(3) 1. AUSTRIA, Andreas von (1558-1600)
Birth. June 15, 1558 (1), Breznice Castle, Bohemia. Son of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, regent in Tyrol, and his morganatic and secret wife Philippine Welser. Nephew of Emperors Charles V and Ferdinand I. Markgraf of Burgau. He had two illegitimate children, Hans Georg Degli Albizzi and Susanna Degli Albizzi, born in 1583 and 1584 respectively. Cousin of Cardinal Albrecht von Austria (1577).
Education. Studied letters and Latin, Italian, Spanish and French.
Sacred orders. (No information found).
Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 19, 1576, with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria Nuova, December 11, 1577. Spent two years in Rome and then was named protector of the Empire and governor of Tyrol and Alsace.
Episcopate. Elected bishop coadjutor, with right of succession, of Brixen, June 15, 1580; because he was not 26 years old yet, he was named administrator and later, titular. Consecrated (no information found). Legate a latere in Cologne in 1582 to chase away Gerhard Truchesses, archbishop and elector, who had become a Lutheran; the latter was expelled on April 1, 1583. Participated in the conclave of 1585, in which Pope Sixtus V was elecetd. Abbot commendatario of Murbach-Luders in Elsaß, 1587. Transferred to the see of Konstanz, retaining the coadjutorship of Brixen, July 31, 1589; occupied the see until his death. Did not participate in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV; as cardinal protodeacon, crowned the new pope on December 8, 1590. Named him legate to all Germany. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX; as cardinal protodeacon, crowned the new pope on November 3, 1591. Succeeded to the see of Brixen, 1591 and occupied it until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. King Felipe II of Spain named him acting governor of Flanders in place of Archduke Albrecht of Austria, September 1598 until August 1599. For the Jubilee of 1600, he traveled to Rome and dressed as a poor pilgrim, on foot and fasting, and visited the basilicas of the city; he was recognized by Cardinal Cinzio Aldobrandini, who introduced him to Pope Clement VIII, who in turn embraced him and received him with great joy; later went to Naples to venerate the blood of S. Gennaro and on his return to Rome, fell ill at the Vatican and died.
Death. November 12, 1600, of acute fever, in the Apostolic Palace, Rome. Buried in the German national church of S. Maria dell'Anima, Rome (2); and his intestines (entrails?) were buried in front of the main altar of the church of S. Maria del Campo Santo Teutonico, in the Vatican (3).
Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 155-157; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, cols. 1738-1739. ; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 45, 75, 141 and 176; Reinhardt, Rudolf. "Andreas von Österreich, Markgraf von Burgau (1558-1600)." Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1448 bis 1648 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz, unter Mitwirkung von Clemens Brodkorb. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1996, pp. 21-23.
Links. His engraving; his genealogy, A1 B2 C2 D1; engraving by Dominicus Custos, Germanisches Nationalmuseum Nürnberg; his tomb, statue and epitaph in S. Maria dell'Anima, Rome; and another view of his statue in his tomb.
(1) This is according to his genealogy, linked above; but according to his epitaph (note 2), he had lived 42 years, 5 months and 27 days when he died on November 12, 1600, therefore, according to this, he must have been born on May 6, 1558 (following the Gregorian calendar).
(2) This is the text of his epitaph transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli in Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1739: D. O. M. Memoria ANDREÆ ab AVSTRIA Ferdinandi Archiducis filii, Ferdinandi Imperatoris Cæsaris Augusti nepotis S. R. E. Cardinalis Constantiensis, & Brixinensis Episcopi, Sacri Romani Imperii Principis, qui maiorum spendorem propriæ virtutis gloria exæquans; Religione conservanda, & augenda, iustitia, clementiaq; temperanda per omnes suæ ditionis partes diligentissimus, Belgicæ Provinciæ difficillimis temporibus a Philippo Secindo Rege præfectus, eam incomparabili prudentia, fortitudinis laude administrauit; perduelles armatos togatur terruit. Romam Anno sæculari religioso peregrini habitu visens, a Clemente Pontifice Opt. Max. agnitus in Vaticana Ædes amantissime receptus post solemnes Basilicas venerata, vi morbs lecto affixus, sacris mysteriis rite ab eodem Pontifice expiatus, ex terrena peregrinatione ad celestem Patriam migravit, incredibils Vrbis desiderio defletus, publico funere elatus, exequiis præsente Sacro Collegio, et Curia honestatus est. Vixit annos XLII. menses V. die XXVII. Obiit anno MDC. pridie idus Novemb. Carolus ab Austria, Sacrs Imperii Marchio, Borgaviæ Langravii, Hellemburgi, et cæt. fratri unico unicus desideratissimo moerent posuit.
(3) This is the inscription on the marble placed above transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli in Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1739: ANDREA. CARDINALIS. AB. AVSTRIA. IN VATICANO. ANNO DOMINI. MDC. MORTVI. CORPORE. AD. SANCTAM. MARIAM. DE ANIMA. TRANSLATO. INTESTINA. HIC. IACENT. Reinhardt, "Andreas von Österreich, Markgraf von Burgau (1558-1600)", p. 23, says that it was his heart that was interred in S. Maria del Campo Santo Teutonico.
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