The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Gregory XIII (1572-1585)
Consistory of February 21, 1578 (V)


(5) 1. RIARIO, Alessandro (1543-1585)

Birth. December 3 (1), 1543, Bologna. Venetian and Bolognese patrician. Son of Palatine Count Giulio Riario, and Isabella Pepoli. Related to Pope Gregory XIII by marriage only, not by blood. Other cardinals of the family were Pietro Riario, O.F.M.Conv. (1471); Raffaele Sansoni Riario (1477); Tommaso Riario Sforza (1823); and Sisto Riario Sforza (1846).

Education. Studied at the University of Padua; and at the University of Bologna, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on May 11, 1563.

Early life. Protonotary apostolic. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Domestic prelate of Pope Pius IV (1559-1565). Secretary apostolic, May 1, 1562. Auditor general of the Apostolic Chamber, April 3, 1565 (2) to 1578.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular patriarch of Alexandria, November 8, 1570. Accompanied Cardinal Michele Bonelli, O.P., in his legation to Spain, Portugal and France in 1571 to encourage their sovereigns into a league against the Turks. Consecrated, Sunday, August 24, 1572, at the Sistine Chapel, Rome, by Cardinal Benedetto Lomellini, assisted by Antonio Elio, titular patriarch of Jerusalem, and by Giovanni Ambrogio de Fieschi, bishop of Savona. In the same ceremony was consecrated Leonardo Truchi, bishop of Noli.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1578; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Aracoeli, March 3, 1578. Together with Cardinal Francesco Crasso and other prelates, was charged with the reformation of the offices of the Roman Curia and the implementation of the reforms. Legate a latere before King Felipe II of Spain and Portugal, March 23 (3), 1580. Prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, May 1581. Legate a latere in Portugal, October 25, 1581. Legate a latere in Perugia and Umbria, October 25, 1581 until 1583. Participated in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V.

Death. July 18, 1585, Rome. Buried in front of the main altar of the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome (4); later transferred to the Augustinian church of S. Giacomo, Bologna (5).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 160-161; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols.1742-1743 ; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 139; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 45-46, 66 and 102; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), pp. 134, 150, 155 and 177; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 329 and 863-864.

Webgraphy. His tomb in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome; his genealogy, A1 B3 C7 D3 E9 F2 G6 H2 I4.

(1) This is according to Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col.1742; Katterbach, Referendarii utriusque Signaturae, p. 134, indicates that he was born on December 4, 1543; Bartolomeo di Galeotti, Trattato degli huomini illustri di Bologna (Ferrara : Vittorio Baldini, 1590), says that he was born on December 3, 1541.
(2) This is according to Weber, Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809, p. 863; Katterbach, Referendarii utriusque Signaturae, p. 134; and Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 160, adds that he bought the post for 60,000 scudi; his genealogy, linked above, indicates that he became auditor in 1563.
(3) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III 46; his genealogy, linked above, indicates that he was named on April 11, 1580 which is, also according to Eubel, when he received the legatine cross from the pope.
(4) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 161, says that he was buried in the middle of the presbytery with a brief inscription to which, later, was added a second one piuù magnifica, ed onorevole. They are transcribed by Ferdiando Ughelli in Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1743; this is the first edition: D. O. M. ALEXANDER. RIARIVS. Patriarcha Alexandrinus. S. D. N. & Causarum Cameræ Apostolicæ Auditor, Vtriusq; Signat. Referend. annum XXX. agens mortalitatem memor, in hoc antiquissimo familiæ suæ sacello monumentum hoc sibi, hac suis statuit, in eoq; corpus suum, morte obita, collocari, testamento rite condito iussit. M D L X I X .; and this is the second one: D. O. M. ALEXANDER RIARIVS Patriarcha Alexandrin. & S. D. N. ac Cam. Apost. Audit. Vtriusque Signat. Referend. nomine suo, & Illustrissim. Herc. & Raph. eius Fratr. Capellam hanc magnam sub Invocatione Sanctorum Philippi, & Iacobi censu annuo scutorum XXXIII. auri in auro a Monasterio, & RR. Canon. Regul. Beatæ Mariæ de Pace Vrbis eiusdem Fratribus debito, ut singuli diebus unica missa, ac quolibet anno officium Mortuorum cum missis quadraginta a RR. Fratrum Sanctorum Apostolorum de Vrbe omnibus eorum expen. & iuxta contentæ in instrum. rog. per D. Io: Ant. Curtib. Cumensem, sub die V. Mensis Iunii MDLXXI. celebratum dotavit quam dotationem, si prædicta non fiant, ad Eccles. Glor. Virginis Mariæ Consolat. Vurbis, cum eisdem oneribus recidere, declaravit ad laudem Dei, ac Virg.
(5) Text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1742: D. O. M. ALEXANDRO. RIARIO. IVLII. FILIO. V. S. REFEREND. CVRIÆ. CAVSARVM. CAMERÆ. APOSTOLICÆ. GENERALI. AVDITORI. PATRIARCHÆ. ALEXANDRINO. TT. S. MARIÆ IN ARACÆELI. S. R. E. PRESB. CARD. GREGORII. PP. XIII. IN. LVSITANIAM. DE. LATERE. ITEM PERVSIÆ. AC. VMBRIA. LEGATO. SIGNATVRÆ. IVSTITIÆ. PRÆFECTO. VIXIT. ANNOS. XLI. MENSES. VII. DIES. IV. OBIIT. XV. KAL. AVGVSTI. MDLXXXV. PATRVO. FECERVNT. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 161, indicates that he was buried in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli in Rome but does not mention the translation to Bologna.

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(6) 2. LA BAUME, Claude de (1534-1584)

Birth. 1534 (1), Franche-Conté. Second son of Claude de La Baume, baron of Mont-Saint-Sorlin, and his second wife, Guillemette d'Igny. Nephew of Cardinal Pierre de La Baume (1539).

Education. Studied at the University of Dole.

Early life. Abbot of Cherlieu and of Saint-Claude; also, prior of two wealthy priorates.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 10, 1566.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Besançon (2), with dispensation super defectus ætatis, June 27, 1543, when his uncle resigned the government of the see; Pope Paul III confirmed the brief that appointed an administrator for the archdiocese until he turned 27 years old, May 11, 1544; Canon François Bonnalot, abbé of Luxeuil and treasurer of the archdiocese, received the faculties to administer the archdiocese during his minority, July 2, 1544; the cathedral chapter, unaware of the pope's appointments, elected Canon Bonnalot as archbishop of the see; the pope named an oeconomum for the archdiocese, August 13, 1544. Went to Rome in 1566, together with Antoine Lullo, his vicar general, to pay the visit ad limina Apostolorum. Consecrated, Sunday, June 4, 1570, Sistine Chapel, Rome, by Cardinal Otto Truchsess, bishop of Augsburg, assisted by Antonio Elio, titular patriarch of Jesuralem, and by Galesio Regardo, former bishop of Bagnorea. In 1571 in Besançon promulgated with great solemnity the decrees of the Council of Trent. Opposed with great zeal the spread of Calvinism in his archdiocese; in 1575 together with the civil magistrate of the city, defeated an assault of the Calvinist forces and preserved the county of Burgundy from being controlled by them (3).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1578; received the title of S. Pudenziana, August 24, 1580; the red hat was sent to him because, as the pope explained in consistory, absence from his see would magnum inferre detrimentum. Named secretary of memorials, counselor of the ecclesiastical department and viceroy of Naples by King Felipe II of Spain; died while he was preparing to go and take possession of the post.

Death. June 14 (4), 1584, Arbois (5). Buried next to his uncle the cardinal in the church of Saint-Just, Arbois.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 330; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 161-163; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1743-1744; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 135; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 46, 69 and 134; Michaud, Josepph Fr. and Louis Gabriel Michaud. Biographie universelle, ancienne et moderne, ou, Histoire par ordre alphabétique de la vie publique et privée de tous les hommes qui se sont fait remarquer par leurs écrits, leurs actions, leurs talents, leurs vertus ou leurs crimes : ouvrage entièrement neuf. 85 vols. Paris : Michaud frères, 1811-1862.

Webgraphy. The Baume family, towards the middle of the page.

(1) According to the site on his family, linked above, his parents were married on December 28, 1532. Since he was the second son, the earliest that he could have been born is in 1534; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 330, says that he was 16 years old when named to the see of Besançon in 1543; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 161, also says that he was named archbishop at 16 in 1543; if this were correct, he would have been born in 1527, five years before his parents married and none of the sources consulted indicate that he was an illegitimate child.
(2) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 161; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1743; and Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 134; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 330, indicates that he was named coadjutor of his uncle.
(3) According to Michaud, Biographie universelle, ancienne et moderne, vol. 11, his promotion to the cardinalate was due to the zeal with which he defended the city against the Calvinists.
(4) This is according to Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 330; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 46; and to his family's site linked above; Michaud, Biographie universelle, ancienne et moderne, vol. 3, indicates that he died on June 15, 1584.
(5) Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1743, indicates that he died and was buried in Besançon; Ferdinando Ughelli, in his addition in the same work, col. 1744, says that he died in Arbois and was buried in its church next to his uncle the cardinal. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 162, says that he died in 1584 at fifty-six years of age and six of cardinalate.

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(7) 3. GUISE, Louis II de (1555-1588)

Birth. July 6, 1555 (1), Dampierre. Third son of François de Lorraine, duke of Guise and of Aumale, and Anne d'Este. He is also listed as Louis de Guise de Lorraine. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Jean de Lorraine (1518). Nephew of Cardinals Charles I de Guise de Lorraine (1547), his predecessor in the see of Reims; and Louis I de Guise de Lorraine (1553). Uncle of Cardinal Louis III de Guise (1615).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Abbot commendatario of five wealthy abbeys at a young age.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Reims after December 26, 1574, when his uncle died. He could not officiate in the ceremony of consecration of the new French King Henri in 1575 because he had not yet received the sacred orders; his uncle Louis I de Lorraine-Guise, bishop of Metz, consecrated the king.

Priesthood. Received the priestly ordination and celebrated his first mass in the cathedral of Reims. Granted future cardinal William Allen a pension and a canonship in the cathedral chapter of Reims.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1578; never went to Rome or received the red hat and the title. Received the episcopal consecration on March 13, 1580, at the chapel of Saint-Clément, abbey Saint-Denis, from Cardinal Charles II de Bourbon de Vendôme, archbishop of Rouen, assisted by Geoffrey de la Marthonie, bishop of Amiens, and by Claude d`Angeunes de Rambouillet, bishop of Noyon. Celebrated a provincial synod in 1583. Did not participate in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. Postulated by King Henri III, Pope Sixtus V named him legate in Avignon. In 1588 he had a son with Aimerie de Lescheraine (2). Peer of the French kingdom. Decorated with the order of Saint-Esprit by the French king. Full of ambition, he was one of the most fervent agents of his brother, Henri I, duke of Guise, as president of the Ligue. Presided over the order of the clergy in the État généreaux of Blois; publicly criticized the address of the king at the opening of the meeting; forced the king to promise the suppression of the passages that did not please him; such audacity determined the king to eliminate him and his brother but his quality of prince of the Church and the fear of a revolt made the king hesitate; while the cardinal was at the meeting hall, his brother was massacred by the royal guards; Marshals de Retz and d'Aumont got him out and took him to a garret built a few days earlier and there he lay ill the rest of the day; the king, informed that the clergy requested their president, asked the advice of his council; it was decided that the death of the cardinal was necessary; four men killed him with spears for 400 écus. To justify his conduct, the king sent to Rome Claude d'Angennes, bishop of Le Mans.

Death. December 24 (3), 1588, royal castle of Blois. His body was burned and the ashes scattered in the wind.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 1067-1068; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 163-165; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, II, col. 1744; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 46 and 285.

Webgraphy. Brief biographical data, in French; his genealogy, A1 B3; another genealogy; his portrait by an anonymous artist, Hôtel de Soubise, Musée de l'Histoire de France, Centre historique des Archives nationales, Musées - Paris IIIème (France); and portrait by Balthazar Moncornet.

(1) This is according to his two biographies linked above; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1067, says that he was born in 1556; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1744, indicates that he died at 34 in 1588.
(2) He was Louis de Guise (1588-1631), baron of Ancerville, legitimized in 1610; prince of Pfalzburg and of Lixheim and marshal of Lorraine.
(3) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, p. 285; and his first genealogy, linked above; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1068, says that he was killed on December 23, 1588.

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(8) 4. GROESBEECK, Gerard van (1517-1580)

Birth. 1517, château of Curingen, Hasselt. He is also listed as Gérard de Groesbeeck; and his last name as Groëbeck and Grousbroeck. Of the barons of Groesbeek in the duchy of Guledre, Low Germany.

Education. In omni genere literarum optimis præceptoribus educandum tradiderunt (1).

Sacred orders. (No information found). Canon of the cathedral chapter of Aachen. Canon and later elected dean of the cathedral chapter of Saint-Lambert, Liège; coadjutor of Bishop Robert de Berghes, March 1562; elected (2) administrator of the diocese, April 11, 1564.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Liège by its cathedral chapter, June 5, 1564; preconized by the pope, February 23, 1565. Consecrated, May 20, 1565, at the Cisterican Abbey of Herckenrode, by Gregoire Silvius, titular bishop of Tagaste. He did not succeed in the application of the decrees of the Council of Trent in the principality. Worked with great zeal to avoid the dissemination of Protestantism from the Netherlands into his diocese and succeeded in maintaining orthodoxy. Put down the revolt of Hasselt, March 13, 1567; and Maaseyck and Maastricht also in 1567. Elected abbot of Stavelot in 1576. He and the Etats de Liège proclaimed the neutrality of the principality, 1577.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1578; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title.

Death. December 23, 1580 (3). Buried in the cathedral of Saint-Lambert, Liège, after imposing funeral ceremonies (4).

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 1057-1058; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 165-166; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, II, cols. 1744-1745; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp.46 and 222.

Webgraphy. Arms and brief biographical data, in Dutch, fourth item on the page, WAZAMAR; his portrait, arms and biography, in Dutch, HASEL (HASselts Erfgoed Lexikon); his portrait, arms and biography, in French.

(1) Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1774.
(2) His biography in French, linked above, says that he was imposed to the cathedral chapter and to the principality while his predecessor was still living, in March 1562 and made his solemn entrance on June 15, 1564.
(3) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 46; the same source, III, 222, says that he died on December 28, 1580; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1058, indicates that he died on December 29, 1579; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1744, says that he died 4 Kal. Ianuarij, anno Christi 1579; and Ughelli, in his addition, on the same work, col. 1745 repeats the same date; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 166, says that he died in 1579 at the age of 63.
(4) This is his epitaph transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli in Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1745: D. O. M. GERARDO. A. GRAESBEEK. S. R. E. CARDINALI. E PISCOPO. ET. PRINCIPI. LEODIENSI. ADMINISTRATORI. STABVLENSI. VIRO. INCREDIBILI. PRVDENTIA. AC. FACVNDIA. PRÆDITQ. QVI. PROVINCIAM. SVAM. TEMPORIBVS. DIFFICILLIMIS. ANNIS. SEXDECIM. SVMMA. INNOCENTIA. ATQVE ANIMI. FORTITVDINE. PACE. AC. BELLO. NON. MODO. CONSERVAVIT. VERVM. ETIAM. AVX IT. ATQVE. IPSIS. HOSTIBVS. ADMIRABILI. VIRTVTE. INVIDIAM. SVPERAVIT. CVRATOR. ES. BONOVM. AD. LENIENDVM. PARENTIS. PATRIÆ. DOLORE M. MOESTISSIMI. POSVERVNT. Followed by the following: CARDINALITIÆ. DIGNITATIS. CHRONOGRAPHICON.

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(9) 5. DEZA, Pedro de (1520-1600)

Birth. March 26 (1), 1520, Sevilla, Spain. Son of Antonio de Deza and Beatriz de Portugal (2). Nephew of Diego de Deza, O.P., archbishop of Sevilla. Related to the king of Portugal.

Education. Studied Latin under Juan Ulloa Pereira. Later, attended Colegio Viejo de San Bartolomé, University of Salamanca, Salamanca (law).

Early life. Professor of law at Colegio Viejo de San Bartolomé, University of Salamanca. Vicar general of the archbishop of Santiago de Compostela for eight years. Judge at the chancery of Valladolid, 1556. Archdeacon of Calatrava in the archdiocese of Toledo in the pontificate of Pope Paul IV (1555-1559). Auditor of the Supreme Council of the Inquisition. Commissary of the Crusade. President of the kingdom of Granada, 1566; participated in the campaign against the revolt of the Granadine moriscos provoked by the implementation of the laws promulgated by King Felipe II. President of the Council of Valladolid, 1578.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1578; received the red hat and the title of S. Ciriaco, June 22, 1580. Resided in Rome from 1580. Opted for the title of S. Prisca, January 9, 1584. Participated in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. Inquisitor general of the Holy Office, November 19, 1586. Opted for the title of S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni, April 20, 1587. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina (3), August 18, 1597. Cardinal protoprete, March 30, 1598. Protector of Spain before the Holy See.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, April 24, 1600. Consecrated, June 18, 1600, patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, by Pope Clement VIII, assisted by Cardinal Domenico Pinelli and by Cardinal Camillo Borghese. President of the Cardinalitial Tribunal of the Inquisition.

Death. August 27, 1600, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, Rome; later, according to his will, transferred to Spain and deposited provisionally in the hermitage of Villaguer, Toro, of his patrimony; buried later in the convent of the Discalced Carmelites; the convent was closed with the desamortización by which the government confiscated nearly 900 convents in 1836.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 792-793; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 166-168; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, II, cols. 1745-1747; "Deza (Pedro)." Enciclopedia universal ilustrada europeo-americana. 70 vols. Madrid : Espasa-Calpe, 1958, c1907?-1930, XVIII, 769; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 46, 56, 63, 69; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, IV, 36 and 43; Fernández Prieto, E. "Deza, Pedro de." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975, II, 748; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1500-1699). Españoles obispos en españa, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 34), p. 114; Zedler, Johann Heinrich, and Carl Günther Ludovici. Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste. 64 v. Graz, Adakemische Druck, 1961- . Reprint. Originially published : Halle : J. H. Zedler, 1732-50. Vols. 19-64 ed. by Carl Günther Ludovici.

Webgraphy. Biographical data, in English, American Academy of Research Historians of Medieval Spain.

(1) This is according to Guitarte, Episcopologio Español (1500-1699), p. 114; Fernández Prieto, E. "Deza, Pedro de"; and Gran Enciclopedia Española; but Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux; and Enciclopedia universal ilustrada europeo-americana, XVIII, 769, say that he was born on February 24, 1520; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1745, says that he was born on February 14, 1520; and Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, indicate that he was born on March 24, 1520.
(2) Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1745, calls her Beatriz de Guzmán.
(3) Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 43, note 6, indicates that this title was habitually, but not always in fact, assigned to the most senior cardinal priest.

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(10) 6. TOLEDO DE OROPESA, Fernando de (1520-1590)

Birth. 1520, (no place found), Spain. Son of Luis de Toledo y Pacheco and Inés Duque Estrada. His first name is also listed as Ferrante. Of the noble family of the counts of Oropesa. Relative of Cardinal Juan Álvarez de Toledo, O.P. (1538).

Education. University of Salamanca, Salamanca; became a friend of Juan de Ribera, future archbishop of Valencia and saint. His spiritual advisor was Pedro Soto, O.P.

Priesthood. Entered the ecclesiastical state and received the priestly ordination. Declined several dignities and honors offered by the kings of Spain. President of the audience of Lima, Perú; accepted the nomination but at the end, decided to stay in Spain and dedicate himself to preach, hear confessions, visit, console and assist the poor sick, without having administrative responsibilities. At the instance of King Felipe II of Spain was promoted to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal in the consistory of February 21, 1578; Filippo Sega, nuncio in Spain, communicated to the papal secretariat of State the happiness of the king of Spain for the appointment of Cardinals Deza and Toledo, March 13, 1578; on May 5, the nuncio sent to Rome the disconcerting news that Fernando de Toledo had declined the promotion; in agreement with the king, the nuncio would stop in Barcelona or in Zaragoza the person bringing the cardinalitial biretta; on May 24, the nuncio advised that the viceroy of Zaragoza had been asked to stop Carlo Lanzi, who was bringing the biretta; On May 30, the papal secretariat of State still hoped that the newly created cardinal would accept the promotion; on June 6, the nuncio remitted some letters from Fr. Toledo to several cardinals thanking them for their felicitations and excusing himself, stating that he did not undervalue the cardinalitial dignity but to the contrary, he considered it too elevated for him; after this, Rome understood that his refusal was definitive. On July 4, 1578, the pope accepted his decision and annulled his creation; he ordered the return of Lanzi to Rome; and complained to King Felipe II to have proposed someone for such a dignity who did not have the inclination for it; the king replied that he would have never imagined that one of his subjects, no matter how pious and noble, would refuse a dignity that many others, including eminent ones, so ardently ambitioned; the last communication from the nuncio, dated August 2, 1578, indicated that the biretta and the briefs had been handed over by Lanzi in Pamplona and were going to be returned to Rome by Paolo Sforza. Fr. Fernando continued his apostolic activities until his death (1).

Death. 1590 (2), Oropesa, while giving a sermon. Buried in the monastery of the Immaculate Conception, Oropesa.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 1553-1554; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 171-172; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1747; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 269: Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 46; Goñi, J. "Toledo, Francisco de." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975. 4 v. and Supplement. Supplement, pp. 691-692; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), VI, 975.

(1) Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1554, says that he retired to a Jesuit house.
(2 ) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 172, that says he died in 1590 at 69 (settant'anni non compiti); and Goñi, "Toledo, Fernando de", 692; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 46, says that he died on December 15, 1578; but Goñi on that same page, indicates that Eubel erroneously interpreted the information in Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, p. 269, that in the section "Cardinali preti senza titolo cardinalizio" (Cardinal priests without cardinalitial title), says that Fernando de Toledo was in that category from February 21, 1578 until December 15, 1578, and then adds Rif. (refused); Weber, Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte, VI, 975, also says that he died on December 15, 1578; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 418. The pope promoted Gaspar de Quiroga y Vela, archbishop of Toledo, to the cardinalate on December 15, 1578, to replace Fr. Toledo.

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(11) 7. BIRAGUE, René de (1506-1583)

Birth. February 3, 1507 (1), Milan. Milanese patrician. He is also listed as Renato Birago; and his last name is also listed as Biraghe and Biragro. Son of Giangiacomo Galeazzo Birago, ambassador of the duke of Milan in France, and Anna Trivulzio.

Education. He was sent to Avignon to study but the death of his father made him return to Milan to take care of the family's affairs. Obtained a doctorate in law. Admitted to the Collegio d'avvocati of Milan, 1536.

Early life. During the wars of Italy, when France definitively lost le Milanais, the family followed the French party; he and his three brothers, Louis, Pierre and Charles, had to escape to France to avoid the vengeance of Luigi Sforza, duke of Milan. Declared a traitor by the Spanish government, his wealth was confiscated, June 28, 1536; partially restored, 1556. King François I of France named him counselor of the Parliament of Paris. Later, during France's control of Piedmont, Maestro delle Richieste of the Parliament of Turin, 1539; and its president in 1543. Married Valentina Balbiano; they had two children, Vespasiano, who died in infancy, and Francesca; Valentina died in Paris on December 21, 1572; he entered the ecclesiastical state after her death and became a cleric of Milan. President of the Superior Council of Pinerolo, January 9, 1563. French ambassador to the Council of Trent, April 1563; and later, June 27, 1563, before Emperor Ferdinand I and Maximilian, king of the Romans. Obtained the letters of naturalization, September 1565; took the name René de Birague. Accompanied the king in his trip to Guyenne. Procurator and lieutenant general in Lyon, Forestz and Beaujolis, September 1565 until 1568. Superintendent of Finances, 1568-1570. Knight of the order of Saint-Michel. In 1570, King Charles IX named him keeper of the seal of the French kingdom and, as such, member of the royal secret council. Because of his post, he attended the secret meeting of the council that decided the massacre of the nuit de Saint-Barthélemy, August 24, 1572; at that time, he was in the chamber of King Charles IX with the dukes of Guise and Nevers, Tavannes and Retz, when Queen Catherine de' Medici arrived to determine the king, who was undecided (2). Named chancellor of France as a reward for his participation in that action, March 17, 1573.

Priesthood. Ordained (no date found), Milan.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Lodève (3), 1573. Abbot commendatario of Flavigny, Longpont and Saint-Pierre di Sens. Prior of Sauvigny and Sainte-Catherine de Val des Ecoliers. In September 1578 he resigned the post of keeper of the seal but kept the title of chancellor (4). Promoted to the cardinalate at the instance of King Henri III of France (5).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1578; never received the red hat and the title. Commander of the Order of Saint-Esprit, December 31, 1579. Resigned the government of the see in 1580 (6). For his strong opposition against the Protestants, he was called martello degli eretici (hammer of the heretics).

Death. November 24, 1583 (7), Paris. Buried in the church of Sainte-Catherine de Val des Écoliers, Paris, in the chapel that he had built (8). He was quite poor when he died (9).

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 538-542; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 166-168; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1745; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 46; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, quotquot innotuerunt a beato Petro apostolo. A multio adjutus ed. p. Pius Bonifacius Gams ... Leipzig: K.W. Hiersemann, 1931. 2 v. in 1, p. 586; Michaud, Josepph Fr. and Louis Gabriel Michaud. Biographie universelle, ancienne et moderne, ou, Histoire par ordre alphabétique de la vie publique et privée de tous les hommes qui se sont fait remarquer par leurs écrits, leurs actions, leurs talents, leurs vertus ou leurs crimes : ouvrage entièrement neuf. 85 vols. Paris : Michaud frères, 1811-1862; Orazi Asuenda, Renata. "Birago, Renato." Enciclopedia Cattolica, 12 vols. Città del Vaticano : Ente per l'Enciclopedia cattolica e per il Libro cattolico, 1948-54, II, col. 1668; "René de Birague." La Grande Encyclopédie. Inventaire raisoné des sciences, des letters et des arts. Par une societé de savants et de gens de lettres; sous la direction de MM. Berthelot...Hartwig Derenbourg [etc.]. 31 vols. Paris : Larousse, 1886-1902, VI, 904-905.

Webgraphy. His statue in his monument by Germain Pilon, now at the Louvre, Paris, France; another view of the same statue; his portrait, French School, 16th century, Châteaux de Versailles et de Trianon; and tomb of the cardinal and his wife, chapel de Birague, church of of Sainte-Catherine de Val des Écoliers, Paris.

(1) This is according to Michaud, Biographie universelle, ancienne et moderne, vol. 4; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 538, says that he was born in 1507. According to his epitaph, subtracting the time he lived from the date of his death, he would have been born in November 1523 and therefore, he would have been counselor of the Parliament of Paris at 13, which seems quite unlikely.
(2) According to Orazi Asuenda, "Birago, Renato", Enciclopedia Cattolica, II, col. 1668, it is uncertain if had any influence in the decision to carry out the massacre of the night of St. Bartholomew.
(3) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 167; Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, p. 586; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 538, does not mention the episcopal appointment in his biographical data but the funeral eulogy pronounced by Père Alby in 1644, which it transcribes, says, in col. 542, that he was nominated bishop of Lavaur by King Henri III; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1745, does not mention the episcopal appointment and his epitaph does not either; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 227, in the catalog of the bishops of Lodève, indicates that the see was occupied by Alfonso Vercelli from 1570 until 1580; and on p. 326, the catalog of the bishops of Lavaur, says that this see was occupied by Pierre Danes from 1557 until 1582; and that a relative of the cardinal named René-Horace Biraghe, was named its bishop on November 21, 1583; the biographical article in La Grande Encyclopédie, VI, 904-905, also says that although many of his biographies indicate that he was bishop of Lavaur, it is due to the confusion with the relative and protégé of the cardinal who was named three days before the latter's death and occupied the see until February 26, 1601, when he died. Michaud, Biographie universelle, ancienne et moderne, vol. 4, says that he was bishop of Lavaur and adds the detail that in his death bed his body was dressed with the episcopal insignias, the miter on his head and the red biretta at his feet.
(4) According to Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 538, he said that he was a cardinal without a title, a priest without benefices and a chancellor without the seal.
(5) According to his biographical article in La Grande Encyclopédie, VI, 904, says that since January 1576, after the death of his wife, had started taking the steps in the court of Rome to obtain his promotion to the cardinalate.
(6) Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, p. 586.
(7) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 168, says that he died at 78; his epitaph, note 8, indicates that he died at 60; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1745, citing Cabrera and Petramellario, says that he died at 77 on die 8. Kal. Decembris, quod vtrumq; falsum ex hoc epitaphio comprobatur; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 538, says that he was 74 when he died.
(8) This is his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1745: RENATO. BIRAGRO. PATRITIO. MEDIOLANEN. MVLTIS. ET SVMMIS. DIGNITATIBVS. FVNCTO. TVM. FRANCIÆ. CANCELLARIO. AC. DEMVM. S. R. E. CARD. FRANCISCA. FILIA. VNICA. ET. CÆSAR. BIRAGVS. AGNATVS. MOESTISSIMI. NON. MEMORIÆ. SED. DESIDERII. PERPETVI. MONVMENTVM. HOC. P. C . VIXIT. ANNOS. LX. DIES. XX. OBIIT. VII. KALEND. DECEMBRIS. MDLXXXIII.
(9) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 168, who adds that this was in spite of having served the king in so many posts, and adds that he was not dominated by ambition and that he was much better to his friends and domestics than to himself.

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(12) 8. LORRAINE DE VAUDÉMONT, Charles II de (1561-1587)

Birth. April 20, 1561 (1), Nomeny, diocese of Metz, France. Son of Nicolas de Lorraine, count of Vaudémont, and his second wife, Jeanne de Savoie-Nemurs. Brother of Queen Louise, wife of King Henri III of France. Uncle of Cardinal Charles de Lorraine-Vaudémont (1589).

Education. Studied theology with great fervor and interest at the Jesuit University of Pont-à-Mousson.

Early life. When his sister married the king of France, he was called to the court but soon returned to the university to finish his studies. Abbot commendatario of Moissac, 1571-1580.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 1578.

Episcopate. Administrator of the see of Toul, until turning 27 years old, March 9, 1580; administered the see until his death. At the University of Pont-à-Mousson in 1580 delivered, with great applause and reputation, a public theological dissertation that he dedicated to Pope Gregory XIII. Commander of the Order of Saint-Esprit, 1583. Elected bishop of Verdun, January 7, 1585 (2). Did not participate in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. Received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Domnica, June 24, 1585.

Priesthood. Ordained, November 25, 1586, cathedral of Verdun. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, April 20, 1587. Never received the episcopal consecration.

Death. October 30, 1587 (3), Paris (4). Buried in the monastery of the Cordeliers (Franciscans), Nancy.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 653-654; Châtellier, Louis and Bernard Ardura. "Karl, Herzog von Lothringen-Vaudémont." Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1448 bis 1648 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz, unter Mitwirkung von Clemens Brodkorb. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1996, pp. 359-360; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 172-173; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1747-1748; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 46, 71, 74, 321 and 335.

Webgraphy. Biographical data, in English; his genealogy, XXIII F another genealogy, A1 B1 C1 D3 E2 F3; and list of burials in the ducal chapel of the Cordeliers, Nancy; it was sacked during the French Revolution.

(1) This is according to the first three electronic sources linked above; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 172, says that he was born in 1562.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 335; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 173, says that he was named in 1584 and adds that he was also named bishop of Castres but none of the other sources consulted mention it.
(3) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 46; and Bertone, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 654; his biography, linked above; and Châtellier, "Karl, Herzog von Lothringen-Vaudémont", p. 360, say that he died on October 29, 1587.
(4) This is according to his biographical data and the second genealogy linked above; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 173, says that he died in Toul and was temporarily buried in its cathedral until he was transferred to Nancy; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1747, says that he died in Toul and was buried in its cathedral but Ferdinando Ughelli in his addition to this same work, col. 1748, indicates that this is erroneous and that he was buried in the Franciscan church in Nancy; Châtellier, "Karl, Herzog von Lothringen-Vaudémont", says that he died in Toul and was buried in the Franciscan church of Nancy.

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(13) 9. GONZAGA, O.S.Io.Hier., Giovanni Vincenzo (1540-1591)

Birth. December 8, 1540, Palermo, Sicily. Son of Ferrante I Gonzaga, viceroy of Sicily, 1st count of Guastalla, and Isabella di Capua. Brother of Cardinal Francesco Gonzaga (1561). Nephew of Cardinal Ercole Gonzaga (1527). Other cardinals of the family are: Francesco Gonzaga (1461); Sigismondo Gonzaga (1505); Pirro Gonzaga (1527); Scipione Gonzaga (1587); Ferdinando Gonzaga (1607); and Vincenzo Gonzaga (1615).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Called to Mantua by Duke Guglielmo to assist him in the government of the duchy. Knight of the Order Hospitalaire of Saint John of Jerusalem. Prior of Barletta.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 1578; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, November 21, 1578. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin, December 19, 1583. Participated in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. Opted for the order of cardinal priests, December 18, 1585, and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title. Received the title of S. Alessio, April 20, 1587. Named by Pope Sixtus V auditor of causes for the citizens of the Papal States. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX.

Death. December 23, 1591, at 11 p.m., Rome. Buried in the church of S. Alessio, Rome (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 173-174; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1748; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 46, 59, 73 and 74.

Webgraphy. His tomb in the church of S. Alessio, Rome; and his genealogy, A3 B4.

(1) This is his epitaph transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli in the addition to Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1748: D. O. M. IO. VENCENTIO. CARDINALI. GONZAGÆ. VIRO. AD. BENEFICIENTIAM. NATO. GENERE. NOBILTATE. ATQ. ANIMI. DOTIBVS. PRÆCLARO. MAIORVM. SVORVM. ÆMULATORI. II. P. C. VIXIT. ANN. LI. DIES. XV. OBIIT. XXIII. DEC. MDXCI.

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