571)

Birth. 1519 (1), Bologna. Of a patrician and senatorial family. Bolognese patrician and Palatine count. Son of Senator and Palatine Count Giannantonio Grassi and Diana (2) Grati. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Achille Grassi (1511). His last name is also listed as De Grassis.

Education. Studied at the University of Bologna, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, in 1557.

Sacred orders. Received the subdiaconate. Canon and archpriest of the cathedral chapter of Bologna, 1550. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, 1554.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Montefiascone e Corneto, December 20, 1555. Consecrated (no information found). Abbot commendatario of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, Ravenna, 1559. Named governor of Rome by the Sacred College of Cardinals during the vacant see, August 19, 1559 until March 26, 1560. Governor of Umbria and Perugia, March 30, 1560; vice-legate, May 5, 1560 until June 1561. Vice-legate in Camerino, November 18, 1561 until 1562. Participated in the Council of Trent, November 11, 1562 until its closing in 1563; member of the commission to revise the decree of reform, October 8, 1563. Governor of Viterbo and of the patrimony of St. Peter, January 20, 1564. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, March 24, 1565. Prefect of the Annona, 1565. Governor of Rome and vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, June 8, 1569 until May 17, 1570.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 17, 1570; received the red hat and the title of S. Agnese in Agone (3), June 9, 1570. Charged with seeking the support of Venice and Spain for the establishment of the league against the Turks; and with the reform of some of the organs of the Roman Curia.

Death. March 25, 1571. Buried on the right side of the main altar of the church of SS. Trinità de' Monti, Rome (4).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 133-134; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col.1711-1712; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972 pp. 87 and 89; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 44, 59 and 249; Oldoini, Agostino. Athenaeum Romanum : in qvo summorum pontificum, ac pseudopontificum, nec non s.r.e. cardinalium et pseudocard. scripta publich exponuntur. Perusiae [i.e. Perugia] : Ex typographia Camerali, apud haeredes Sebastiani Zechini, 1676. Republished in 1969 by Gregg International Publishers Limited, 1 Westmead, Farnborough, Hants., England, p. 160-161; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp.170, 327, 359, 429 and 710-711.

(1) This is according to Del Re, Monsignor governatore di Roma, p. 87; but both Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1711; and Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 133, indicate that he died at 52 in 1571; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 44, says that he died on March 25, 1571, annum agebat ca. LII.
(2) This is according to Weber, Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809, p. 711; but Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1711, says that his mother's name was Bianca.
(3) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 44, 59. Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1712; and Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 133, say that a monument in the Apostolic Chancery indicates that he was assigned the title of S. Eufemia. Eubel, III, 63, indicates that the title of S. Eufemia was assigned to Cardinal Giovanni Aldobrandini on June 9, 1570 and that he occupied it until the following November 20, when he opted for the title of S. Simeone.
(4) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1711:

D.    O.    M.
CAROLO. DE. GRASSIS
BONONIENSI
SANCTÆ ROMANÆ ECCLESIÆ
CARDINALI
VIRO. INTEGRITATE. VITÆ
INGENII. ACVMINE
AC
RERVM. TRACTANDARVM. SOLERTIA
QVÆ
PRO. CHRISTIANA. REPVBLICA
PER. VIGINTI. ANNOS. ADMINISTRAVIT. INSIGNI
FRATRES. FRATRI. BENEMERENTI. POSVERE
VIXIT. ANNOS. LII
OBIIT. ANNO. MDLXXI
VIII. KAL. APRILIS.

Cool Archive

(11) 6. ANGENNES DE RAMBOUILLET, Charles d' (1530-1587)

Birth. October 30, 1530, Rambouillet, France. Of a noble family. Son of Jean d'Angennes, signeur of Rambouillet, governor of Dauphiné. His last name is also listed as d'Auget de Rambouillet.

Education. He had a solida dottrina, solid doctrine (1). (No further educational information found).

Early life. He spent long times in the French court and was sent to several important embassies.

Sacred orders. (No information found). Cleric of Le Mans. Counselor of the king of France.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Le Mans, July 27, 1556 (2). Consecrated (no information found). Did not take posession of the diocese until 1560. During his episcopate the city of Le Mans was attacked by the Calvinists and the cathedral of Saint-Julien vandalized. Ambassador of King Charles IX of France before Pope Pius V. Participated in the Council of Trent, November 13, 1562 until its closing. French ambassador before the Holy See from 1568.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 17 (3), 1570; received the red hat and the title of S. Simeone Profeta, June 9, 1570. Opted for the title of S. Eufemia, November 20, 1570. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Legato in Umbria from 1578. Participated in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. Governor of Corneto, 1587.

Death. March 23, 1587, Corneto (4). Buried in the church of S. Francesco, Corneto (5), of the Friars Minor Observant (Cordeliers) (6).

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 244-245; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 134-135; "Les cardinaux français." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique, VIII (1905), 165; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1712-1713; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 44, 63, 70 and 162. Testament du cardinal Charles d'Angennes, 1587. Edited by Paul Piolin. Mamers : Fleury, 1884. Extraits de la Revue historique et archéologique du Maine. 1883-1884.

Link. His monument in the church of S. Luigi de' Francesi, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 134.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 162; "Les cardinaux français", p.165, indicates that he was named on October 22, 1559; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 244, indcates that he was nominated bishop of Le Mans by King Charles IX of France at the recommendation of Queen Mother Catherine de' Medici, took possession of the diocese on October 12, 1559, and entered the diocese on October 2, 1560.
(3) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 162; "Les cardinaux français", p.165, indicates that the consistory took place on May 16, 1570.
(4) According to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 134; and Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 245, there was suspicion that he had been poisoned.
(5) This is according to all the sources consulted; "Les cardinaux français," p. 165, adds that it is also said (without mentioning by whom) that he was buried in the church of the Celestins in Le Mans.
(6) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1712: D. O. M. Insignis mitræ Carolus Dangennes, & ostro, // Cornetis extremum clausit in Vrbe diem. // Ossa sepulta tenet Francisci nobile templum, // Hic lapis exta loco nobiliore tegit. // Dulces reliquiæ, vitam docuere per omnem. // Dulce pati Christi nomine, dulce mori. CAROLVS. DANGENES. A. RAMBOVILETO. COENOMANEN. EPISC. S. R. E. CARD. INGENII. SCIENTIÆ. RELIGIONIS. OMNIVMQ. VIRTVTVM. LAVDIBVS. PRÆSTISSIMO. CHRISTOPHORVS. A. RANTIGNI. SORORIS. FILIVS. ET. CLAVDIVS. LVPIVS. CVBICVLI. PRÆFECTVS. ITALICARVM. RERVM. EX. TESTAMENTO. HÆREDES. MAGNO. CVM. SVO. TVM. CÆTERORVM. FAMILIARIVM. QVIBVS. OB. EXIMIAM. IN. EOS. PIETATEM. AMPLVS. SEXAGINTA. AVREORVM. MILLIA. LEGAVIT. MOERORE. POSVIT. OBIIT. ANNO. MDLXXXVII. VIXIT. ANNOS. LVI. MENSES. IV. DIES. XXIII. A monument (picture linked above) was erected to his memory in the church of S. Luigi de' Francesi in Rome, this is its inscription taken from the same source: CAROLO. DANGENES. A. RAMBOVILETO. S. R. E. CARD. CHRISTOPHORVS. DE RATIGNI. SORORIS. FILIVS. ET. CLAVDIVS. LVPIVS. CVBICVLI. PRÆFECTVS. ITALICARVM. RERVM. EX. TESTAMENTO. HÆREDES. IN. AVVNCVLVM. ET. PATRNVM. GRATI. VIRGINIBVS. GALLICIS. ALTERNIS. ANNIS. DEIPARÆ. VIRGINIS. DIE. NATALI. IN MATRIMONVM. COLLOCANDIS. CERTOS. ÆDI. FRVCTVS. ATTRIBVERVNT. ANN. MDLXXVII. KAL. APRILIS.

Cool Archive

(12) 7. PERETTI MONTALTO, O.F.M. Conv., Felice (1521-1590)

Birth. December 13, 1521, Grottammare, near Montalto. Of a poor family. Son of Pier Gentile or Peretto Peretti, a farm worker, and Marianna da Frontillo. He took the last name Peretti in 1551. He was known as Cardinal Montalto. Grand-uncle of Alessandro Damasceni Peretti (1585). Second cousin of Cardinal Andrea Baroni Peretti Montalto (1596). Great-grand-uncle of Cardinal Francesco Peretti Montalto (1641).

Education. Started studying under his uncle Salvatore, who was a Franciscan friar, in 1531. Entered the Order of the Friars Minor Conventual (Franciscans), Montalto, 1533; received the religious habit keeping his baptismal name, 1535; took his religious vows, 1536; started studying philosophy at the convent of Fermo; resided in the convents of Pesaro, 1538; Iesi, 1539; and Arcevia, 1540. Received the subdiaconate. Entered the conventual studio of Ferrara as student of theology, September 1, 1540; received the diaconate during that academic year. Sent to the studio of Bologna by the minister general of the order, 1543 to 1544; taught metaphysics and canon law at the studio of Rimini, 1546; and Siena, 1546-1548. Obtained a doctorate in theology in Fermo, 1548; and received the title of magister, July 22, 1548.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1547, Siena. Prefect of the Studium of Fermo, 1548. Rector of the convent of Siena, 1551. Charged by the minister general of the order with the canonical visitation of the convents of Montefeltro. Called to Rome in 1552 by Cardinal Rodolfo Pio de Carpi, protector of the Franciscans. His notoriety proceeded from his Lent sermons before several cardinals in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, in 1552. Accused before the Inquisition because of his doctrine, he was cleared after an examination by Commissary General Michele Ghislieri, future Pope Pius V. Regent of the convent of San Lorenzo, Naples, 1553-1556; of the Studio of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice, July 1556; resigned in that same month and retired to Marche. Named member of the papal commission for the reform of the Roman Curia, 1556. Apostolic inquisitor for Venice and its dominion from January 17, 1557 to 1560. Theologian consultor of the Holy Office from 1560. Theologian of the Council of Trent from 1560. Professor of the Archiginnasio of Rome. Procurator general of his order from 1561; vicar general from 1566, after the death of Minister General Antonio Savioz da Aosta; apostolic president from 1567. Accompanied Cardinal Ugo Buoncompagni, together with Stefano Bonucci, O.S.M., in the cardinal's legation a latere to Spain in 1565, to assist the cardinal in the examination of the cause of Archbishop Bartolomé Carranza de Miranda of Toledo.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of S. Agata dei Goti, retaining the post of vicar general of his order until the next general chapter, November 15, 1566. Consecrated, January 12, 1567, in the church of the Blessed Sacrament, Naples, by Antonio Lauro, bishop of Castellammare di Stabia, assisted by Giovanni Antonio Astorch, bishop of Lettere, and by Giovanni de Amatis, bishop of Minori.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 17, 1570; received the red hat and the title of S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni, June 9, 1570. Transferred to the see of Fermo, December 17, 1571; governed the diocese through vicars. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Resigned the government of the see before August 14, 1577. He spent the pontificate of Pope Gregory XIII, with whom he had clashed on the legation to Spain in 1565 (when the pope was Cardinal Ugo Buoncompagni), in retirement in his villa on the Esquiline hill, Rome; there he prepared an edition of St. Ambrose. Participated in the conclave of 1585 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope on April 24, 1585. Took the name Sixtus V. Crowned, May 1, 1585, at the steps of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Ferdinando de' Medici, deacon of S. Maria in Domnica. Created thirty three cardinals in eight consistories. Issued the constitutions Postquam, December 3, 1586, reorganizing the Sacred College of Cardinals; Religiosa on the suburbicarian sees and the cardinalitial titles and deaconries; and Immensa, establishing the dicasteries of the Roman Curia.

Death. August 27, 1590, Rome. Buried in the chapel of Presepe, which he had founded (1), in the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 136-139; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1713-1714; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 44, 63, 97 and 196-197; Giordano, Silvano. "Sisto V." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Rome : Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, 2000, III, 202-222; Hübner, Alexander, Graf von. The life and times of Sixtus the Fifth : from unpublished diplomatic correspondence in the State archives of the of the Vatican, Simancas, Venice, Paris, Vienna, and Florence. In two volumes. Uniform title: Sixte-Quint. London : Longmans, 1872. Note: Spine title: Memoir of Pope Sixtus the Fifth./ Translation of: Sixte-Quint : d'après des correspondances diplomatiques inédites. Responsibility: by Baron Hübner ; translated from the original French by Hubert E.H. Jerningham; Kelly, John Norman Davidson, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, pp. 271-273; Mandel, Corinne. Sixtus V and the Lateran Palace. Roma : Istituto poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato, Libreria dello Stato, 1994. Note: Abstract of thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Toronto, 1991; Selley, W. T. Sixtus V : the hermit of Villa Montalto. Leominster, Herefordshire : Gracewing, 2011.

Links. Biography by Michael Ott, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in Italian, Enciclopedia, Treccani; biography by Helmut Feld, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon; Sulle tracce di Sisto V, in Italian, Grottammare.org; his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; his statue in Grottammare, Grottammare.org; portrait and biographical data, in Italian, Benvenuti a Grottammare (AP); his portrait by Alessandro Varotari, called Padovanino, Galleria dell'Accademia di San Luca, Rome, iccd immagini, Fototeca Nazionale, Italy; his engraving by Francesco Clerici, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his statue by Tiburzio Vercelli and A. Calcagnini, in Loreto; his bust by Torrigiani, Victoria and Albert Museum, London, England; his statue by Accursio Baldi, called il Sansovino, in the façade of Palazzo dei Priori, Fermo; his monument in the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome; and his funeral monument designed by Domenico Fontana and sculpted by Giovanni Antonio Paracca, called Il Vasoldo, in the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, Wikimedia.

(1) In 1574, he had the tomb of Pope Nicholas IV transferred to that chapel, providing it with a splendid mausoleum.

Cool Archive

(13) 8. ALDOBRANDINI, Giovanni (1525-1573)

Birth. 1525, Fano. Of a Florentine family. Son of Salvestro Aldobrandini and Lisa Donati. Brother of Pope Clement VIII. Uncle of Cardinals Pietro Aldobrandini (1593) and Cinzio Passeri Aldobrandini (1593). Grand-uncle of Cardinals Silvestro Aldobrandini, O.S.Io.Hier. (1603) and Ippolito Aldobrandini, iuniore (1621). Other cardinals of the family were Baccio Aldobrandini (1652); and Alessandro Aldobrandini (1730).

Education. Studied at the University of Ferrara, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on February 9, 1545.

Early life. Governor of Rimini, September 1551 until August 1552. Consistorial lawyer, 1554 until 1556 when he resigned in favor of his brother Pietro. Governor of Imola, 1554 (1). Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, 1556.

Sacred orders. (No information found). Cleric of Florence. Chaplain of His Holiness.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Imola, August 26, 1569. Consecrated, Thursday, December 8, 1569, in capella domus suæ solitæ habitationis, by Cardinal Scipione Rebiba, assisted by Giulio Antonio Santorio, archbishop of Santa Severina, and by Felice Peretti Montalto, bishop of Sant'Agata dei Goti. Resigned the government of the see before February 9, 1573.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 17, 1570; received the red hat and the title of S. Eufemia, June 9, 1570. Opted for the title of S. Simeone Profeta, November 20, 1570. Charged by the pope with the establishment of a league against the Turks with the help from Spain and the Venetian senate and to enlist the banditi who wanted to take the arms against the Ottomans or contribute with money for that cause. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Grand penitentiary, December 14, 1572 until his death. Prefect of the Signature of Briefs, 1573.

Death. September 7 (2), 1573, Rome. Buried in the Aldobrandini Chapel in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome (3).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 144-146; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1715-1716; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 135; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 44, 63, 70 and 213; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 348 and 449.

Links. Brief biographical data, in Italian; His tomb in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome; closer view of his bust by Ippolito Buzio, in his tomb; his genealogy, A1 B4 C1 D7 E1 F4 G2 H4 I1 J6; his portrait by Scipione Gaetano Pulzone; and larger image of the same portrait.

(1) This is according to his genealogy linked above; and his biographical data, in Italian, also linked above; Weber, Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809, does not list him among the governors of Imola.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 44; the same source, on the same page, note 6, says that he died on September 17, 1573; his genealogy, linked above, indicates that he died on September 2, 1573; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1716, says that he died ann. 1573. 7. nonas Septemb., which means that he died on August 30, 1573 (" 7 nonas", pues las "nonas Septemb" is the 5th day of that month, and "7 nonas" would be the 30th day of August).
(3) Ferdinando Ughelli, in his addition in Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col, 1710, indicates that under his bust, situated on the left side of the altar, on black marble, there is the following inscription: IOANNES. ALDOBRANDINVS. S. R. E. PRESBYTER. CARDINALIS. TIT. S. SIMEONIS. MAIOR. PENITENTIARIVS.

Cool Archive

(14) 9. RUSTICUCCI, Girolamo (1537-1603)

Birth. January 1537, Cartoceto, small municipality near Fano. Son of the famous juris consult Ludovico Rusticucci, and Diamante Leonardi. Lost his parents when he was a young child.

Education. Studied literatures and oratory (no further educational information found).

Early life. Went to Rome in 1557, entered the court of Cardinal Michele Ghislieri, O.P., future Pope Pius V, and became his personal secretary (1). Protonotary apostolic. Secretary of State, 1566. In the absence of Cardinal nipote Michele Bonelli, O.P., the pope entrusted him with the responsibility of conducting the majority of the church's affairs.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Sinigaglia (2), June 16, 1570. Consecrated, Sunday, November 26, 1570, Sistine Chapel, Vatican, by Cardinal Marco Antonio Maffei, assisted by Francesco Rusticucci, bishop of Fano, and by Giuseppe Pamphilj, bishop of Segni.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 17, 1570; received the red hat and the title of S. Susanna (3), June 9, 1570. Legate to France and Spain to promote the league against the Turks. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Promoted the instruction and education of the clergy according to the decrees of the Council of Trent. Resigned the government of the diocese before November 29, 1577 (4). Participated in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. Vicar general of Rome, 1588-1603 (5). Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 8, 1590; confirmed in the post on February 14, 1592. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, February 14, 1592 to 1593. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, August 18, 1597. Cardinal protoprete. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, March 30, 1598. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Sabina, February 21, 1600. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, February 19, 1603. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Death. June 14, 1603, Rome. Buried in front of the main altar of the church of S. Susanna, Rome, which he had restored (6).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 148-150; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1717-1720; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 137; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 44, 71and 298; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 36, 37, 38, 46 and 58; Siena, Lodovico. Storia della Città di Sinigaglia. Bologna : Arnaldo Forni, 1977, 1746. (Historiae urbium et regionum Italiae rariores ; 127 : Nuova serie ; 43). Reprint of the 1746 ed. published by Stefano Calvani, Sinigaglia, p. 242-243.

Links. Biographical data, in Italian; painting, of Madonna del Rosario, gift of Cardinal Rusticucci to Cartoceto; in it, Pope Pius V thanks the Blessed Virgin for the victory of Lepanto, and includes Saint Dominic, the cardinal and his family; his tomb in the church of S. Susanna, Rome; famous personalities of Fano; and Collegiata di S. Maria della Misericordia, Cartoceto.

(1) His sister Diamante was married to Girolamo Bonelli, brother of Cardinal Michele Bonelli, O.P., grand nephew of Pope Pius V.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 298; Siena, Storia della Città di Sinigaglia., p. 242, adds that he was elected bishop of Sinigaglia with the title of administratore perpetuo. The see is listed now as Senigallia.
(3) This is according to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1718; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 44 and 71; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 149; and Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, p. 228, indicate that he was assigned the deaconry of S. Teodoro when he was promoted to the cardinalate, and Cristofori adds, that on November 20 (?), 1570, he opted for the title of S. Susanna. Moreover, Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1718; and Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, p. 57, indicate that he retained the title of S. Susanna until he opted for the suburbicarian see of Albano; but Cristofori, p. 137, also indicates that he retained the title of S. Susanna in commendam until his death.
(4) According to Siena, Storia della Città di Sinigaglia., p. 243, Francesco Maria Enrici da Barchi was named titular bishop of Nazianzeno and suffragan of Sinigaglia in 1574 to assist the cardinal in the government of the diocese. The source also indicates that the cardinal resigned the government of the diocese in 1577 when he was named vicar of Rome by Pope Gregory XIII.
(5) According to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 149, he was named shortly after the death of Cardinal Giacomo Salviati in 1587; the same source, V, 112, says that Cardinal Michele Bonelli, O.P., was named vicar general by Pope Sixtus V.
(6) This is the text of his epitaph transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli in his addition to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1719:

D. O. M. HIERONYMVS. RVSTICVCCIVS. S. R. E. PRESB. CARDINALIS. TITVLI. HVIVS. ECCLESIÆ. VICRIVS. PAPÆ. MONUVMENTVM. AD. SANCTOS. MARTYRES. DEVOTIONIS. CAVSA. VIVENS. SIBI. POSVIT. ANNO. ÆTAT. SVÆ. LIX. SALVTIS. HVMANÆ. MDXCV. OBIIT. XIV. IVNII. MDCIII. Post. Aloysium Cardinalem Estensem, Ordinis Cisterc. Protector extitit Rusticucius.

Cool Archive

(15) 10. ACQUAVIVA D'ARAGONA, Giulio (1546-1574)

Birth. 1546, Naples. Neapolitan patrician. Son of Giangirolamo Acquaviva d'Aragona, 8th duke of Altri, and Margherita Pio di Carpi. His last name is also listed as Aquaviva and d'Aragonia. Nephew of Cardinal Giovanni Vincenzo Acquavivad'Aragona (1542) and of Fr. Claudio Acquaviva, S.J., superior general of the Society of Jesus. Brother of Cardinal Ottavio Acquaviva d'Aragona, seniore (1591) and of Bl. Ridolfo Acquaviva, S.J., martyred in the East Indies in 1583. Grand-uncle of Cardinal Ottavio Acquaviva d'Aragona, iuniore (1654). Other cardinals of the family are Francesco Acquaviva d'Aragona (1706); Troiano Acquaviva d'Aragona (1732); and Pasquale Acquaviva d'Aragona (1770).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Went to Rome in 1566. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Sent to Spain by Pope Pius V to induce King Felipe II to preserve the ecclesiastical immunity and jurisdiction attacked by the ministers of the city of Milan who were causing grave disturbance for Cardinal Carlo Borromeo, archbishop of the city; accomplished his mission very successfully, earning the satisfaction and gratitude of the pope.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 17, 1570; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Teodoro, June 9, 1570. He assisted Pope Pius V on his deathbed. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII.

Death. July 21, 1574, Rome. Buried in the patriarchal Lateran basilica. His monument was erected between the last two chapels on the left side of the basilica, by his uncle Matteo Acquaviva, archbishop of Cosenza (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 150-151; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col.1719; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 44 and 76; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), pp. 141 and 154.

Links. His tomb in the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome; and the Aquaviva cardinals.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1719: D. O. M. IVLIO. AQVAVIVIVÆ. SANCTI. THEODORI. DIAC. CARD. IOAN. HIERONYMI. DVCIS. ATRIÆ. CLARISS. VIRI. FILIO. OB. EGREGIAS. ANIMI. DOTES. ADOLESCENTI. A. PIO. V. IN. CARD. COLLEGIVM. COOPTATO. EIVSQ. DIGNITTATIS. MVNERIBVS. CLARE. FVNCTO. ANDREAS. MATTHÆVS. PATRVVS. ARCHIEP. CONSENTINVS. POSVIT. VIXIT. ANNOS. XXVIII. OBIIT. XII. KALEND. AVGVSTI. MDLXXIV.

Cool Archive

(16) 11. ZÚÑIGA Y AVELLANEDA, Gaspar de (1507-1571)

Birth. 1507, Castle of Cáceres, diocese of Palencia, Spain. Third child of Francisco de Zúñiga, 3rd count of Miranda del Castañar, and María de Cárdenas y Henríquez. Nephew of Cardinal Íñigo López de Mendoza (1530), who, in spite of the disparity of the last names, was a brother of his father.

Education. Studied theology under the direction of Francisco de Vitoria at the University of Salamanca.

Sacred orders. Ordained (no information found). Cleric of Osma. Professor of theology at the University of Salamanca, 1547-1550. Abbot of Castro, diocese of Burgos, and of San Isidoro, diocese of León.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Segovia, June 27, 1550. Consecrated, 1550 (no further information found). Participated in the the last two sessions of the last period of the Council of Trent; he had two interventions, January 25, 1551 and April 28, 1552; named member of the commission to redact the decrees on the Mass and the sacrament of Holy Orders, July 18, 1558; did not participate in the final phase of the council for having to reside in the Spanish court to be a judge in the cause of Bartolomé Carranza de Miranda, O.P., archbishop of Toledo. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Santiago de Compostela, October 21, 1558. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Seville, June 22, 1569; never entered his see. Accompanied Francisco Zúñiga, duke of Béjar, in his trip to Germany to escort Princess Anna, daughter of Emperor Maximilian, to Spain for her wedding to King Felipe II.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 17, 1570; received the red hat and the title of S. Barbara, June 16, 1570.

Death. January 2, 1571, Jaén (1). Transferred to Sevilla and buried in the chapel of Nuestra Señora, near the main altar of the metropolitan cathedral. News of his death reached Rome on January 30, 1571.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 123-124; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1707; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 44, 60, 173, 211 and 296; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1500-1699). Españoles obispos en españa, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 34), p. 63; Sáez, A. "Zúñiga y Avellaneda, Gaspar." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975, IV, 2817.

Links. Biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia;

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentoris Aevi, III, 211. Sáez, "Zúñiga y Avellaneda, Gaspar.", IV, 2817, indicates that he died on January 3, 1571. Chacón, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium, II, col. 1707, confusing him with Cardinal Cervantes de Gaete (no. 2, above), says "obiit octuagenarius Tarracone, die 16. Kalen. Septembris, anno Christi 1575, and in col. 1708, transcribes from his epitaph the date of his death as "XVI. KAL. NOVEMBRIS. MDLXXV". Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 124, follows Chacón and makes the same mistake.

Cool Archive

(17) 12. PELLEVÉ, Nicolas de (1515-1594)

Birth. October 18, 1515, castle of Jouy, diocese of Paris, France (1). Of a noble family. Son of Charles Malherbe (2), signeur of Jouy and Ribets, and Hélène du Fay.

Education. Studied at the University of Bourges (law and Sacred Scriptures).

Early life. Public professor of law at the University of Bourges. Advisor of investigations, and then maître requêtes at the French court. Counselor of the parliament of Paris. Member of the privy council of King Henri II. Counselor of the ecclesiastical department. Prior of Cornets, diocese of Avranches. Abbot commendatario of Saint-Remi, Reims; and of Saint-Paul de Verdun.

Sacred orders. Received the clerical tonsure. Abbot commendatario perpetuo of the Benedictine abbey of Sts-Cornelius-et-Cyprien de Corbeya, diocese of Soissons. Attached himself to the court of Cardinal Charles de Lorraine-Guise, who contributed to his elevation and obtained for him from King Henri II the episcopal nomination. He exchanged the abbey of Saint-Corneille de Compiègne for the diocese of Amiens in 1552.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Amiens, August 24, 1552. Consecrated (no information found). Sent to Scotland with several doctors from La Sorbonne by King Henri II in 1559 to try to convert the Presbyterians by conviction or by force; Queen Elizabeth I of England sent her assistance to the Scots. He returned to France and because of his efforts, the peace was achieved in the reign of King François II. In 1562, he exchanged the diocese of Amiens with Antoine de Créqui Canaples for the abbey of Saint-Julien des Echelles, Tours; he kept the title of bishop of Amiens until May 18, 1564. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Sens, December 16, 1562. Participated in the Council of Trent from February 15, 1563 until its closing; he opposed the Gallican tendencies of the church in France. Participated, together with Cardinal de Guise, in the Assembly of the Clergy celebrated in Orléans to examine the decrees of the Council of Trent.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 17, 1570. Did not participate in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Received the red hat and the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, July 4, 1572. Prefect of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, November 14, 1584. Participated in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. He became one of the most influential members of the Ligue; in 1585 he was one of the 25 cardinals who subscribed the bull of Pope Sixtus V declaring King Henri III, king of Navarre, excommunicated and incapable of acceeding to the French crown; the king strongly protested questioning the legitimacy of the pope and threatening him with the convocation of a "free" council in which proof of the pope's "heresy" would be presented; King Henri III confiscated the rents of all the benefices of the cardinal and he had to depend on the support of the League and the pope; towards the end of 1587, the king decided to rescind the embargo of the rents. Named metropolitan archbishop of Reims, keeping the see of Sens, May 10, 1591; took possession on October 4, 1592. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. Abbot commendatario of Nôtre Dame du Toronet, Fréjus, 1593. Chief of the council of the League and president of the clergy in the États that the League celebrated in Paris. The cardinal stayed in Paris and was ill when on March 22, 1594 King Henri IV, whom he had so strongly opposed, entered that city. The king assured the cardinal that he would not be disturbed and placed archers of his own guard to protect the cardinal. The sadness of seeing Paris open its door to Henri aggravated the state of the cardinal and he died six days later, on March 28, at 79 years of age (3).

Death. Monday, March 28 (4), 1594, at 7 a.m., Paris. Buried in the church of the Celestines in Paris until October 1598, when his remains were translated to the metropolitan cathedral of Reims and buried next to the altar of Sainte-Marie-Madeleien, at the feet of the tomb of Cardinal Charles de Lorraine-Guise.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1358-1359; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 125-128; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1708-1709; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 44, 63, 69, 106, 285 and 298; Fisquet, Honoré-Jean-Pierre. La France pontificale (Gallia Christiane); histoire chronologique et biographique des archevêques et évêques de tous les diocèses de France depuis l'établissement du Christianisme jusqu'à nos jours, divisée en 18 provinces ecclésiastiques. 2nd ed. 21 vols. Paris : E. Repos, 1864-1873, vol. 19. "Sens et Auxerre", 125-128.

Links. Fisquet, Honoré-Jean-Pierre, "Nicolas Cardinal de Pellevé (1562-1592)", La France pontificale (Gallia Christiane), pp. 125-128; and biographical data, in English.

(1) This is according to Fisquet, La France pontificale (Gallia Christiane), 19, 125; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1358; and his biographical data in English, linked above, say that he was born on October 18, 1518.
(2) This is according to Fisquet, La France pontificale (Gallia Christiane), 19, 125; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1358, says that his father's last name was Pellevé.
(3) This is according to Fisquet, La France pontificale (Gallia Christiane), 19, 127.
(4) This is according to Fisquet, La France pontificale (Gallia Christiane), 19, 128. Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 44, says that he died on March 24, 1594; the same source on III, 285, indicates that he died on March 26. Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 359, indicates that he died on March 28, 1594 at the age of 80 and this same source, col. 1357, says that he was born on October 18, 1518, therefore, he would have been 75 at the time of his death. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 128, says that he died in 1594 at 76 (77. anni non compiti).

Cool Archive

(18) 13. BIANCHI, O.P., Archangelo de' (1516-1580)

Birth. October 4, 1516, Gambolo, diocese of Vigevano (1). Of a well-to-do family. Son of Luigi Bianchi and Santina Panizzari. His last name is also listed as De Blanchis.

Education. Entered the Order of Preachers (Dominicans) at the convent of San Pietro Martire, Vigevano, at a young age. Studied at the Monastery of S. Domenico, Bologna (doctorate in theology, 1537).

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Assigned by his superiors to accompany Cardinal Michele Ghislieri, future Pope Pius V, in many of his missions. Prior of S. Maria della Grazie, 1559. Commissary of the Holy Inquisition in Rome, 1564.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Teano, September 16, 1566. Consecrated, September 21, 1566, at the Sistine Chapel, Rome, by Cardinal Scipione Rebiba, assisted by Giulio Antonio Santoro, archbishop of Santa Severina, and by Carlo Grassi, bishop of Montefiascone.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 17, 1570; received the red hat and the title of S. Cesareo in Palatio, July 3, 1570. Confessor of Pope Pius V. Provost of S. Abundio, Cremona. Assisted Pope Pius V at his death, hearing his last confession. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Prefect of the S. C. of the Index. Resigned the government of the diocese before September 18, 1575.

Death. January 18, 1580, of a violenta febbre, in Rome. Buried in the Dominican church of S. Sabina, Rome (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 135-136; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1713; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 44, 61 and 311.

Links. Biography by Lorenzo Cardella, in Italian, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, Google Books; his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his portrait, 19th century (1800-1899), diocese of Vigevano, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

(1) This is according to his epitaph (note 2), which indicates that he died in 1580 at 63 years, 3 months and 15 days of age and, therefore, should have been born in 1516; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 136, says that he died at 63 in 1580; his biography, linked above, says that he was born in 1511.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1713: D. O. M. ER. ARCHANGELVS. DE. BLANCHIS. S. R. E. CARD. PIETATE. VITÆ. INNOCENTIA. ET. DOCTRINA. ORNAMENTISSIMVS. QVI. IN. DISCIPLINA. DOMINICANA. ET. IN. OBEVNDO. MVNERE. INQVIRENDI. IN. HÆRETICOS. PII. V. PONT. MAX. COLLEGA. AB. EODEM. PRIMVM. EPISC. THEANI. CREATVS. MX. IN. SACRVM. COLLE. IVM. PATRVM. CARD. COOPTATVS. VIRTVTIS. SPECIMEN. PRÆBVIT. AB. SVMMA. SPE. RERVM. MAXIMARVM. E. MEDIO. CVRSV. REVOCATVS. HIC. SITVS. EST. VIXIT. ANN. LXIII. MENS. III. D. XV. OBIIT. MDLXXX. COHÆREDES. D. FRANC. BLANCHIVS. ET. DEFENDES. FRATR. PP.

Cool Archive

(19) 14. BURALI D'AREZZO, Theat., Paolo (1511-1578)

Birth. 1511, Itri, diocese of Gaeta. Second child of Paolo Burali, of a noble family originally from Buro, France that migrated to Arezzo; and Vittoria Olivares, of a noble family originally from Barcelona, Spain; they owned a house in Arezzo and the name of the city was incorporated to the last name of the family. His baptismal name was Scipione. He is also listed as Pauli de Aretio and Paulus Aretius.

Education. Entered the University of Salerno on November 7, 1527; then attended the University of Bologna, where Ugo Boncompagni, future Pope Gregory XIII, was his professor; he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on August 19, 1536.

Early life. After finishing his studies, went to Naples; there he was a lawyer and judge in Naples for twelve years; because of his rectitude and integrity, he was called amico della verità e padre dei poveri, friend of the truth and father of the poor. In 1549, when he had planned to retire to his native city to pursue a quieter and more spiritual life, he was appointed royal counselor and criminal judge by Emperor Charles V and later, Ferdinand of Toledo named him auditor general of the army. In 1555, the king of Naples sent him before Pope Paul IV and then to the Spanish court to solve the questions and controversies of civil and ecclesiastical character; the pope expressed his desire to name him auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota but he declined. During all this time he had Venetian Theatine Giovanni Marinoni, from the convent of S. Paolo Maggiore in Naples, as his spiritual counselor. Entered the Congregation of the Clerics Regular Theatines, January 25, 1557; changed his name to Paolo; professed, February 2, 1558; received the diaconate, March 5, 1558; Andrea Avellino, future saint, studied with him during the novitiate and priestly studies.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 26, 1558. In 1564, Pope Pio IV asked the Neapolitan authorities to send him as ambassador to the Spanish court to try to moderate the activity of the Tribunal of the Inquisition in Naples. Declined the episcopal appointment to the sees of Castellammare, Crotone, and Brindisi. Superior at the Theatine houses of S. Paolo Maggiore, Naples (twice); and S. Silvestro in Monte-Cavallo, Rome.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Piacenza, July 23, 1568. Consecrated, Sunday, August 1, 1568, church of S. Silvestro in Monte-Cavallo, Rome, by Cardinal Scipione Rebiba, assisted by Giulio Antonio Santorio, archbishop of Santa Severina, and by Thomas Goldwell, bishop of Saint Asaph. Applied in the diocese and the seminary the decrees of the Council of Trent; asked Andrea Avellino, Theat., future saint, to guide the seminary. Celebrated diocesan synods in 1570 and 1574.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 17, 1570; received the red hat and the title of S. Pudenziana, November 20, 1570. Called Cardinal d'Arezzo. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Naples, September 19, 1576. Began the application of the decrees of the Council of Trent in that archdiocese and in 1577 published a catechism for the priests. He went to Torre del Greco, on the side of the Vesuvius, for a few days to try to recover his health; while there, he had a fall and fractured his femur; because of this, he had to return to Naples.

Death. June 17, 1578, archiepiscopal place of Naples. Buried, according to his will, in the crypt of the basilica of S. Paolo Maggiore, Naples, next to the bodies and relics of St. Gaetano Thiene, co-founder of the Theatines, and Blessed Giovanni Marinoni, his spiritual director. In 1624, when the beatification process started, Cardinal Decio Carafa, archbishop of Naples, moved the remains to a more convenient place in the same church; in 1644, the body was transferred to the chapel of Purità, also in the church of S. Paolo Maggiore (1).

Beatification. Beatified on June 8, 1772 by Pope Clement XIV. His feast is celebrated June 17.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 139-144; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1714-1715; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 132; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 44, 69, 255 and 275; Oldoini, Agostino. Athenaeum Romanum : in qvo summorum pontificum, ac pseudopontificum, nec non s.r.e. cardinalium et pseudocard. scripta publich exponuntur. Perusiae [i.e. Perugia] : Ex typographia Camerali, apud haeredes Sebastiani Zechini, 1676. Republished in 1969 by Gregg International Publishers Limited, 1 Westmead, Farnborough, Hants., England, p. 521-523; Zigarelli, Daniello Maria. Biografie dei vescovi e arcivescovi della chiesa di Napoli con una descrizione del clero, della cattedrale, della basilica di s. Restituta e della cappella del tesoro di s. Gennaro. Napoli: Tipografico di G. Gioja, 1861, pp. 134-145.

Links. Biography by Gaspare De Caro, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 15 (1972), Treccani; portrait and biography, in English, Wikipedia; portrait and biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; his portrait, 17th-18th century (1690-1710), archdiocese of Naples, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his portrait, 18th century (1700-1799), diocese of Verona, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his bust, 17th century (1600-1699), archdiocese of Naples, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

(1) This is the text of the inscription placed on his tomb, taken from Zigarelli, Biografie dei vescovi e arcivescovi della chiesa di Napoli, p. 143:

VENERABILI . MEMORIAE
PAVLI . DE . ARETIO
ITRIENSIS
CLERICORVM . REGULARIVM . LVMINIS
AC . COLUMINI
QVEM . VIRVM . OB . EXIMIAM . MORVM
SANCTITATEM
OMNIGENAM . VIRTVTEM . SPECTATAMQVE . DOCTRINAM
CAROLVS . V
IMPERATOR . CONSILIARIVM
VRBS . NAEPOLIS
AD. PHILIPPVM . REGEM . LEGATVM
SVMMI . VERO . PONTIFCES
PLACENTIAE . EPISCOPVM
NAEPOLIS . ARCHIEPISCOPVM
ET
SANCTÆ ROMANÆ ECCLESIÆ
CARDINALEM . INVITVM . LICET
AC. MODIS . OMNIBVS . RELVCTANTEM
CREAVERVNT
EIVS . QVOD . MORTALE . FVIT . LAPIS . REGIT
SPIRITV . CAELO . RECEPTO
XV . KAL . IVNII . ANNO . REDEMPTI . ORBIS
MDLXXVIII . SVAE . ÆTATIS . LXVII.

Cool Archive

(20) 15. GIUSTINIANI, O.P., Vincenzo (1519-1582)

Birth. August 1519, Island of Chios, in the Aegean Sea. Of a family originally from Genoa. Uncle of Cardinal Benedetto Giustiniani (1586).

Education. Entered the Order of Preachers (Dominicans). Studied philosophy and theology at Dominican convents.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Superior general of his order, May 29, 1558. Participated in the Council of Trent. The Senate of Milan sent him as ambassador before King Felipe II of Spain to treat segrete e rilevanti matters; and Pope Pius V charged him, as part of the same embassy, with most important matters, among them that of restoring to Cardinal Carlo Borromeo, archbishop of that city, the jurisdiction over his archdiocese that had been usurped by the civil tribunal during the absence of former bishops; the missions were accomplished with great success.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 17, 1570; received the red hat and the title of S Nicolò fra le Immagini, January 26, 1571. Confirmed in the post of superior general (1) until the celebration of a chapter to elect his successor. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Abbot of S. Siro, Genoa. Opted for the title of S. Sabina, August 3, 1579. He supported, visited and consoled Archbishop Bartolomé Carranza de Miranda, O.P., of Toledo, during his imprisonment in Castello Sant'Angelo, Rome, accused of heresy by the Spanish Inquisition.

Death. October 28, 1582. Buried in the Dominican church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome (2). His monument was erected on the left side of the chapel of St. Vincente Ferrer in that church.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 146-148; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1716-1717; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 44, 68 and 70; Oldoini, Agostino. Athenaeum Romanum : in qvo summorum pontificum, ac pseudopontificum, nec non s.r.e. cardinalium et pseudocard. scripta publich exponuntur. Perusiae [i.e. Perugia] : Ex typographia Camerali, apud haeredes Sebastiani Zechini, 1676. Republished in 1969 by Gregg International Publishers Limited, 1 Westmead, Farnborough, Hants., England, p. 637-638.

Links. His tomb, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) As superior general, he fought heresy throughout Europe; sent many members of the order to the East and West Indies, Japan and China; and, under his care and diligence, the complete works of St. Thomas Aquinas were published in Rome, including the sermons that had remained unpublished until then.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, 1716:

D.    O.    M.
FR. VINCENTIO. IVSTINIANO.
GENVENSI.
SVÆ. ÆTATIS : ANNO. XXXVIII. ELECTO. GENERALI.
ORD. PRÆDIC.
INDE. ANNORVM. LI. IN. NVM.
SANCTÆ. ROM. ECCL.
CARD. ASSVMPTO.
OBIIT. XXVIII. OCTOBR. AN. MDLXXXII.
VIXIT. AN. LXIII. M. II.
PETRVS. IOSEPH. ET. GREGORIVS. PRATRES.
PP.

Cool Archive

(21) 16. ALBANI, Gian Girolamo (1504-1591)

Birth. January 3, 1504, Bergamo. Of a patrician family. Of a distinguished Italian family that had two branches, Bergamo and Urbino. Son of Count Francesco Albani. Other cardinals of the family include Annibale Albani (1711); Alessandro Albani, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1721); Gian Francesco Albani (1747), and Giuseppe Albani (1801).

Education. Studied grammar and rhetoric under Giovita Rapicio da Chiari; University of Padua, Padua (doctorate in civil law, 1529).

Early life. Returned to Bergamo and received from Doge Andrea Gritti of Venice the dignity of cavaliere aurato. Collaterale generale of the Venetian army. Podestà of Bergamo. In 1550, he was named magistrate in Bergamo, where he made the acquaintance of Inquisitor Michele Ghislieri, future cardinal and Pope Pius V. In 1563, the enmity between the powerful families Albani and Brembati developed into the killing, S. Maria Maggiore, of Count Achille Brembati perpetrated by the sons of Albani; they were sentenced by the Consiglio dei Dieci to five years of exile on the island of Lesina in Dalmatia. After serving the sentence, and the death of his wife (1), he was invited by the pope to go to Rome. Protonotary apostolic participantium. Governor of Marche, February 3, 1569 until May 1570.

Sacred orders. Received the minor orders (no further information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 17, 1570; received the red hat and the title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, November 20, 1570. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Sent on several diplomatic missions, among them being the formation of an alliance of Christian princes against the Turks. Participated in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. Governor of Bagnoreggio, 1585 until his death. His son, Giovanni Battista Albani, became titular patriarch of Alessandria in 1586. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. A recognized canonist, among his works are De donatione Constantini (Cologne, 1535); De cardinalatu (Rome, 1541); De potestate papæ et concilii (Lyon, 1558; and Venice, 1561); De immunitate ecclesiarum, dedicated to Pope Julius III (Rome, 1553). He was a friend of poet Torquato Tasso.

Death. April 15, 1591, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Maria del Popolo, Rome (2).

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre .... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 70-71; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 151-153; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1720; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 44 and 64; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, I, 179-180; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 285 and 444.

Links. His portrait, photographs and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his bust in his tomb in the church of S. Maria del Popolo, Rome, The Australian National University; his portrait, School of Gian Paolo Cavagna, 1600, Accademia Carrara, Museo, Bergamo, Regione Lombardia - Università degli Studi di Pavia, Italy; and the Albani cardinals.

(1) He married Laura Longhi, daughter of the secretary and heir of condottiero Colleoni. One of his sons, Giovanni Battista, was titular patriarch of Alessandria (1586-1588); and a daughter, Giulia, married Enea Tasso, cousin of Torquato.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1720:

IO. HIERONYMO ALBANO Bergomensi Card. I. C. genevis nobilitate, morum elegantia, vitæ splendore, monimentis ingenii, doctrinaq; clariss. Reipubl. Venetæ Collaterali generali, matrimonio, ac coelibatu, asperis, secundis rebus acquæ probato, Catholicè religionis egregièdictis, ac factis assertori, ac vindici, ac ob eas res a Pio V. Summo Pont. difficillimis populi Christ. temporibus in Collegium Card. adscito, in sententiis dicendis, facundia, gravitate, sapientia singulari, extrema iam ætate, pios inter amplexus carorum, oscula sensim extinto. Ioann. Dominicus Cæ; Comes parenti optime merito P. C. Vixit annos LXXXVII. Obiit VII Kalen. Maias anno salutis MDXCI.

Top Consistories Catalogs Home

©1998-2014 Salvador Miranda.