The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Gregory XIII (1572-1585)
Consistory of December 12, 1583 (VII)


(15) 1. FACCHINETTI DE NUCE, seniore, Giovanni Antonio (1519-1591)

Birth. July 20 (1), 1519, Bologna. He is also listed as Giacomo Antonio Nocetti (2). Of a humble family from Cravegna, castle of the town of Antogoria, diocese of Novara. Son of Antonio Facchinetti and Francesca Cini; he was a porter (facchino). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti de Nuce, iuniore (1591). Great-grand-uncle of Cardinal Cesare Facchinetti (1643)

Education. University of Bologna, Bologna (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, March 11, 1544).

Priesthood. Ordained before March 11, 1544. Canon of the church of Ss. Gervasio e Protasio of Domodossola, 1547. Went to Rome and became secretary to Cardinal Nicolò Ardinghelli. Shortly after, when the cardinal died, he entered the service of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, who sent him for four years to Avignon, his archdiocese, as his vicar and diocesan administrator. Settled in Parma and acted as governor of the city, 1556-1558. Returned to Rome and was named abbreviatore of the apostolic letters. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1559.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Nicastro, January 26, 1560. Consecrated (no information found). He was the first bishop to reside in the diocese in thirty years. Participated in the Council of Trent, 1562-1563. Nuncio in Venice, May 6 (3), 1566 to June 15, 1572; he advanced considerably the negotiations for the conclusion of the league against the Turks. Prior commendatario of S. Andrea di Carmignano, diocese of Padua, 1576-1587; he ceded it to his nephew Antonio. Resigned the government of the diocese before September 23, 1575, because of health. Returned to Rome in 1575 and became consultor of the Holy Office and member of the Sacred Consulta. Promoted to titular patriarch of Jerusalem, November 12, 1576 (4); he occupied the post until his promotion to the cardinalate. Consultor of the Holy Inquisition and of the Sacred Consulta. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monasteries of S. Elia e Filarete, diocese of Mileto, and of S. Maria di Merola, diocese of Reggio Calabria.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 12, 1583; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Quattro Coronati, January 9, 1584. Participated in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. Named one of the inquisitors general of the Holy Office, November 19, 1586. Member of a five cardinal commission to decide the punishment of King Henri III of France for the assassination of Cardinal Louis de Lorraine de Guise; the assassination of the king made the work of the commission superfluous. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. He sided with Spain and the Italian princes against King Henri IV of France. Pope Gregory XIV, who frequently suffered from malaria, asked him to preside in his name over the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature. Participated in the conclave of 1591 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope, October 29, 1591; took the name Innocent IX. Crowned, November 3 (5), 1591, in the loggia of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Andreas von Austria, protodeacon of S. Maria Nuova. Created two cardinals. He created two cardinals in one consistory.

Death. December 30, 1591, in the early morning, Rome. The funeral oration was delivered by Benedetto Giustiniani, S.J. Buried in a simple sarcophagus in the grotto of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome.

Bibliography. Annuario Pontificio per l'anno 2004. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vatican, 2004, p. 19*; Biaudet, Henry. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes jusqu'en 1648. Helsinki ; Suomalainen tiedeakatemia, 1910, p. 264; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 176-178; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1750; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 46-47, 54, 62, 210 and 256; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), pp. 119, 133 and 164; Pizzorusso, Giovanni. "Innocenzo IX." Enciclopedia dei Papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, 2000, III, 240-249.

Links. Biography by Nicholas Weber, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography by Giovanni Pizzorusso, in Italian, Enciclopedia dei Papi (2000), Treccani; his engraving, Lamezia Storica; his engraving by Agostino Carracci, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States, The AMICA Library; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; his tomb in the grotto of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, cravegna.it; his engraving by an anonymous artist, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; Cravegna, city of origin of the family, and his bust and plate.

(1) This is according to all the sources consulted except his biography in The Catholic Encyclopedia, linked above, that says he was born on July 22, 1519.
(2) According to the site of Cravegna, linked above, Facchinetti was the nickname of his father and the last name "Nocetti" took the articled preposition and became "Della Noce".
(3) This is according to Biaudet, Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes jusqu'en 1648, p. 264; Pizzorusso, "Innocenzo IX", III, 242, indicates that he was named by briefs of March 13 and 22, 1566.
(4) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 210; Pizzorusso, "Innocenzo IX", III, 244, says that he was named on December 14, 1576.
(5) This is according to all the sources consulted except Biaudet, Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes jusqu'en 1648, p. 264, that says he was crowned on November 2, 1591.

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(16) 2. CASTAGNA, Giambattista (1521-1590)

Birth. August 4, 1521, Rome. Son of Cosimo Castagna, Genoese nobleman, and Costanza Ricci Giacobazzi. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Domenico Giacobazzi (1517), on his mother's side. Relative of Cardinals Cristoforo Giacobazzi (1) (1536) and Girolamo Veralli (2) (1549).

Education. Studied at various Italian universities; at the University of Bologna, he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Roman cleric. Consistorial lawyer. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace in the pontificate of Pope Julius III. Domestic prelate of His Holiness. Datary of Cardinal Veralli during his legation to France.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Rossano, March 1, 1553.

Sacred orders. Received all the minor and major orders on March 30, 1553, in Rome, from Filippo Archinto, bishop of Saluzzo and vicar of Rome. Consecrated, April 4, 1553, by Cardinal Girolamo Veralli, at his house, assisted by Girolamo Maccabeo de Toscanella, bishop of Castro and master of the pontifical chapel, and by Pietro de Affati, bishop of Accia. Governor of Fano, June 14, 1555. Commissary apostolic of Città di Castello, 1559. Governor of Perugia and Umbria, March 6, 1559 to April 1560. Participated in the Council of Trent, 1562-1563; president of several congregations. Auditor of Cardinal Ugo Boncompagni, future Pope Gregory XIII, during his legation to Spain, September 1565. Nuncio in Spain, September 1565 to July 3, 1572. Resigned the government of the see, keeping its denomination, before January 23, 1573. Governor of Bologna, December 29, 1576 until November 29, 1577. Nuncio in Venice, June 15, 1573 to July 1, 1577. Legate in Flanders and in Cologne, 1578-1580; represented Pope Gregory XIII at the peace conference between King Felipe II of Spain and the United Provinces. Consultor of the Holy Office and the Sacred Consulta.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 12, 1583; received the red hat and the title of S. Marcello, January 9, 1584. Legate in Bologna, October 8, 1584 until May 1585. Participated in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. Named one of the inquisitors general of the Holy Office, November 19, 1586. Participated in the first conclave of 1590 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope September 15, 1590. Took the name Urban VII. Died before being crowned. Did not create any cardinals.

Death. September 27, 1590, shortly before midnight, of malaria, Rome. Buried in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome. The funeral oration was delivered by Pompeo Ugonio. His remains were transferred to the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva on September 21, 1606.

Bibliography. Benzoni, Gino. "Urbano VII." Enciclopedia dei Papi. 3 vols. Roma: Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, 2000, III, 222-230; Biaudet, Henry. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes jusqu'en 1648. Helsinki ; Suomalainen tiedeakatemia, 1910, p. 260; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 178-181; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, cols. 1750-1751; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 47, 65 and 286; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), pp. 106, 119, 135 and 171; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp.151, 206, 233, 327 and 558-559.

Links. Biography, by Michael Ott, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography by Gino Benzoni, n Italian, Enciclopedia dei Papi (2000), Treccani; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; his effigy and arms on a coin and brief biographical data in German, Salzburg Coins Interactive; his episcopal lineage, in English; his engraving by Alberto Cherubini, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his engraving by Nicolas van Aelst, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nürnberg, Germany; his engraving by Friedrich van Hulsen, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nürnberg, Germany; and another engraving, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nürnberg, Germany.

(1) Cousin of Cardinal Domenico Giacobazzi (1517).
(2) Son of Giulia, sister of his maternal grandmother and, therefore, cousin of his mother.

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(17) 3. MEDICI, Alessandro Ottaviano de' (1535-1605)

Birth. June 2, 1535, Florence. Of a collateral branch of the Medici family. Son of Ottavio de' Medici and Francesca Salviati; his father died when he was a child. Great nephew of Pope Leo X, on his mother's side. Cousin of Cosimo I, grand duke of Tuscany.

Education. Educated at home by Vincenzo Ercolano, O.P., of the church of S. Marco in Florence. When he studied for the priesthood, he did not particularly advance in the speculative life because of his eminently practical character, according to his biographer (1).

Early life. Demonstrated an inclination for the ecclesiastical life at a very young age; his mother tried to dissuade him because he was the only boy of the family; she sent him to the court of the grand duke of Tuscany, who made him knight of S. Stefano. In 1560, he visited Rome with the grand duke and met Filippo Neri, future saint; they became close friends and Filippo predicted both his election to the papacy as well as the brevity of his pontificate. After the death of his mother in 1566, he entered the church and became a priest.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 22, 1567, by Antonino Altoviti, archbishop of Florence. Ambassador of Cosimo, grand duke of Tuscany, before the Holy See, June 10, 1569.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Pistoia, March 9, 1573. Consecrated, March 1573 (after the 9th), in Rome, by Cardinal Francisco Pacheco de Toledo, bishop of Burgos. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Florence, January 15, 1574.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 12, 1583; received the red hat and the title of S. Ciriaco alle Terme, (2), January 9, 1584. Participated in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Opted for the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, January 14, 1591. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. Opted for the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, February 14, 1592; on that same day opted for the title of S. Prassede, erroneously because it was occupied by Cardinal Nicolas de Pellevé; he remained in the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli until 1594. Opted for the title of S. Prassede again, April 27, 1594. Legate a latere in France, with faculties of ordinary nuncio, April 3, 1596; received the legatine cross from the pope, May 10, 1596; with his ability, contributed to the diminishing of the Huguenots' influence and the consolidation of Catholicism; returned from France, November 10, 1598. Named prefect of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars in the consistory celebrated by Pope Clement VIII in Ferrara (3). Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, February 21, 1600. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, August 30, 1600. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, June 17, 1602. Participated in the first conclave of 1605 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope on April 1, 1605. Took the name Leo XI. Crowned, Easter Sunday, April 10, 1605, in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Francesco Sforza, protodeacon of S. Maria in Via Lata. Took possession of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, April 17, 1605. Did not create any cardinals (4).

Death. April 27, 1605, Rome. Buried in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome. His funeral eulogy was delivered in the patriarchal Vatican basilica by Pompeo Ugonio.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 181-182; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, col. 1751-1752; D'Addario, Arnaldo. "Aspetti del governo spirituale del Cardinale Alessandro de' Medici" in Aspetti della Controriforma a Firenze, Roma : Ministero dell Interno, 1972. (Pubblicazioni degli Archivi di Stato, LXXVII), p. 243-327; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 47, 63, 64, 68, and 197; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, IV, 8, 36, 37, 46 and 48; Sanfilippo, Matteo. "Leone XI." Enciclopedia dei Papi. 3 vols. Roma: Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, 2000, III, 269-277.

Links. Biography by Michael Ott, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography by Matteo Sanfilippo, in Italian, Enciclopedia dei Papi (2000)m Treccani; biography by Georg Denzler, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon; his portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; another engraving also from Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his effigy on a medal, Sixbid; his engraving by Dominicus Custos, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nürnberg, Germany, Bildindex der Kunst und Architektur; his engraving by Friedrich van Hulsen, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nürnberg, Germany, Bildindex der Kunst und Architektur; his engraving by Crispyn de Passe, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nürnberg, Germany, Bildindex der Kunst und Architektur; his engraving by Ulrich Heinrich, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nürnberg, Germany, Bildindex der Kunst und Architektur; his monumet by Alessandro Algardi, in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, St. Peter's Basilica.org,

(1) Vita del cardinale di Firenze, a damaged manuscript only partially readable that is in the "Biblioteca Casanatense" in Rome, cited by Sanfilippo, "Leone XI", III, 269.
(2) In 1477, Pope Sixtus IV transferred the title of S. Ciriaco alle Terme to the church of Ss. Quirico e Giulitta, keeping the denomination of S. Ciriaco; in 1587, Pope Sixtus V suppressed that denomination, confirming the title of Ss. Quirico e Giulitta.
(3) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 182; the same source, V, 260, says that Cardinal Benedetto Giustiniani was named to that post in the same consistory.
(4) In his death bed he was encouraged to elevate his nephew Ottaviano de' Medici to the cardinalate but he refused so as not to machiare la propria fama (stain his own fame), according to Sanfilippo, "Leone XI", III, 276.

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(18) 4. CASTRO OSORIO, Rodrigo de (1523-1600)

Birth. March 5, 1523, Valladolid, Spain. Of the Royal House of Portugal. Eleventh child of Beatriz de Castro, third countess of Lemos, in her second nuptials, and her relative Count Álvaro Osorio. At his own initiative and following a practice common in the 16th century, the future cardinal took his maternal last name as his first surname. His father died when he was 17 years old. His brother, Pedro de Castro Lemos, was bishop of Salamanca. His first name is also listed as Rodericus.

Education. Initiated his education in Valladolid but when he was still a child, he was sent to Monforte de Lemos. In 1541 went to study at the University of Salamanca, Salamanca (bachelor in canons, 1546; licentiate, July 14, 1552).

Early life. Rector of Salamanca, March 10, 1545-1546 (1). In 1548, when King Felipe II of Spain asked Pedro de Castro, bishop of Salamanca and half brother of Rodrigo, to accompany him to visit Flanders, he also went as part of the royal entourage; returned to Salamanca in 1551. Later, he went with his half brother the bishop to London to attend the wedding of King Felipe to Queen Mary I of England. From London he went to Flanders and from there he traveled to Rome where his brother Fernando Ruiz de Castro, marquis of Sarriá, was the Spanish ambassador before the Holy See; he became his secretary of papers and ciphered documents. His brother sent him to Flanders in 1556 to report to King Felipe II of Spain the intention of the pope to form an alliance with France to conquer Naples; returned to Spain in 1558. Member of the tribunal of the Inquisition from 1558 until 1573.

Priesthood. Ordained in 1559, probably by Pedro de Castro, then bishop of Cuenca. The bishop and the cathedral chapter elected him canon and chantre of the cathedral; occupied the post for only half a year. From 1559 until 1565, he was involved in several stages, both in Spain and in Rome, of the process of the Inquisition against Archbishop Bartolomé Carranza de Miranda, O.P., of Toledo (2). On January 31, 1560, he attended in Guadalajara the wedding of King Felipe II with Isabel de Valois; afterwards, he wanted to go back to his canonry of Cuenca, but the king named him advisor of the Inquisition and he had to go and reside at the court. In 1570, he accompanied King Felipe II to the Cortes in Córdoba and on November 14 of that same year attended the fourth marriage of the king, this time with Ana of Austria. In 1573 he was proposed for the diocese of Calahorra, but was not preconized by Rome.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Zamora, August 30, 1574. Consecrated, Sunday, November 7, 1574, at 9 a.m., in the church of San Jerónimo, Madrid, by Cardinal Gaspar de Quiroga, bishop of Cuenca and inquisitor general, assisted by Bernardo de Fresneda, bishop of Córdoba, and by Francisco Soto de Salazar, bishop of Albarracín and Segorbe. Transferred to the see of Cuenca, June 13, 1578. He supported and promoted the writers of his time as well as the musician Francisco Salinas and the painter and poet Pablo de Céspedes. Actively participated in the negotiations between King Felipe II and the royal family of Portugal for the throne of that kingdom (3); when the peaceful negotiations failed, war ensued and in 1580 the Spanish king became the ruler of Portugal. From Badajoz, on his way to Portugal, King Felipe wrote to Bishop Castro asking him to go to Barcelona in order to receive his sister Maria of Austria, wife of Emperor Maximilian II; at the same time the king communicated to him that he had proposed him for archbishop of Seville. The dispatch of the bulls by the pope was made with surprising brevity and on October 20, 1581, he was promoted to the metropolitan see of Sevilla. The new archbishop took possession of the see from Barcelona, by means of powers, on February 15, 1582. He accompanied the king's sister to Madrid and there he had to stay for nine months to serve as a witness in the process against Antonio Pérez, secretary of the king; for this reason he did not enter the Sevillian archdiocese until December 14, 1582.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 12, 1583. He accompanied the king in his political trip to Aragón, Cataluòa and Valencia; in Zaragoza he received the red hat from the nuncio, Ludovico Taverna, bishop of Lodi, on March 7, 1585; and there, he celebrated the wedding of Isabel de Valois with Carlos Manuel de Saboya and then returned to Sevilla. Did not participate in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. Received the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, May 20, 1585. He celebrated archdiocesan synods in 1586 and 1592. In February 1588, he commissioned Fernando de Silva to represent him before the general vicar and absolve Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra of the censorship of excommunication in which he had incurred, without fault, for the embargo wheat of the churches of Ecija destined to the Armada Invencible; the same archbishop later signed the acquittal. Did not participate in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Did not participate in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Did not participate in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Did not participate in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. He aided Fr. Parsons, in the foundation of an English school in Sevilla for the formation of priests who later would go to England; they first occupied a house of the parish of San Lorenzo and three years later, a building was raised the street of Armas, under the invocation of St. Gregory; this was the beginning of English seminaries in Spain that were later followed by those of Irish. After a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela in July 1594, he visited Monforte de Lemos and stayed at the convent of San Antonio; there he wrote his testament ordering the foundation of a school of the Society of Jesus to which he bequeathed funds and works of art as well as his library and asked to be buried in its chapel. King Felipe II named him counselor of state in 1596 and his successor, Felipe III, kept him in that post. In 1598 he went to Madrid for the wedding of the future King Felipe III to the archduchess of Austria; the event was darkened by the death of King Felipe II and the wedding was celebrated in Valencia, conducted by Juan de Ribera, archbishop of that city, and not by Cardinal Rodrigo de Castro, as is written in many documents.

Death. Monday, September 18 (4), at midnight, 1600, Sevilla. Buried in the chapel Nuestra Señra de la Antigua in the metropolitan cathedral of Sevilla, September 20, 1600. Transferred to Monforte de Lemos on November 5, 1603 and buried in the sepulchre he had built in the church of S. Maria de la Antigua (5) of the Jesuit school that he had founded.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 182-184; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, col. 1752-1753; Cotarello Valledor, Armando. El cardenal don Rodrigo de Castro y su fundación en Monforte de Lemos. 2 vols. Madrid : Editorial Magisterio Español, 1945-1946; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 47, 60, 147, 210 and ; Orive, Aniceto. "Castro Osorio, Rodrigo." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols. and supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; 1987, I, 382-384.

Links. His bust, arms, statue and biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; his statue and biography, in English, Wikipedia; Rodrigo de Castro Osorio, in Spanish, Sevillapedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; commemorative postal stamp, issued on 2001-06-01, colnect.com.

(1) At that time, it was customary to name a student of noble origin as rector for one year.
(2) Archbishop Carranza had been accused of heresy because of some opinions contained in his Comentario del reverendissimo señor fray Bartolomé Carranza de Miranda, arzobispo de Toledo, sobre el Catecismo cristiano (Amberes, Martín Nucio, MDLVII). Since April 28, 1558 the process against Archbishop Carranza was brewing. Rodrigo de Castro was chosen by the queen regent, Juana of Portugal, to carry on the secret royal order by which the archbishop should appeared in Valladolid. Different matters delayed the presentation of the prelate. The general inquisitor, Fernando de Valdés, gave Rodrigo de Castro, as a familiar of the Holy office, the express order to bring to Valladolid the illustrious prisoner without any delay. Castro carried out the charge and on August 28, 1559, deposited Archbishop Carranza in the jail of the Inquisition and into the hands of Diego González, inquisitor in that city. King Felipe II was against having the Carranza process advocated in Rome and sent Castro to the papal court with certificates and special letters from influential personages to try the archbishop in Spain. After many inquiries and interviews, Castro could only obtain the appointment of a legate a latere with absolute powers to complete the process. The legacy entrusted to Cardinal Ugo Boncompagni, soon to be Pope Gregory XIII. The solution did not satisfy the king, who made new proposals; but Rome did not satisfy his wishes, and Castro, helped by Francisco Pacheco de Toledo, cardinal in charge of the ecclesiastical affairs of CastiIla in Rome, once again appeared before the pope, who did not give another answer but that of writing to the king personally. The secretary of State, Carlos Borromeo, presented to Castro a copy of the papal instructions; in them the pontiff excluded the Council of the Inquisition and the Inquisition itself from the Carranza subject. In a new hearing with Pius IV, Castro obtained from him the promise to give instructions to the legate to appoint Spanish judges. Even after the legate had left for Spain, Castro presented to the pope an autographed letter from the king requesting the appointment of Spanish judges. In view that he was accomplishing nothing, Castro requested license to leave, bringing King Felipe a letter from the pontiff in which he justified his conduct and his will to satisfy the sovereign wishes. His stay in Rome had lasted nine months. In December of 1565 Pope Pius IV died. With the election of Pope Pius V the Carranza process was moved to Rome and Castro did intervene in the matter again, although he continued being a member of the tribunal until 1573.
(3) In 1580, the Portuguese throne became vacant. One of the pretenders was the duke of Braganza, nephew of Bishop Castro. He wished to please the king, without harming the interests and rights of his Braganza last name. In defense of the interests of King Felipe II, he went to Madrid, spoke to his king, to his relatives, whom he made specifically come from Portugal, and offered to go personally to Lisbon in relation to this matter. The king did not believe the trip to be necessary. His letters give testimony of his efforts and interviews; additionally, he wrote a lengthy report demonstrating the best rights of the Spanish sovereign against Donna Carolina de Braganza. All his efforts were not enough to overcome the obstinacy of the duchess of Braganza and, finally the power of the arms prevailed.
(4) This is according to Cotarello Valledor, El cardenal don Rodrigo de Castro y su fundación en Monforte de Lemos, II, 61; Orive, "Castro Osorio, Rodrigo", I, 382, based on the biography by Cotarello Valledor, also says that he died on September 18, 1600, as does the biographical data linked above; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholic Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 47, indicates that he died on September 20, 1600.
(5) This is his epitaph engraved on a wooden tablet placed by the Jesuits in his tomb, transcribed by Cotarello Valledor, El cardenal don Rodrigo de Castro y su fundación, II, 74:

EEM. OC. REV. EEM. OC. REV. RODERICHUS A CASTRO S. R. E. PRESBYTER CARDINALIS ARCHIE-
PISCOPUS HISPALLIENSIS: PROGENIE MACNUS, VIRTUTIBUS MAXIMUS, MERITIS
OPTIMUS, PAUPERUM PARENS, LITTERARUM AMPLISIMUS PROTECTOR HUJUSCE
BASILICAE AC SCIENTIARUM SCOLLAE MUNIFICENTISIMUS FUNDATOR ET LARGITOR,
PLENUS DIERUM DILLECTUS DEO ET HOMINIBUS QUIESCIT IN PACE
ANIMA MIGRAVIT IN COELUM CINERA VERO HIC SUNT REPOSITA
ANNO DOMINI MDC .

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(19) 5. JOYEUSE, François de (1562-1615)

Birth. June 24, 1562, Carcassonne, France. The family was originally from Vivarais (Joyeuse is today a district town of the Department of Ardèche). Related to the French royal family. Second of the seven sons (1) of Guillaume II de Joyeuse (2) and Marie Eléonore de Batarnay. According the custom, the second son was destined to the ecclesiastical state.

Education. Studied in Toulouse; then at Collège de Navarre, Paris; and at the University of Orléans (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law).

Sacred orders. Ordained deacon for the diocese of Carcassonne. Privy counselor of King Henri III of France. Abbot commendatario of Marmontier and Saint Florent de Saumur, 1587-1605 (3); Feçan; Saint-Sernin in Toulouse; Mount-St-Michel-de-la-Grass; St-Florenz- lès Saumur; Chambons; Grandselve from 1612; Saint-Michel in Pontoise from 1588 until his death; and Auvrillac.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Narbonne, with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age, October 20, 1581. Consecrated after January 25, 1586.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 12, 1583. Went to Rome but arrived too late to participate in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. Received the red hat and the title of S. Silvestro in Capite, May 20, 1585. Advisor to the Parliament of Paris, August 23, 1585. Named by King Henri III protector of France before the Holy See, February 16, 1587; he established himself in Rome (4). Opted for the title of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, December 11 (4), 1587. Knight of the order of Saint-Esprit. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Toulouse, November 4, 1588. Advised by the cardinal, King Henri III asked Pope Sixtus V in March 1589 for absolution for the assassination of Cardinal Louis de Lorraine de Guise. But after the reconciliation of the king with Henri of Navarra in Plessis-lès-route (April 30, 1589) the pope, despite the efforts of the cardinal, published a Monitorium, dated May 24, 1589, which threatened King Henri III with excommunication if he did not release the cardinal of Bourbon and the archbishop of Lyon, both 10 days imprisoned again, and if he did not appear in person or by procura before the court of Rome in 60 days. Cardinal de Joyeuse left Rome immediately Rome (May 30, 1589) and withdrew himself to Venice to the Hieronymite monastery of S. Maria delle Grazie. After the murder of Henri III by Jacques Clément (August 1, 1589) and the accession to the French throne of the Protestant Henri of Navarra as Henri IV, the cardinal attached himself to the Catholic League and went to Languedoc to his brother Antoine Scipion, who had become duke of Joyeuse after the death of the older brother Anne; arriving in Narbonne in November 1589, the cardinal brought his brother his support, authority and prestige as archbishop of Toulouse. He presided the provincial meetings of the league in Lavaur (March 1590); Toulouse, in which it was decided to ask the king of Spain for personnel and financial support; and Castelnaudary (January 1591). Named by King Henri IV protector of France before the Holy See, September 25, 1589. Did not participate in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Did not participate in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. Returned to Languedoc (6). The parliament of Toulouse appointed the cardinal governor of the city and territory but he explained that he accepted the office only provisionally due to his military inexperience; the provincial authority also called his younger brother Henri, Pere Ange, a Capuchin, and named them governor and/or general governor of Languedoc; these nominations were ratified in Carcassonne on November 14, 1592 and confirmed by the duke of Mayenne on November 26, 1592. At the end of 1593, the cardinal went to Rome. The general political situation had changed: King Henri IV had abjured Protestantism in Saint Denis on July 25, 1593, had been crowned in Chartres on February 27, 1594; and entered Paris on March 22, 1594. After the death of Cardinal Nicolas de Pellevé, March 24, 1594, Cardinal de Joyeuse became the most senior French cardinal and leader of the church in his country (7). Opted for the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, April 27, 1594. In 1595, together with Arnaud d'Ossat, his former secretary, and Jacques Davy du Perron, bishop of Evreux, he worked to obtain the absolution of the king from Pope Clement VIII. On September 17, 1595, the king was solemnly absolved (8). At the beginning of 1596, the cardinal assured King Henri IV of his loyalty and he was immediately confirmed as protector of France in Rome. Afterwards, he spent a long stay in France. In September 1598. King Henri IV sent him back to Rome to negotiate the annulment of his marriage to Marguerite de Valois, which had taken place in 1572. On February 13, 1599 he arrived in Rome and Pope Clement VIII named him president of the ecclesiastical commission charged with the examination of the matter, together with the archbishop of Arles, Orazio del Monte, and the nuncio in France, Gasparo Silingardi, bishop of Modena; the cardinal returned to France in the summer 1599; on December 17, the papal authorization for the new royal marriage was issued. On November 9, 1600 the cardinal received the new queen Marie de' Medicis at her arrival in Marseille. In August 1603, Cardinal de Joyeuse returned to Rome on instructions of the king, who wished that the French cardinals would be for as a long time as possible at the papal court so that the influence of France would be restored.

Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, March 24, 1604. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Rouen, retaining the suburbicarian see of Sabina, December 1, 1604. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. In June 1605 the king permitted him to return to France. In November of the same year, he had to return to Italy, in order to smooth out the controversy between the pope and Venice. Pope Paul V had asked the Republic of Venice to waive several laws which concerned the goods of the church and the ecclesiastical immunity and also to hand over two clerics who had been arrested because of criminal offences to be tried by church judges. Since the Republic of Venice authorities rejected the pontiff's request, he excommunicated the senators on April 17, 1606. Besides, the pope also placed a ban on the entire territory of the republic. King Henri IV, a traditional ally of the Venetians, suggested Cardinal de Joyeuse as a mediator and the pope accepted. In November 1606, the cardinal left from France and arrived on February 14, 1607 in Chiozza and went to Venice two days later. After skillful negotiations, he obtained the abolition of the ban from the pope, and after the imprisoned clerics were handed over by the Venetians, he published the abolition of the papal censure on April 21. After the re-establishment of the diplomatic relations between Venice and the Holy See, the cardinal returned home in the spring of 1607, his authority considerably enhanced. Legate a latere to represent Pope Paul V at the baptism of the successor to the throne, July 17, 1606; the ceremony took place on September 14, 1606 in Fontainebleau. Member of the council of regency during the minority of King Louis XIII. On May 13, 1610, he crowned Queen Marie de' Medici in Saint Denis; but the day after, King Henri IV was murdered by Ravaillac. On the following October 17, he (instead of the archbishop of Reims, who had not yet received the episcopal consecration) crowned the young King Louis XIII in Reims. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, proper of the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, August 17, 1611. In that same year, Queen Marie de' Medici asked him to represent the French interests in Rome.

Meanwhile, his health deteriorated and in 1613 he suffered a stroke from which he recovered only partially. President of the États Généraux of October 1614; under his presidency, the Assembly of the Clergy decided to apply the decrees of the Council of Trent. In 1615 he left Paris, to return to Rome via Languedoc. From Narbonne he went to Our Lady of Montserrat, where he spent Easter, then withdrew to the school of the Jesuits and went from Billom into Auvergne and then to the baths of Vic seeking to improve his health. On August 8, he reached Avignon. He was the founder of a monastery in Narbonne; a seminary for priests in Pontoise, which he entrusted to the Jesuits (it was later moved to Rouen); an educational establishment for girls, also in Pontoise; and an institute for the Oratorians in Dieppe. He was one of the outstanding figures of the French episcopacy around the turn of the 16th to the 17th century; played a moderating role with the king of France and the Holy See by a double loyalty, which was very important in this epoch of the 16th century religious wars; and after the civil peace was restored, he played an important diplomatic role and acquired great prestige on the international scene. He also participated intensively in the reform of the Catholic Church (9).

Death. August 23, 1615, of dysentery, Collége d'Avignon. Buried in the Jesuit church of Saint-Louis of Pontoise that he had founded (10); his heart was deposited at Collége d'Avignon.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 1106-114; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 195-199; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, col. 1757; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 47, 70, 71, 253 and 315; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, IV, 38, 48, 50 and 298.

Links. Biography, in French, Wikipedia; his engraving by Frans Van Den Wyngaerde, Châteaux de Versailles et de Trianon, Versailles, his engraving, Châteaux de Versailles et de Trianon, Versailles; his engraving in color by Thierry Bellange, 17th century, musée national du Château de Pau; his bust, Ecole française, Châteaux de Versailles et de Trianon, Versailles.

(1) His brothers were: Anne, duke of Joyeuse (1561-1587); Henri, a Capuchin friar, later duke of Joyeuse (1563-1608); Antoine Scipion, knight of Malta, grand prior of Toulouse and duke of Joyeuse (1565-1592); Georges, baron of Saint-Didier (1567-1584); Claude, signeur of Saint Sauveur (1569-1587); and Honorat, who died young.
(2) He was bishop of Alet from 1530 until 1557 and left the ecclesiastical state at the death of his brother in order to secure the succession of his family. He married in 1560.
(3) He exchanged them in 1604 for the archdiocese of Rouen with Archbishop Charles de Bourbon.
(4) In 1587, while he was in Rome, several tragic events happened that affected his personal life as well as his mission: the death of his brothers Anne and Claude in the battle of Coutras (October 20, 1587); the revolutionary days of May 1588 and the escape of King Henri III; and finally, the murder in Blois of the duke and the cardinal of Guise (December 23/24, 1588).
(5) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 71 and on that same page, he says that another source, which is not mentioned, indicates that he opted on December 2, 1587.
(6) He consecrated numerous French bishops both in Rome as well as in France, among them Jérôme Hennequin, bishop of Soissons (Rome, August 1587); Pierre de Donnaud, bishop of Mirepoix (Rome, September 27, 1587); Pierre Saulnier, bishop of Autun (Rome, July 17, 1588); Cyr de Thyard, bishop of Châlons (Rome, February 20, 1594); Honoré de Lascaris, bishop of Aosta (Rome, April 2, 1594); Jacques Davy du Perron, bishop of Evreux, future cardinal (Rome, December 27, 1595); François de Donadieu, bishop of Auxerre (Rome, August 1, 1599); Léger de Plas, bishop of Lectoure (Paris, December 19, 1599); François d'Escoubleau de Sourdis, archbishop of Bordeaux, future cardinal (Paris, December 21, 1599); Gaspard Dinet, bishop of Mâcon (Paris, January 6, 1600); Louis de Vervins, archbishop of Narbonne (Lyon, December 8, 1600); Jean Raymond, bishop of Saint-Papoul (Toulouse, October 13, 1602); Gabriel de l'Aubespine, bishop of Orléans; and Antoine de Cous, coadjutor of Condom (Rome, March 28, 1604); Guillaume Le Gouverneur, bishop of Saint-Malo (Paris, February 20, 1611); François de Harlay de Champvallon, coadjutor of Rouen (Paris, March 2, 1604).
(7) His father died at the beginning of 1592 and his brother Antoine Scipion became governor of the Languedoc and marshal of France on March 17, 1592; but he was attacked by the royal forces in the siege of Villemur and he drowned on October 20, 1592 in the escape attempt.
(8) The papal absolution won the king the loyalty of many members of the League, among them those from Languedoc, and the peace of Folembray was signed on January 24, 1596.
(9) As a bishop, he worried about his tasks for the eternal salvation of his flock; he summoned in 1590 a provincial council in Toulouse; published different synodal resolutions and decrees (Toulouse, 1596 and 1597; Rouen, 1606) as well as an introduction for the clergy in the practice of their office (1607-1613); and he personally conducted several episcopal visitations in his archdiocese of Toulouse (1590, 1592, 1595, 1596, 1597, 1602) and of Rouen (1609).
(10) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from his biography in French frpm Wikipedia, linked above:
EMINENTISSIMO CARDINALI FRANCISCO DE JOYEUSE NARBONIS, TOLOSE, NEC NON ROTHOMAGI ARCHIEPISCOP QUI TUM REG(...) HENRICI TECTII ET QUARTI TUM SUMMI PONTIFICIS PAULI QUINT LEGATUS ADMINISTRATIS DOMI FORISQUE REBUS MAXIMIS POSTQUAM ECLESIA ET REGIBUS SUIS PLURIMAM NAVAVISSET OPERAM VIR CLARUS GESTIS HONORIBUS CLARIOR ET VIRTUTIBUS ET DOCTRINA CARDINALIUM DECANUS OBIIT AV(...)NE ANNO M.DC.XV AETATIS LIII CUJUS (...)RPUS PONTISARAM PRIMO DEL(...) INDE SEMINARIO AB IPSO ROTHOMAGI CONDITO ANNO M.(...)CC.LXXIX REDDITUM ACCEPIT HIC TUMULUS IN BENEFICIORUM MEMORIA MAGISTRA (...) RUBIS ANNO M.DCCC.XXVI POSITUS E(...)E PRINCIPE DE CROY CA(...) ROTHOMAGENSI ARCHIEPISCOPO.

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(20) 6. DELLA TORRE, Michele (1511-1586)

Birth. 1511, Udine. Count of Valdessina in 1533. His last name is also listed as Turriani, Torriani and a Turre. Son of Luigi della Torre, nobleman of Udine originally from Milan, of the counts of Valsassina and signori of Villalta, and Taddea Strassoldo.

Education. Fatti con successo i suoi studi (1) (did his studies with success).

Early life. Cleric of Aquileia. Dean of the cathedral chapter of Udine. Chamberlain and picerna of Pope Paul III, 1543.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ceneda February 7, 1547. Consecrated, before May 30, 1547 (no further information found). Nuncio in France, August 20, 1547 (2) until 1550. Participated in the Council of Trent from October 11, 1551 until April 28, 1552; from October 10, 1561 until its closing; he signed its acts. Vice-legate in Perugia and Umbria, September 15, 1553 until June 1555. Majordome of the papal house, May 23, 1555 until 1557. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace in the pontificate of Pope Pius IV (1559-1565). Nuncio in France again, March 25, 1566 until August 12, 1568.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 12, 1583; never received the red hat and the title. Did not participate in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V.

Death. February 21, 1586, Ceneda. Buried in the cathedral of Ceneda.

Bibliography. Biaudet, Henry. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes jusqu'en 1648. Helsinki ; Suomalainen tiedeakatemia, 1910, p. 289; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 185-187; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, col. 1753; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 47 and 162; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), p. 137 and 175; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 326 and 951.

Link. Biography by Matteo Sanfilippo, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 37 (1989), Treccani; brief biographical data, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico Friulano; his arms, engraving and portrait, Araldica Vaticana..

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 185.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 162; Biaudet, Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes jusqu'en 1648, p. 289, indicates that he was named in October 1547.

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(21) 7. CANANI, Giulio (1524-1592)

Birth. 1524, Ferrara. Son of Luigi Canani and Lucrezia Brancaleone. Of a family of professors of medicine; Giovanni Battista Canani was the physician of Pope Julius III. His last name is also listed as Canano.

Education. Studied at the University of Ferrara, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Cleric of Ferrara. Went to Rome with the protection of the princes of the House d'Este; became a close friend of Balduino del Monte, brother of Cardinal Gianmaria del Monte, future Pope Julius III, of whom he gained the esteem. Pope Julius III (1550-1555) named him his privy secretary and familiaris. Papal datary, 1552-1555.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Adria, November 26, 1554. Consecrated, December 30, 1554, Vatican sacristy, by Giovanni Giacomo Barba, bishop of Terni, papal sacristan, assisted by Cristoforo de Spiritibus, titular patriarch of Jerusalem, and by Dionisio de Robertis, archbishop of Manfredonia. Participated in the Council of Trent, from February 2, 1562 to 1563.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 12, 1583; received the red hat and the title of S. Eusebio, November 28, 1584. Participated in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. Legate in Romagna, May 13, 1585; asked the pope to be dispensed from the legation because of poor health, July 28, 1586 (1). Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Transferred to the see of Modena, February 8, 1591. Opted for the title of S. Anastasia, March 20, 1591. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII.

Death. November 27, 1592, Ferrara, where he had gone to greet Alfonso II of Mantua, who was visiting that city. Buried in the sacristy of the church of S. Domenico, Ferrara (2).

Bibliography. Bernabei, Nicola. Vita del cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena, e biografie dei cardinali modenesi e di casa d'Este, dei cardinali vescovi di Modena e di quelli educati in questo Collegio di San Carlo. Modena : Ditta tipografica Rossi, 1885, pp. 285-287; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 187-189; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, cols. 1753-1754; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 47, 60, 63, 95 and 252; Storti, Nicola. La storia e il diritto della Dataria Apostolica dalle origini ai nostri giorni. Napoli : Athena mediterranea, 1969, p. 168; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 365 and 541-542.

Link. Biography by Fabio Troncarelli, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 17 (1974), Treccani; his arms and portrait, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) The pope named Cardinal Antonmaria Salviati, legate in Bologna, to replace him provisionally; Cardinal Domenico Pinelli was named permanent legate.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli in Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1754: D. I. IVLIO CANANO nobili Ferrarrien. S. R. E. tt. Sanctæ Anastasiæ Presb. Card. ex Canonorum Bisantii stirpe Palælogis Imperatoribus una propagata. Qui Iulio Tertio Pont. Max. Iuvenis admodum à secretis adeò acceptis inservivit ; ut in eum Pontificiam auctoritatem supplicationes quascumque, scripturasue signandi fidenter effuderit. Qui Adriæ, Mutinæ episcopatus veneficia cohibendo, hæres extirpando, ac Templa restitutendo, vigilanter rexit; Qui Sacrosantæ Tridentinæ Synodo interfuit. Qui à Gregorio XIII. postrema illa promosione inter Cardinales cooptatus fuit ; qui denique Sixti V. Legatus Æmiliam tàm æque, iustèq; est moderatus, ut nomen eius perpetuò gloriosum fit permansurum. Alexander S. Iacobi Æques, sapientium Iudex fratris optimo, gratæ testificationis ergo P. I. Vixit Annos LXVIII. Obiit V. Kalend. Decembr. MDXCII.

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(22) 8. SFONDRATI, Niccolò (1535-1591)

Birth. February 11, 1535, castle of Somma, near Milan. Son of Francesco Sfondrati, Milanese senator and future cardinal (1544), and Anna Visconti. His baptismal name was Niccolò Francesco. Uncle of Cardinal Paolo Emilio Sfondrati (1590) and great-grand-uncle of Cardinal Celestino Sfondrati, O.S.B. (1695).

Education. University of Padua, Padua; University of Perugia, Perugia; University of Pavia, Pavia (doctorate).

Early life. Milanese patrician. Count of the Holy Roman Empire. Signore of Vallassina, Pusiano, Bosizio, Suella, Mojana, Garbagnate, Borima, Maggiolino, Masnaga, Tregolo, Pettana, Tabiago, Mandello, Bellano, Devio, Corenno and Monte d'Introzzo, 1550-1556. On June 20, 1552, he was called by King Felipe II of Spain to be a Milanese senator. President of the government of Siena. Entered the church in Milan under Carlo Borromeo, archbishop of the city, who admitted him to his family.

Priesthood. Received the priestly ordination (no further information found). Abbot of Civate, 1551.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Cremona, March 13 (1), 1560. Participated in the Council of Trent from March 31, 1561 until its closing on December 4, 1563; member of the commissions pro indice librorum, February 17, 1562; and ad conficiendos canones de matrimonio, June 21, 1563. Consecrated, April or May 1564, Milan, by Cardinal Carlo Borromeo, archbishop of Milan, assisted by (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 12, 1583; received the red hat and the title of S. Cecilia, January 14, 1585. Participated in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590 and was elected pope. While a cardinal, he became a very close friend of Filippo Neri, who predicted his elevation to the supreme pontificate.

Papacy. Elected pope on December 5, 1590. Took the name Gregory XIV. Crowned, December 8, 1590, patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Andreas von Austria, protodeacon of S. Maria Nuova. Created five cardinals in two consistories.

Death. October 16 (2), 1591, Rome. Buried, patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome.

Bibliography. Annuario Pontificio per l'anno 2003 Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2003, p. 18*; Borromeo, Agostino. "Gregorio XIV." Enciclopedia dei Papi. 3 vols. Roma: Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, 2000, III, 230-240; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 189-191; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1754; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 47, 53-54, 61 and 181; Sanclemente, Enrico. Series critico-chronologica episcoporvm cremonensivm svb avspiciis prætantissimi antistitis Homoboni Offredi ex authenticis monvmentis avcta et emendata svaqve integritati maxima ex parte restitvta. Cremonæ : apvd Josephvm Feraboli, MDCCCXI, p. 162-163.

Links. Biographyby Michael Ott, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography by Agostino Borromeo, in Italian, Enciclopedia dei Papi (2000), Treccani; his arms and engravings, Araldica Vaticana; his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; Castello Visconteo di Somma Lombardo with brief biographical data; his engraving by Nicolas van Aelst, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nürnberg; his engraving by Friedrich van Hulsen, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nürnberg; another engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; one more engraving, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; his tomb in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, The Australian National University.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 181; and Sanclemente, Series critico-chronologica episcoporvm cremonensivm, p. 162; Borromeo, "Gregorio XIV", III, 321, indicates that he was named on March 3, 1560.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 53; and Annuario Pontificio per l'anno 2004, p. 18*; his biography in The Catholic Encyclopedia, linked above and Sanclemente, Series critico-chronologica episcoporvm cremonensivm, p. 162 and 163, indicate that he died on October 15, 1591.

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(23) 9. SALVIATI, Antonmaria (1537-1602)

Birth. January 21, 1537, Florence. Of a noble family of Tuscan origin, related to the Medicis. Son of Lorenzo Salviati and Costanza Conti. Grand-nephew of Pope Leo X from the side of one of the pontiff's sisters. Nephew of Cardinals Giovanni Salviati (1517) and Bernardo Salviati, O. S. Io.Hier. (1561), his predecessor in the see of Saint-Papoul. Relative of Cardinal Lodovico Pico della Mirandola (1712). Other cardinals of the family were Alamanno Salviati (1730); and Gregorio Salviati (1777). His first name is also listed as Antonio Maria.

Education. He had eccellente dotrina (1). (No further educational information found).

Early life. He entered the ecclesiastical state at a young age, following the example of his two uncles. Knight of S. Pietro.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Saint-Papoul, France, August 8, 1561. Consecrated (no information found). Participated in the Council of Trent, 1561-1562. Resigned the government of the diocese in 1564. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, May 4, 1570 (2); later, its dean. Internuncio before King Charles IX of France for the affairs of the league against the Turks, February-December 1571. Nuncio in France, June 11, 1572 until March 8, 1578. Governor of Civitavecchia, January 22, 1583.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 12, 1583; received the red hat and deaconry of S. Maria in Aquiro, January 9, 1584. Participated in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. Legate in Bologna, May 13, 1585 until July 1586. Named legate in Romagna, provisionally, to replace Cardinal Giulio Canani, who had to be dispensed because of poor health on July 28, 1586. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Maria della Pace (3), April 20, 1587. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. The new pope appointed him, together with Cardinal Mariano Pierbenedetti, to preside over all the tribunals of the Roman Curia with ample faculties to judge and define all the causes. Named president of the Tribunal of the Sacred Roman Rota by Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. Named, together with Cardinals Alessandro Damasceni Peretti and Mariano Pierbenedetti, to the prefecture of Rome, of the Sacred Consulta, and of the cities of the entire papal state, 1592. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina (4), April 24, 1600. Cardinal protoprete. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, August 30, 1600. He became very famous for his generosity, and exhibited truly princely munificence in favor of churches, hospitals and charitable works. He contributed with his assets to the expanding and reconstruction of the Hospital of S. Giacomo, of which he had been guardian prelate, and of its annexed church; also he helped in the financing for the purification of the water del legno. He was the protector of the hospital of S. Rocco, and destined the proceeds of his estate of Acquasona for the erection of an unit in that hospital, destined to receive sick poor, nobles in poverty, needy expecting women, especially marriageable. He also protected the institute for orphans of S. Maria in Aquiro and in 1591, with one spolia of 10.000 scudi, he had built a new arm in that house, assigning it to a school that was later called "Salviati"; and also he had the church, his former deaconry, rebuilt. He was a close friend of Camillo de Lellis, future saint.

Death. April 16, 1602, hora fere prima noctis (almost at the first hour of the night) (5), Rome. Buried next to the main altar of the parish church of S. Giacomo in Augusta (or degli Incurabili), Rome (6). The solemn funeral took place on January 22, 1603 in that church and the eulogy was delivered by Pompeo Ugoni.

Bibliography. Biaudet, Henry. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes jusqu'en 1648. Helsinki ; Suomalainen tiedeakatemia, 1910, p. 284; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 191-195; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1755-1757; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 47, 66, 74 and 270; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, IV, 43 and 46; Hurtubise, Pierre ; Toupin, Robert. Correspondance du nonce en France, Antonio Maria Salviati : 1572-1578. 2 v. Rome : Université pontificale grégorienne : École française de Rome, 1975. (Acta Nuntiaturae Gallicae ; 12-13). Contents: t. 1. 1572-1574.--t. 2. 1574-1578; Hurtubise, Pierre. Une famille-témoin, les Salviati. Città del Vaticano : Biblioteca apostolica vaticana, 1985. (Studi e testi ; 309 ; Variation: Studi e testi (Biblioteca apostolica vaticana) ; 309); Vanti, Mario. S. Giacomo degl'Incurabili di Roma nel Cinquecento dalle Compagnie Del Divino Amore a S. Camillo de Lellis. Rome : F. Pustet, 1938, p. 21 ff.; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 151, 215 and 889; Wiedmann, Gerhard. "Il cardinale Anton Maria Salviati e il pittore Giovan Battista Ricci in Augusta a Roma." In Per la storia dell4arte in Italia e in Europa: studi in onore di Luisa Mortari. Roma : De Luca editori d'arte, 2004, p. 228-233.

Links. His epitaph in his tomb in the parish church of S. Giacomo in Augusta (or degli Incurabili), Rome; his arms and portrait, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 191.
(2) This is according to Weber, Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809, p. 889; both, Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 192; and his biographical data in Italian, linked above, say that he was named in 1571.
(3) This title was newly erected by Pope Sixtus V in 1587.
(4) Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 43, indicates that habitually, but non semper de facto, this was the title of the cardinal protoprete.
(5) This is according to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1756; but according to the epitaph, the date of his death was XV KAL. APR., which is equivalent to the 17th of March; and that would push back his date of birth to December 21, 1536 if (as the same epitaph says) he lived LXV years, II months and XXVII days. It is still more complicated, because between his birth and his death, took place the change from the Julian Calendar to the Gregorian, and ten days were skipped (from the 4th of October, 1582, it went to the 15th of October), so if in fact if he lived those years, months and days it is because he was born 10 days before, the 11th of December, 1536. Perhaps the date of 21st of January, 1537, has to be understood like a calculation, doubly erroneous, assuming that XV KAL. APR. is equivalent to 15 of April (which is an erroneous reading). Even if it were so, his date of birth would only be the 21 of January of 1537 if the Gregorian Calendar were applied retroactively, because if not, it would be ten days before. It is also possible to think that the one who wrote the epitaph did not consider the change of the calendar, and when saying that he lived LXV years, II months and XXVII days he did it based on the nominal date of birth, according to the Julian one, and then what is mistaken is that he lived those ten days that the change of calendar deleted. This seems most probable, and although the epitaph mathematically would be mistaken, the date of birth would be 21st of December, 1536. (Notes from Mr. Francisco Vázquez, Valencia, Spain).
(6) This the text of his epitaph inscribed on a slab of porphyritic marble and reproduced by Ferdinando Ughelli in Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, cols. 1756-1757: I. P. C. ANTONIVS. MARIA. SALVIATVS. S. R. E. CARD. ÆDIBVS. ADIACENTIBVS. IN. ÆGROTORVM. CVRAM. EXTRVXIT. IN. HOC. QVOD. A. FVNDAMENTIS. EXTRVXIT. TEMPLO. SEPVULCRVM. SIBI. DELEGIT. VIXIT. ANN. LXV. MENSES. II. DIES. XXVII. OBIIT. XV. KAL. APR. MDCII. LAVRENTIVS. SALVIATVS. IACOBI. FILIVS. MARCHIO. IVULIANI. EX. TESTAMENTO. HÆRES. PATRIS. PATRVELI. P. C. ANN. MDCIV.

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(24) 10. VALIER, Agostino (1531-1606)

Birth. April 7, 1531, Venice. Eldest of the four children of Alberto Valier and Lucia Navagero. The other siblings were Andrea, Laura and Giovanni Luigi. Nephew of Cardinal Bernardo Navagero (1561), on his mother's side. Uncle of Cardinal Pietro Valier (1621). His last name is also listed as Valerio; as Valiero; as Valieri; as Valerius; and as Velier.

Education. Studied Greek, Latin, humanities, and philosophy under Lazzaro Bonamico in Venice. Later, studied theology, law and Hebrew at the Vatican Academy founded by Cardinal Carlo Borromeo. University of Padua, Padua (doctorates in law and theology, 1554).

Early life. Public professor of moral philosophy in Venice from 1558. Cleric of Venice.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Verona, May 15 (1), 1565. Consecrated (no information found). Applied in his diocese the decrees of the Council of Trent; and expanded the council's reforms, as apostolic visitor, to the dioceses of Istria, Dalmatia, Venice and Padua starting in 1579. Prefect of the S.C. of the Index.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 12, 1583; received the red hat and the title of S. Marco, January 14, 1585. Did not participate in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 8, 1596 to 1597. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, June 1, 1605. Called to Rome, he was ascribed to the SS. CC. of the Holy Office and the Index and named examiner of bishops; to help him in the government of the see of Verona, his nephew Alberto Valeri, bishop of Famagusta, was named his coadjutor with right of succession.

Death. May 23, 1606, Rome (2). Buried temporarily in his former title, S. Marco; transferred to Verona and buried in its cathedral (3).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 199-204; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, col. 17581760; Cipriani, Giovanni. La mente di un inquisitore. Agostino Valier e l'opusculum De Cautione adhibenda in edendis libris. Firenze : Nicomp Laboratorio Editoriale, 2009; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 47, 65 and 331; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, IV, 37 and 58; Zedler, Johann Heinrich, and Carl Günther Ludovici. Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste. 64 v. Graz, Adakemische Druck, 1961- . Reprint. Originially published : Halle : J. H. Zedler, 1732-50. Vols. 19-64 ed. by Carl Günther Ludovici.

Links. His portrait by an anonymous Italian artist (16th-17th century), 1590-1610, Veneranda Biblioteca Ambrosiana, De Agostini, Getty Images; his portraits and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his engraving, Tarmassia online; his arms in the abbey of S. Stefano de Isola della Scala; II Visitatio di A.Valier (13.10.1581), in Latin and Italian, translated by Stefano Gobbi, 2007, Tarmassia online; his portrait by Andrea Voltolini, 17th century (1692), diocese of Verona, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); Elenco dei Vescovi della Diocesi di Verona, in Italian, diocese of Verona.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 331; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1758, says that he was named on May 18, 1565.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 47; Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, indicates that he died on May 24, 1606, which corresponds to the date in his epitaph: IX KAL. IUNII.
(3) This is his brief epitaph on the floor of the cathedral, transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli in Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1759:

AVGUSTINVS. VALERIVS. CARD. EPISC. VERON
H. S. E.
V. T. F. I.

And the eulogy on his catafalque by Francesco Pola:
O     S     S     A
AVUGUSTINI. VALERI. CARDINALIS.
SEMPER. MEMORABILIS.
ET. VBIQ. ROMA. HVC. TRANSPORTATA. IACENT.
VIX. ANNIS. LXXV. MENSES. I. DIES. XVIII.
EX. QVIBVS. XLI. IN. HOC. EPISCOPATV.
OBIIT. IX. KALEND. IVNII. MDCVI.

This is the text of the memorial on the south wall of the nave between the Blessed Sacrament and the Emilei chapels, kindly provided by Mr. Mark West, from London:

ACCEDE VIATOR ACCEDE
SPECTACULUM ECCE DIGNUM AD QUOD TUO INTENTUS OPERE RESPICIAS
AUGUSTINO VALERIO CARDIN ·
EPISCOPOQ VERONENSI
INTER QUEM ET DEUM
VIRTUTE CONCILIANTI OMNI
SUMMA NECESSITUDO FUIT SUMMA SIMILITUDO
SPLENDIDISSIMUS VERONEN · ORDO
IDEMQ · GRATISSIMUS
DECRETO SUMPTUQ · PUBLICO
P ·
PATRONO SUO ET PARENTI
BENEMERITISSIMO
MAGNO BONO SUO ET DIUTURNO
A · D · M · D · C · XXXIX

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(25) 11. LAURO, Vincenzo (1523-1592)

Birth. March 23, 1523, Tropea. Of a family of ancient nobility but scarce resources originally from Amantea, province of Cosenza. It belong to a branch of the Sanseverino family. Son of Antonio Lauro and Raimonda Migliarese. The father had moved with the family to Tropea to tend to a charge from Duke Ferdinando Carafa. The family had seven children, of which Marco and Dorotea entered religious orders; and Leonardo joined the secular clergy. His last name is also listed as Lauri; as Laureo; and as Laureus.

Education. Studied at the Castle of Filogaso; had optimal educators procured by the duke of Tuscany, among them the famous Spaniard Juan Padilla; later, he studied medicine at the University of Naples; and at the University of Padua, where he earned doctorates in medicine and theology.

Early life. Still young, he entered the ecclesiastical secretariat of Cardinal Pier Paolo Parisio, but it was Cardinal Nicola Gaddi who started him in the political engagements making him travel to Rome, Paris, London, Warsaw, Edinburgh and Glasgow. His diplomatic career began in 1552 when he entered the service of Cardinal François de Tourmon, who was among the most powerful political figures of France; while in that country, he was present at the death of Antonio, king of Navarra. Thanks to diplomatic endeavors, he had the occasion to establish friendships with princes, queens and ambassadors all over Europe who esteemed him both as a physician and an ecclesiastic. He returned to Italy and entered the service of Cardinal Ippolito d'Este, and later, he was called to Turin and became the physician of Duke Emanuele Filiberto di Savoia.

Sacred orders. Subdeacon of the diocese of Tropea.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Mondovì, January 30, 1566. Consecrated, Rome, before May 5, 1566. Sent to a mission before Queen Mary Stuart of Scotland, August 29, 1566; even if he could not, given the difficult situation, put into effect the plans of the Holy See, the pope praised him for his shrewdness; his dramatic letters are precious historical sources for the travails and vicissitudes of that kingdom. Returned to his diocese and started the application of the decrees of the Council of Trent. Nuncio in Savoy, November 23, 1568 until June 1, 1573. Nuncio in Poland, June 1, 1573 until April 9, 1578 (1). Again, nuncio in Savoy, September 15, 1580 until May 10, 1585. In September 1580, he was named member, and later president, of the commission formed by Pope Gregory XIII for the approval and application of the project of Luigi Giglio of the Gregorian Calendar. He was a friend of future saints Ignacio de Loyola, Camillo De Lellis and Filippo Neri, as well of writer Annibal Caro; and future Cardinal Federico Borromeo. Abbot commendatario of S. Maria a Pinerolo.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 12, 1583; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Via, May 20, 1585. Did not participate in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. In this period he worked at the side of Camillo De Lellis, who had founded the Hospital of the Incurabili; he obtained from the Vatican the authorization to allow the regular clerics ministers of the infirm to wear a cape marked with a cross of red color, that later became the symbol of the International Red Cross. Abbot commendatario of S. Maria di Pinerolo, 1585-1589. Opted for the title of S. Clemente, March 2, 1589. Protector of Scotland before the Holy See in the pontificate of Pope Sixtus V. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII.

Death. December 17, 1592, assisted by Camillo de Lellis, in Rome (2). Father Camillo celebrated the solemn exequies in the church of S. Maria in Trastevere, Rome. The body was transferred, with an imposing funeral cortege, to the basilica of S. Clemente, where it was buried (3). He left his library to Collegio Romano of the Society of Jesus.

Bibliography. Biaudet, Henry. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes jusqu'en 1648. Helsinki ; Suomalainen tiedeakatemia, 1910, p. 271; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 204-210; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1760-1761; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 47, 62, 67, 250.

Links. Biography by Laura Ronchi De Michelis, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 64 (2005), Treccani; his arms and portraits, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) There was a difficult situation for the election of the new king. Poland was considered a bastion against the Turks since they had been stopped at Lepanto with the famous naval battle when they threatened to invade Europe. Moreover, there was fear concerning the expansionistic intentions of Russia and Germany; and also, the Holy See was preoccupied with the spread of Protestantism in Poland. Henri de Valois was elected king of Poland in February 1574 but his reign lasted little, because at the death of his brother Charles IX on May 30, 1574, he rapidly returned to France to assume the crown of that kingdom; on July 15, 1575 he was declared deposed; the Protestants were exultant because they hoped that one of them or at least one of their protégés would be elected. The nuncio tried, as it was the desire of Pope Gregory XIII, to have Maximilian II, emperor of Austria, elected to the Polish throne as he seemed more adapted to the situation, particularly for the resistance against the Turks. Instead, Stefan Bathóry was elected king and this greatly satisfied both the pope and Nuncio Lauro.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 47; Biaudet, Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes jusqu'en 1648, p. 271, indicates that he died on December 16, 1591.
(3). This is the text of his epitaph transcribed by Andrea Vittorelli in Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, 1760:

D.     O.     M.
HIC. IACET. VINCENTIVS. LAVREVS.
TT. SANCTI. CLEMENTIS.
SANCTÆ. ROMANÆ. ECCLESIÆ. PRESBYTER. CARDINALIS.
MONTIS. REGALIS. NVNCVPATVS.
OBIIT. DECIMOSEPTIMO. KAL. IANVARII. MDXCII.
RELIGIO. MINISTRANTIVM. INFIRMIS.
HÆRES. OPTIME. DE. SE. MERENTI. EX. TESTAMENTO. POSVIT.

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(26) 12. SPINOLA, Filippo (1535-1593)

Birth. December 1, 1535, Genoa (1). Of a patrician family. Third of the six children of Agostino Spinola, count of Tassarolo, and Gironima Albenga. They belonged to the fourth branch of the family Spinola di Luccoli, which possessed imperial fiefs. The other siblings were Marcantonio (count of Tassarolo and of the Holy Roman Empire and knight of S, Iago), Ettore, Ottavio (knight of Malta), Fabrizio and Ottavia. Other cardinals of the various branches of the Spinola family were Agostino Spinola (1527); Orazio Spinola (1606); Agustín Spínola (1621); Giandomenico Spinola (1626); Giulio Spinola (1666); Giambattista Spinola, seniore (1681); Giambattista Spinola, iuniore (1695); Niccolò Spinola (1715); Giorgio Spinola (1719); Giovanni Battista Spinola (1733); Girolamo Spinola (1759); Ugo Pietro Spinola (1831).

Education. Had felice disposizioni per le science (good disposition for science) (2). (No further educational information found).

Early life. Served the city of Genoa with distinction. Went to Rome, entered the church and became referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace and later, domestic prelate of His Holiness.

Sacred orders. Received the subdiaconate.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Bisignano, with dispensation for not having yet received all the major orders, February 8, 1566. Consecrated, February 17, 1566, Pauline chapel, Vatican palace, by Cardinal Giambattista Cicada, assisted by Carlo Cicada, bishop of Albenga, and by Giovanni Ambrosio Fieschi, bishop of Savona. In the same ceremony, Luca de Fieschi, bishop of Andria, was also consecrated. Transferred to the see of Nola, March 9, 1569.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 12, 1583; received the red hat and the title of S. Sabina, February 20, 1584. Participated in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. Administrator of the diocese of Sora, 1585. Legate in Perugia and Umbria, May 13, 1585, for a biennium; legation renewed until 1591. Legate in the duchy of Spoleto. Resigned the government of the two dioceses before July 1, 1585. Prefect of the S.C. of Regulars. Prefect of the pontifical galleys. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. He was a member of the cardinalitial commission for the affairs of Hungary and Germany. In the absence of Cardinal Ludovico Maddruzo from Rome, he acted as protector of the Empire before the Holy See.

Death. August 20, 1593, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Sabina, Rome where his brothers erected a mausoleum in his memory (3); later, transferred to Genoa and buried in the tomb of his ancestors in that city.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 210-211; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1761; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 127; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 47, 70, 134, 260 and 302; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), p. 136; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 922; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 329 and 927.

Link. His arms and engraving, Araldica Vaticana; his tomb in the church of S. Sabina, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is according to his epitaph (note 3), which says that he died on DECIMOTERTIO. KAL. SEPTEMBRIS and lived 57 years, 8 months and 20 days. If the change of calendar from the Julian to the Gregorian with the deletion of ten days is taken into consideration, then he was born on November 21, 1535.
(2) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 210.
(3) This is the inscription on his mausoleum taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D     O     M
PHILIPPO·SPINOLÆ·GENVENSI
EX·EPISC·NOLANO· TITULI·HVIVS·SAC·ÆDIS
S·R·E·PRESBYETRO·CARDINALI
SVMMÆ·INTEGRITATIS·ATC·INNOCENTIÆ·VIRO
PERVSIÆ·AC·VMBRIÆ·LEGATIONE·SIXTI·V
PONT·MAX·AVCTORITATE·PFVNCTO
DE·SAC·IMPERII·AC·GERMANOR·REBVS·SEMPER
OPTIME·MERITO
M·ANTONIVS·FABRICIVS·HECTOR
EX·TESTAMENTO·HÆREDES
FRATRI·OPTATISSIMO
MÆRENTES·POSVERE
VIXIT·ANN·LVII·MEN·VIII·D·XXVIII
OBIIT·XIII·KAL·SEPT·MDXCIII

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(27) 13. BOLOGNETTI, Alberto (1538-1585)

Birth. July 8, 1538 (1), Bologna. Son of Francesco Bolognetti, senator of Bologna, and Lucrezia Fantuzzi. Another cardinal of the family was Mario Bolognetti (1743).

Education. Studied at the University of Bologna, where he earned a doctorate in law on May 23, 1562.

Early life. Cleric of Bologna. Professor at the Studium of Bologna, 1562-1565; and of Salerno, 1565-1575. Called to Rome by Pope Gregory XIII and named protonotary apostolic, 1572. Nuncio in Florence, February 25, 1576 to September 10, 1578. Nuncio in Venice, September 10, 1578 to April 12, 1581.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Massa Marittima (also called Populonia), April 27 (2), 1579. Consecrated (no information found). Nuncio in Poland, April 12, 1581 to February 1585.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 12, 1583; never received the red hat and the title. Did not participate in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V.

Death. May 17 (3), 1585, Villach, Carinthia, on his trip of return from Poland to participate in the conclave. Transferred to Bologna, was buried in the tomb of his family in the church of S. Maria dei Servi with a magnificent epitaph (4) placed by his brother Senator Alessandro Bolognetti along with his effigy in white marble.

Bibliography. Biaudet, Henry. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes jusqu'en 1648. Helsinki ; Suomalainen tiedeakatemia, 1910, p. 255; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 211-213; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col.1762-1763; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 47 and 237; Fangarezzi, Riccardo. "l cardinale Alberto Bolognetti nunzio a Venezia e in Polonia (1578-1585). Le Carte Bolognetti presso lArchivio Abbaziale di Nonantolamore", in Memorie Scientifiche, Giuridiche, Letterarie dellAccademia di Scienze, Lettere e arti di Modena, serie 8, vol. 15 (2012), fasc. 2, pp. 393-415; Galeotti, Bartolomeo di. Trattato degli huomini illustri di Bologna, Ferrara : Vittorio Baldini, 1590; Zedler, Johann Heinrich, and Carl Günther Ludovici. Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste. 64 v. Graz, Adakemische Druck, 1961- . Reprint. Originially published : Halle : J. H. Zedler, 1732-50. Vols. 19-64 ed. by Carl Günther Ludovici.

Link. Biography by Gaspare De Caro, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 11 (1969), Treccani; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Galeotti, Trattato degli huomini illustri di Bologna; Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, indicates that he was born in 1539.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 237; Biaudet, Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes jusqu'en 1648, says that he was named on April 19, 1579.
(3) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 47; Biaudet, Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes jusqu'en 1648, says that he died on May 9, 1585.
(4) This is the text transcribed by Andrea Vittorelli in Andrea Vittorelli in Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1762:

D.     O.     M.
Memoria
ALBERTO BOLOGNETTI
Francisci Senatori
filii
literis, prudentia,
atque omnibus Christianis virtutibus
clarissimi,
qui legum scientiam Bononiæ
et
Salerni, summa cum laude, professus,
a Gregorio Decimotertio,
Pont. Max.
Romam evocatus primum inter V. S. Referendarios
adscribitur,
mox Florentiam ; tum Venetias,
ubi Massæ Populonia
Episcopus creatur ; postremo ad Stephanum I.
Poloniæ Regem Legatus,
in amplissimum Cardinalium ordinem
cooptatus,
Inde Romam ad nonum eligendum
Pontificem,
contendes, febri in stinere correptus
in Germaniæ oppido Vacorio
sanctissime in Domino quietuit M.D.L.X.X.X.V.
Vixit annos XLVI. menses IX. dies XXI.
Alexander Bolognettus
Senator fratris
opt. meriti ossibus in suita sepulchra translatis
monumentum hoc P. C.

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(28) 14. RADZIWIŁŁ, Jerzy (1556-1600)

Birth. May 31, 1556, in Łukiszki, near Vilnius. Son of Mikolaj VI "Czarny" Radziwiłł, voivode of Vilna, grand chancellor of Lithuania, prince of the Holy Roman Empire, and Elżbieta Szydlowiecka. Uncle of Anna Krystyna Radziwiłł (1598-1657), Benedictine nun in Nieśwień. He is also listed as Jurgis Radvila. He was count of Olykos and Nesvyziaus.

Education. Educated by Protestant tutors in Wilno and Nieswiez; later, also studied in University of Lipsk (Leipzig), 1570-1572; and at Collegio Romano, Rome, 1575-1576.

Early life. Lost his parents when he was twelve years old and then converted to Catholicism from Lutheranism, in which he had been born. Entered the ecclesiastical state. Because of advanced age, Bishop Valerijono Protaseviciaus of Vilnius (Wilno) requested him as coadjutor. Both Stefan Bathóry, king of Poland, and Pope Gregory XIII consented but the latter stipulated that he had to go to Rome to continue his studies and solidify his Catholic faith. Jerzy went to Rome with a younger brother who had also abjured Protestantism. They were placed under the direction of Father Achille Gagliardi, S.J., and lived in the villa of Pope Julius III. In 1578, he visited the shrine of Santiago de Compostela, Spain, as a pilgrim.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop coadjutor of Vilnius, December 17, 1574. Transferred to the see of Vilnius, December 31, 1579. Inaugurated as bishop of Wilno, August 2, 1581. Received the papal dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age, October 20, 1581.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 10, 1583, Ryga, by Cyprian, auxiliary bishop of Vilnius. Consecrated bishop, December 26, 1583, Wilno, by Alberto Bolognetti, bishop of Massa marittima, nuncio in Poland, assisted by Melchior Giedroyc, bishop of Zmudz (Samogitia), and by Cyprian Wiliski, O.P., auxiliary bishop of Vilnius. He worked tirelessly to eradicate the heresy from his diocese. Administrator of Inflant, 1583-1586.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 12, 1583. Received the red biretta, together with Nuncio Bolognetti, Wilno, April 4, 1584. Did not participate in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. Received the red hat and the title of S. Sisto, July 14, 1586. Did not participate in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Did not participate in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Transferred to the see of Kraków, Poland, August 9, 1591; inaugurated, per procuram, September 6, 1591; in person, May 25, 1592. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. On February 14, 1592, he was named legate a latere before King Zygmunt of Poland and Emperor Rudolf to establish the peace between them, which was achieved with marriage of the king and the daughter of Archduke Karl of Austria, that was celebrated by the cardinal; received the legatine cross, February 16, 1592. He made a pilgrimage, on foot, to Santiago de Compostela, in 1595. Five years later, in the Jubilee Year of 1600, he traveled to Rome to obtain the Holy Indulgence. He was surprised by an unexpected illness, attributed by some to a potent poison from the heretics; he was visited the day before his death by Pope Clement VIII.

Death. January 21, 1600, Rome. The funeral was presided by Cardinal Roberto Bellarmino, S.J. Buried in front of the chapel of S. Francesco d'Assisi in Gesù Church (1), Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 214-216; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1763-1764; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 47, 70, 180 and 334; Jatulis, Paulius. Kardinolo Jurgio Radvilo veikla lietuviu tarpe. Roma : Lietuviu Kataliku Mokslo Akademija, 1972; Mueller, Wieslaw. "Radziwill, Jerzy." Polski Slownik Biograficzny, (Kraków, 1987), XXX, part II, pp. 229-234; Nitecki, Piotr. Biskupi Kościoła w Polsce w latach 965-1999. Słownik biograficzny. Przedmowa Henryk Gulbinowicz. Warszawa : Instytut Wydawniczy "Pax", Warszawa 2000, col. 374; Prokop, Krzysztof Rafał. Polscy kardynałowie. Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM, 2001, pp. 7, 10, 77-87, 94, 95, 97, 106 and 107.

Links. The Radziwill Family and his portrait; his engraving; his genealogy (he is at the end of the page); another genealogy A2, in Polish; portrait and biography in Lithuanian; portrait and biography also in Lithuanian; his portrait; his portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana; and his tomb, in Gesù Church, Rome.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli in Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1764: GEORGII. TIT. S. SIXTI. S. R. E. PRESB. CARDINALIS. RADZIVILI. EPISCOPI CRACOVIENSIS. DVCIS. OLITÆ. ET. NIESVISII. This is his epitaph in the cathedral of Vilnius taken from the second biography in Lithuanian linked above:

Šventajam, Galingajam ir Nemirtingajam Dievui
Jurgis Radvila, Olykos ir NesvyÞiaus kunigaikõtis,
Šventosios Romos imperijos kunigaikõtis,
Mikalojaus ir ElÞbietos io Šidloveckiø sûnus, Jono anûkas,
Mikalojaus I proanûkis, Vilniaus vyskupo Valerijono
priimtas oios vyskupystës koadjutoriumi,
pritarus Prancûzijos ir Lenkijos karaliui Henrikui Valua
ir patvirtinus popieÞiui Grigaliui. Atliko kelionæ á; Kompostelà,
kurià pabaigæs, to paties popieÞiaus
1583 Vieõpaties Iõganymo metais buvo paskirtas kardinolu
ir õioje baÞnyèioje iõ karaliaus Stepono I, kartu su apaõtaliõkuoju 
nuncijumi Albertu Bolognetti
(kuris já áõventino vyskupu) gavo raudonà biretà,
nors ir vienas, ir kitas apie savo paskyrimà kardinolais neÞinojo.
To paties (karaliaus) buvo paskirtas
Livonijos valdytoju ir valdë jà trejus metus.
Mirus popieÞiui Grigaliui, Siksto V pagerbtas kardinolo
skrybële ir Šventojo Siksto [baÞnyèios] titulu.
Šià vyskupystæ valdë beveik 12 metø, ákûrë ir apdovanojo
lietuviø seminarijà, dalyvavo dviejose - Inocento IX
ir Klemento VIII - konklavose. Lenkijos ir Švedijos karaliaus
paskirtas Krokuvos vyskupu, du kartus buvo siøstas pas
Romos imperatorix Rudolfà II. Karaliaus vedybø su
Austrijos [kunigaikõtyte] Anna metu siunèiamas kaip pasiuntinys
iõ popieÞiaus Klemento VIII pusës.
Artëjant õventiesiems 1 6 0 0 metams, vyksta á Romà,
kur ligos áveiktas, minëtø õventøjø metø sausio mënesio 2 1 dienà, 
bûdamas 4 3 metø amÞiaus mirë. Rugpjûèio mënesá ten pat
palaidotas Jëzaus baÞnyèioje pas tëvus jëzuitus.
[Šià lentà] pastatë Mikalojus Kristupas Radvila,
Olykos ir NesvyÞiaus kunigaikõtis, Jeruzalës riteris,
iõ meilës ir pagarbos savo brangiausiajam
broliui.

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(29) 15. COINTEREL, Matthieu (1519-1585)

Birth. 1519, Mérannes, Sarte, province of Anjou, France. Son of Hilaire Contarelli, a blacksmith, and Guyone Viuan. His last name is also listed as Contarelli and Cointrel.

Education. Did his initial studies in Angers at the house of one of his maternal uncles who was a canon of the cathedral chapter; later studied at the University of Angers.

Early life. While in Angers, he met a foreign prince who was visiting the cathedral and young Matthieu explained to him its architecture as well as the antiquities of the city; pleased by his knowledge and conduct, the prince invited Matthieu to accompany him in his visit to Italy; he fell seriously ill in Venice and the doctor who assisted him, named Boncompagni, after he was cured, asked him to be his children's preceptor; he was introduced to the doctor's brother, Ugo Boncompagni, future cardinal and Pope Gregory XIII, who was a professor of law at the University of Bologna; Ugo placed Matthieu at the house of Andrea de Boni, one of his colleagues, who was called to Rome by Pope Paul III shortly after and took Matthieu with him. Boni was named referendary of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature and attended the Council of Trent taking Matthieu with him. Later, he was datary of Cardinal Ippolito d'Este in France and of Cardinal Michele Bonelli, O.P., to Spain, Portugal and France. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber; resigned the post on June 1, 1573. Pope Gregory XIII named him his datary on June 1, 1573, and canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica on October 17, 1574.

Priesthood. Received the priestly ordination (no further information found). Incardinated in the diocese of Le Mans.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 12, 1583; received the red hat and the title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, January 9, 1584. Prefect of the secretariat of Briefs. Participated in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V.

Death. November 29, 1585, Rome. Buried in the chapel of S. Matteo that he had built in the church of S. Luigi dei Francesi, Rome (1). Father Raimond, S.J. delivered his funeral oration.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 692; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 213-214; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1763; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 47 and 71; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), pp. 127, 144 and 161.

Link. His arms, Araldica Vaticana; his tomb in the chapel of S. Matteo in the church of S. Luigi dei Francesi, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph transcribed by Andrea Vittorelli in Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1763: D. O. M. MATTHÆO. CONTARELLO. TITVLI. S. STEPHANI. S. R. E. CARDINALI. HVIVS. SACELLI. FVNDATORI. VIRGILIVS. CRESCENTIVS. EX. TESTAMENTO. HÆRES. POSVIT. MDXC.

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(30) 16. TAGLIAVIA D'ARAGONIA, Simeone (1550-1604)

Birth. May 20, 1550, Castle Veziano, fief of his family, diocese of Mazzara, Sicily. Son of Carlo Tagliavia d'Aragona, duke of Terranova, prince of Castelvetrano, viceroy of Sicily and Catalonia, and Margherita Ventimiglia. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Pietro Tagliavia d' Aragonia (1553). His last name is also listed as Aragon and Aragona.

Education. University of Alcalá de Henares, Alcalá de Henares (doctorates in theology and philosophy).

Early life. At 17, he went to Spain and studied there. Abbot (1).

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon (2) in the consistory of December 12, 1583. Did not participate in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. Received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria degli Angeli, May 20 (3), 1585. Vice-protector of Spain before the Holy See, May 1585. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. Opted for the title of S. Anastasia, December 9, 1592. Opted for the title of S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni, August 18, 1597. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, February 21, 1600. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, August 30, 1600. Cardinal protoprete. Author of Constitutiones pro cleri et populi reformatione; Sermones sacri in synodis habiti; and Explanatio nonullorum decretorum pontificium.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, June 17, 1602. Consecrated, 1602, 21 July 21, 1602, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Pope Clement VIII, assisted by Cardinal Girolamo Bernerio and by Cardinal Camillo Borghese. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Sabina, February 19, 1603.

Death. May 20, 1604, Rome. Buried in the Jesuit church of Gesù, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 218-219; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1765; Eggs, Georgius Josephus. Purpura docta, seu, Vitae, legationes, res gestae, obitus, aliaque scitu, ac memoratu digna, &c. S.R.E. Cardinalium. Six books in three vols. Farnborough, Hants., England : Gregg International, 1970. Originally published : Francofurti : Prostant & veneunt apud Joannem Georgium König, 1714, V, pp. 100-102; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 47 and 65; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, IV, 36, 38, 39, 42, 43 and 48; Weber, Christopher and Michael Becker. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002 (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 29, 1-6), IV, 916.

Link. His engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 47, indicates that he was an abbot at the time of his promotion to the cardinalate but does not give any other details; none of the other sources consulted mention it.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 47; and to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1763; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, III, 218, also says that he was created cardinal deacon but adds that other sources, which he does not name, say that he was cardinal priest. At the time, it was customary to assign a title to a cardinal deacon. Pope Sixtus V, in his constitution Religiosa, § 6, prohibited the practice.
(3) Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 47, indicates that other sources, which he does not name, say that he was assigned the deaconry on March 9, 1585.

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(31) 17. LANCELLOTTI, Scipione (1527-1598)

Birth. Presumably in December 1527, Rome. Second of the four children of Orazio Lancellotti, physician of Pope Julius II and abbreviatore minore, and Antonina Aragonia. The other siblings were Laura, Lancellotto (archbishop of Rossano) and Paolo (conservatore of Rome). Uncle of Cardinal Orazio Lancellotti (1611). Other cardinals of the family were Giulio Gabrielli (1641), a Lancellotti on his mother's side; and Filippo Lancellotti (1794).

Education. Received the ecclesiastical tonsure and the clerical insignias in April 1537; studied at the University of Bologna, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, in 1547.

Early life. Consistorial lawyer in the pontificate of Pope Paul III. Pope Paul IV sent him in missions to Romagna and Venice; and Pius IV (1559-1565) to Milan, where he attended the first council celebrated by Cardinal Carlo Borromeo; and later to the Council of Trent; the papal legates deputized him in 1563 to the Count of Luna, Spanish ambassador, with the purpose of inducing the monarch, as much as he could, to go to Trent, together with Maximilian II, king of the Romans, and Albert, duke of Bavaria, to try to conclude grave affairs concerning the insufficient participation in the ecumenical council. Returned to Rome and was named auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota on October 2, 1566; received in the tribunal on January 24, 1567; he succeeded Monsignor Propsero Santacroce, who had been promoted to the cardinalate. Soon afterwards, was again sent to Trent by Pope Pius V on a mission before Cardinal Cristoforo Madruzzo, bishop of the city, and its chapter, and to request from the Duke of Bavaria, Maximilian II and Ferdinand, archduke of Austria, to solve the serious controversy between the cardinal and the archduke; he successfully accomplished his mission. Later, he was sent, as assistant to Cardinal Gianfrancesco Commendone, to the Diet of Augsburg for the election of the new emperor. Pope Gregory XIII asked him to accompany and assist Cardinal Flavio Orsini, legate a latere before King Charles IX of France; he superò l'espettazione, che erasi formata della di lui abilità, e saviezza (surpassed all the expectations formed about his ability and wisdom) (1). Returned to Rome and then was sent to Naples and Romagna for urgent affairs concerning the Roman Rota.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest (2) in the consistory of December 12, 1583; received the red hat and the title of S. Simeone Profeta (3), January 9, 1584. Participated in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. Secretary of Apostolic Briefs, 1585. Commissioned by Pope Gregory XIII to end the border controversy between the citizens of Bologna and Duke Alfonso of Ferrara. Opted for the title of S. Salvatore in Lauro (4), April 20, 1587. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII.

Death. June 2, 1598, Rome. Buried in the chapel of S. Francisco, which he had built for him and his family, in the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 216-218; Cerchiari, Emmanuele. Capellani papae et apostolicae sedis auditores causarum sacri palatii apostolici : seu sacra Romana Rota ab origine ad diem usque 20 septembris 1870. Relatio historica - iuridica. Syntaxis capellanorum auditorum.. Romae : Typis Polyglotis Vaticanis, 1920, p. 107-108; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1764-1765; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 47 and 70; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 547.

Links. Biography by Raissa Teodori, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 63 (2004), Treccani; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 217.
(2) This is according to the chronicle of the consistory in Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 46, which indicates that all the cardinals promoted at this time were cardinal priests except two, Tagliavia and Sforza, who were deacons; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 217, says that he was created cardinal deacon and later priest, without offering any details.
(3) This title, established by Pope Julius III in 1551, was suppressed by Pope Gregory XIII in 1587.
(4) This title was established by Pope Gregory XIII in 1587 and commissioned to the canons regular of S. Gregorio in Alga; it was suppressed by Pope Clement IX on May 19, 1670 and replaced by the title of S. Bernardo alle Terme.

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(32) 18. BOURBON DE VENDÔME, Charles III de (1562-1594)

Birth. March 30, 1562 (1), Gandelus-en-Brie, France. Son of Louis I de Bourbon, prince of Condé and duke of Enghien, and his first wife, Eléonore de Roye. He was called cardinal de Bourbon-Condé, cardinal de Vendôme, and finally, cardinal de Bourbon. Great-grand-nephew of Cardinal Charles I de Bourbon (1476). Grand-Nephew of Cardinal Louis II de Bourbon de Vendôme (1517). Nephew of Cardinal Charles II de Bourbon-Vendôme (1548). Another cardinal of the family was Luis de Vendôme (1667). Cousin of Kings Antonio of Navarra and Henri IV of France.

Education. Educated in Rome. (No further educational information found).

Early life. At the death of his uncle, he became archbishop of Rouen.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Priesthood. Never received the priestly ordination.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop coadjutor of Rouen, with right of succession, August 1, 1582. Never received the episcopal consecration.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon (2) in the consistory of December 12, 1583; never received the red hat and the title. Chief counselor of King Henri III of France. Did not participate in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. Administrator of the diocese of Bayeux, 1586; resigned the administration in 1590. When his uncle died on May 9, 1590, the cathedral chapter of Rouen refused to recognize him as archbishop; both the chapter and the city followed the party of the League against King Henri IV; only after a long siege from the king, was the new archbishop accepted. He successfully worked for the conversion of King Henri IV, exhorting him with sermons, prayers and even tears to embrace the Catholic faith; he strongly opposed the efforts of some to create a patriarchate in France, making its proponent abandon the idea. He participated in the meeting of the Etats Généraux in Blois in 1588. Abbot commendatario of St-Denis, St-Germain-des-Prés, St-Ouen, Bourgueuil, Ste-Catherine de Rouen and d'Orcamp. Did not participate in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Did not participate in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Did not participate in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Did not participate in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. When he fell ill, King Henri IV visited him shortly before his death.

Death. July 30, 1594, of dropsy according to some or chagrin according to others, abbey of St-Germain-des-Prés, Paris. Buried in the Chartreuse of Gaillon, founded by his uncle who is also buried there.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 586; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 184-185; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1753; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 47, 127 and 287

Links. His portrait and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his genealogy, A5, Genealogy EU; his drawing and arms, Araldica Vaticana; and another genealogy, no. 5 under Louis de BOURBON-VENDOME, Généalogies Royales et Princières .

(1) This is according to all the sources consulted except the second biographical data in French, linked above, which indicates that he was born in 1563.
(2) According to Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1753 he was created cardinal deacon and later transferred to the order of cardinal priests.

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(33) 19. SFORZA, Francesco (1562-1624)

Birth. November 6, 1562, Parma. Son of Sforza Sforza and his second wife, Caterina de' Nobili. He was count of S. Fiora, marquis of Varci and of Castel Acquaro. Nephew of Cardinals Guido Ascanio Sforza di Santa Fiora (1534), Roberto de' Nobili (1553) and Alessandro Sforza (1565). Grand-nephew of Pope Paul III (1534-1549). Relative of Cardinal Federico Sforza (1645).

Education. Received a military education under Ottavio Farnese, duke of Parma and later at the court of Francesco I, grand duke of Tuscany. Studied Latin, rhetoric, mathematics, philosophy, moral and politics; he had a very good memory that allowed him to remember what he had read only once.

Early life. Married the sister of Grand duke Francesco and at eighteen, he served in Flanders under his cousin the famous Alessandro Farnese and commanded the Italian troops; King Felipe II of Spain named him general of those troops. He had two illegitimate children, Caterina and Sforzino, who were legitimized by Pope Clement VIII on July 5, 1599. After the death of his wife, encouraged by the marriage of his sister Costanza with Giacomo Boncompagni, legitimized son of Pope Gregory XIII, he became a Roman cleric and ascended rapidly, even though he was not yet a priest, to high curial offices. Canon of the chapter of S. Nicola in Carcere; kept the post after his promotion to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 12, 1583; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, January 6, 1584. Participated in the conclave of 1585, which elected Pope Sixtus V. Opted for the deaconry of S. Nicola in Carcere, July 29, 1585. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata, December 5, 1588. Cardinal protodeacon. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. Legate in Romagna, July 20, 1591 until 1597; his main charge was to get the territory free of bandits, which he accomplished in one month with the death of 800 of them, returning the peace and tranquility to the province. Represented Pope Clement VIII in the baptism of Cosimo, grand duke of Tuscany, his nephew. Accompanied that pontiff to Ferrara in 1598. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Crowned Pope Leo XI, April 10, 1605. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. Crowned Pope Paul V, May 29, 1605.

Priesthood. Ordained in 1614. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Matteo in Merulana, November 13, 1617. Cardinal protoprete.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, March 5, 1618. Consecrated, Tuesday, May 1, 1618, apostolic chapel of the Quirinale Palace, Rome, by Pope Paul V, assisted by Cardinals Benedetto Giustiniani, Andrea Peretti de Montalto, Alessandro Orsini and Scipione Cobelluzzi; the new bishop was assisted by Cardinals Scipione Borghese and Giulio Savelli. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Frascati, April 6, 1620. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, September 27, 1623. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. His way of life and the development of his career did not certainly correspond to the Borromean ideal of a bishop of the time. However by his incontestable military abilities, he carried out great services for the Holy See and although he does not belong to today's highly esteemed prelates, without his service, the state of the church would not have surely survived.

Death. September 9 (1), 1624, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Bernardo alle Terme, which had been founded by his mother twenty-four years before his death.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1521; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 219-221; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1765-1766; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 183; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 47, 73 and 75; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, IV, 36, 37, 38 and 47; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 365 and 915.

Links. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; and his genealogy, A2 B4 C1 D2 E1 F1 G3 H2, Libro d'Oro della Nobilità Mediterranea; engravings and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 37, and to his genealogy linked above; his biography in German also linked above, and Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1766, say that he died on September 11, 1624; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1521, indicates that he died on September 2, 1624.

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