The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Sixtus V (1585-1590)
Consistory of December 18, 1585 (II)


(2) 1. CAETANI, Enrico (1550-1599)

Birth. August 6, 1550, Sermoneta. Roman noble and Neapolitan patrician. Second child of Bonifacio Caetani, signore of Sermoneta, and Caterina Pio di Carpi. Descendant of the family of Pope Boniface VIII. Nephew of Cardinal Niccolò Caetani (1536). Uncle of Cardinals Bonifacio Caetani (1606) and Antonio Caetani (1621). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Luigi Caetani (1626). Another member of the family was Cardinal Antonio Caetani (1402).

Education. Studied at the University of Perugia, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, in 1571.

Early life. Entered the Roman prelature, 1571. Provided by Pope Gregory XIII (1572-1585) with a rich abbey. Referendary of the tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1571. Charged by the pope to assist the poor that he had placed in the church of S. Sisto, Rome; exercised the charge for fifteen years. Protonotary apostolic. Abbot of San Leonardo di Puglia.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular patriarch of Alexandria, July 29, 1585. Consecrated, August 11, 1585, Sistine Chapel, Rome, by Cardinal Giulio Antonio Santorio, assisted by Massimiliano Palumbara, archbishop of Benevento, by Annibale de Capua, archbishop of Naples, and by Wilhelmus Lindanus, bishop of Roermond.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 18, 1585; received the red hat and the title of S. Pudenziana, January 15, 1586. Legate in Bologna, August 22, 1585 until October 26, 1587. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, October 26, 1587 until December 13, 1599. Legate a latere in France to obtain the election a new Catholic king after the death of Henri III, September 25, 1589 until August 1590. Did not participate in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII, because he was in his legation in France. Did not participate in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV, because he was still in his legation in France (1). Named by Pope Gregory XIV (1590-1591) head of the congregation for French affairs. Governor of the monastery of Saint-Martin, Laon, April 1, 1591. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. Legate a latere in Poland, April 3, 1596 until June 23, 1597.

Death. December 13, 1599. Buried in the church of S. Pudenziana, Rome (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 228-230; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1792-1793; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 50, 53, 69 and 81; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 58; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), pp. 159 and 181; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 151 and 535.

Webgraphy. Biography by Gaspare De Caro, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 16 (1973), Treccani; his tomb in S. Pudenziana, Rome, Requiem Datenbank; his arms and portrait, Araldica Vaticana; and his genealogy, A1 B3 C2 D3 E2 F1 G3, Libro d'Oro della Nobilità Mediterranea.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 53; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 229, indicates that he participated in the second conclave of 1590.
(2) This is his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1793: HENRICVS CAETANVS tit. S. Pudentianæ Presbyter Card. S. R. E. Camerarius, Legatus Apostolicus primum Bononiæ, secundo in Gallia, & in obsidione Parisiensis, tertium in Poloniæ contra Turcos Sanctæ huius Ecclesiæ & Sacelli a fundamentis instaurator, ubi requiescit vir pietate, candore magnitudine, & fortitudine animi memorabilis Ecclesiæ inferuit summa, foris, domiqs. auctoritate, & apud omnes gratia. Obiit annum agens L. Ann. Domini MDIC. Idibus Decembris.

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(3) 2. DRASKOVICS, György (1515-1587)

Birth. February 5, 1515 (1), Zilina, Hungary (now in the diocese of Nitra, Slovakia). Of a noble family. Son of Bertalan Draskovics and Anna Utiessenich. Nephew of Cardinal Györgi Martinuzzi, O.S.P.P.E. (1551). His last name is also listed as Draskovich and as Draskovic; and his first name is also listed as Juraj (in Croatian).

Education. Studied in Kraków, Vienna, Bologna and Rome; his uncle the cardinal financed his studies.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1539, Rome. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Nagyvárad. Provost in Pozsony (Pressburg, now Bratislava, Slovakia), February 6, 1555. Protonotary apostolic and royal counselor, 1557. Nominated bishop of Pécs by Ferdinand I, king of Hungary, November 22, 1558. Confidant and confessor of Emperor Ferdinand I, who sent him to the imperial council in Augsburg, 1559.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Pécs, July 17, 1560 (2). Consecrated (no information found). Participated in the Council of Trent, 1562-1563, as ambassador of Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria. Nominated bishop of Zagreb by King Ferdinand I of Hungary, November 11, 1563. Transferred to the see of Zagreb, March 22, 1564. Bán of Croatia, Dalmatia and Slavonia, 1567-1578. Nominated bishop of Györ by King Maximilian of Hungary, April 25, 1578. Transferred to the see of Györ, October 27, 1578. Hungarian grand chancellor and royal viceregent of Hungary, 1579. promoted to the metropolitan see of Kalocsa-Bacs, April 30, 1582 (3). Promoted to the cardinalate at the request of Holy Roman Emperor Matthias.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 18, 1585; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title.

Death. January 21 (4), 1587, Vienna. Transferred to Györ and buried in its cathedral.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 230-232; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1793; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 50,-51, 172, 216, 280 and 338; Tusor, Péter. Purpura Pannonica : az esztergomi "bíborosi szék" kialakulásának elozminyei a 17. században = Purpura Pannonica : the "Cardinalitial See" of Strigonium and its Antecedens in the 17th Century. Budapest : Róma : Research Institute of Church History at Péter Pázmány Catholic University, 2005. (Collectanea Vaticana Hungariae, Classis I, vol. 3), pp. 53, 54, 55 and 321.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Hungarian, Magyar Elektronikus Könuyvtár; biography, in Hungarian, Magyar Elektronikus Köyvtár; his portrait and biography, in English, Wikipedia; the Draskovic family, The Trakoscan Castle; and his genealogy, A1 B1, Genealogy EU.

(1) This is according to his biograpahies linked above; his genealogy, also linked above, indicates that he was born on February 2, 1515.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 280; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1793, indicates that he was named bishop of Pécs by Pope Paul IV (1555-1559) and his second biography, linked above, says that he was named on November 22, 1558.
(3) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 172; his biography in Hungarian, linked above, says that he occupied that see from June 9, 1573 until April 25, 1578. The catalog of archbishops of Kalocsa, n. 55, indicates that he occupied the see from 1573 until 1587. Moreover, Chacón, loc. cit., note 5, says that Pius Bonifatius Gams' Series episcoporum Ecclesiæ catholicæ (Leipzig: K.W. Hiersemann, 1931. 2 v. in 1), says that Bishop Draskovics was transferred in 1572 from the see of Zagreb to that of Kalocsa, having been nominated by King Maximilian of Hungary on June 9, 1573; and in 1578 was transferred to the diocese of Györ.
(4) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 51; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1793, and his second biography, linked above, indicate that he died on January 11, 1587; his genealogy and his first biography, also linked above, indicate that he died on January 31, 1587 but the latter says that he died in Pécs and all the other sources consulted indicate that he died in Vienna.

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(4) 3. CASTRUCCI, Giovanni Battista (1541-1595)

Birth. 1541, Lucca. Of a patrician family. Son of Vincenzo Castrucci and Angela Lilia.

Education. Studied in the principal Italian universities and obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law in 1564.

Early life. Senator of the Republic of Lucca. Received the clerical tonsure. Went to Rome and was admitted into the court of Cardinal Felice Peretti Montalto, O.F.M.Conv., future pope Sixtus V. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Datary of Pope Sixtus V. Domestic prelate.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Chieti, October 21, 1585. Consecrated, November 3, 1585, Sistine Chapel, by Cardinal Giovanni Antonio Serbelloni, assisted by Gasparo Cenci, bishop of Melfi, and by Filippo Sega, bishop of Piacenza. In the same ceremony was consecrated Giovanni Francesco San Giorgio, bishop of Acqui. He was always absent from his see, governing it through vicars.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 18, 1585; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Aracoeli, January 15, 1586. Prefect of the tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, 1585. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Resigned the government of the archdiocese before March 20, 1591. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. Opted for the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, February 14, 1592.

Death. August 18, 1595, unexpectedly, Lucca. Buried in the church of the Friars Minor Observants, Lucca (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 232-234; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1793; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 142; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 51, 64, 66 and 311.

(1) This is his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1793: IOANNI . BAPTISTÆ . CASTRUCIO // TIT. SANCTORVM . IOANNIS . ET . PAVLI // PRESBYT. CARD. SIGNATVRÆ . IVSTITIÆ // S. D. N. PRAEFECTO.

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(5) 4. CORNARO, seniore, O.S.Io.Hieros., Federico (1531-1590)

Birth. June 9, 1531 (1), Venice. Third of the ten children of Giovanni Cornaro, Venetian senator and procurator, and Adriana Pisani. His first name is also listed as Alvisi. The other siblings were Luigi (cardinal, 1511); Francesco; Giorgio (bishop of Treviso), Marco; Marcantonio; Marietta; another girl; Cornelia; and another girl; the father also had an illegitimate daughter. He was a member of the family's Cornaro della Regina branch in the S. Polo line. Nephew of Cardinals Marco Cornaro (1500); Francesco Cornaro, seniore (1527). Nephew of Cardinal Francesco Pisani (1517). Brother of Cardinal Luigi Cornaro (1551). Uncle of Cardinal Francesco Cornaro, iuniore (1596). Cousin of Cardinal Andrea Cornaro (1544). Uncle of Cardinal Gianfrancesco Morosini (1588). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Federico Cornaro, iuniore (1626). Antoher cardinal member of the family was Giorgio Cornaro (1697). Cardinal Giovanni Cornaro (1778) belonged to the San Maurizio branch of the family.

Education. Studied law in Venice.

Early life. Received the clerical tonsure. Entered the Military Order of St. John of Jerusalem. Named grand prior of Cyprus, when the post was renounced in his favor by his older brother the cardinal.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Traù, Dalmatia, March 27, 1560. Consecrated (no information found). Transferred to the see of Bergamo, January 15, 1561. Participated in the Council of Trent from February 23, 1562 until December 3, 1563. Transferred to the see of Padua, July 19, 1577. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 18, 1585; received the red hat and the title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, January 15, 1586. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, in which was elected Pope Urban VII.

Death. October 4, 1590 (2), Rome during the sede vacante of Pope Urban VII. Buried in the church of S. Silvestro al Quirinale, Rome (3). Later, transferred to Padua and buried in its cathedral (4).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 234-235; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, 1667, II, col. 1793-1794; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 51, 71, 133 and 267; ; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 268; Zedler, Johann Heinrich, and Carl Günther Ludovici. Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste. 64 v. Graz, Adakemische Druck, 1961- . Reprint. Originially published : Halle : J. H. Zedler, 1732-50. Vols. 19-64 ed. by Carl Günther Ludovici.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English, Italian Culture and History; and his funeral monument by Domenico Fontana and Girolamo della Porta, church of S. Silvestro al Quirinale, Rome, iccd immagini, Fototeca Nazionale, Rome.

(1) This is according to his biography linked above; the addition of Ferdinando Ughelli in Chacón's, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1794, says that he was born anno 1531. 18 Kal. Iulij or June 14, 1531; Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, indicates that he was born on June 14, 1531.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, II, 51; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1794, indicates that his epitaph (below, note 4) says that he died on Nonis. Octobr. MDXC. or October 7, 1590. Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, also says that he died on October 7, 1590.
(3) This is his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1794: GREG. XIV. PONT. MAX. FEDERICO. CORNELIO. S. .R. E. PRESB. CARD. EPISCOPO. PATAVINO. HOC. CONIVNCTISSIMÆ. AMICITIÆ. POSVIT. MONVMENTVM. ANNO. MDCXI. ANNO. PRIMO.
(4) This is the inscription in his tomb taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1794: FEDERICO. CORNELIO. S. R. E. CARD. EPISCOPO. PATAVINO. ADDVCTIS. ROMA. OSSIBVS. HÆREDES. TESTAMENTO. PP. VIXIT. ANNOS. LIX. MENSES. III. D. XX. OBIIT. NONIS OCTOBR. MDXC.

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(6) 5. ROSSI, Ippolito de' (1531-1591)

Birth. October 31, 1531, San Secondo (1). Third of the children of Pier Maria de' Rossi, count of San Secondo, and Camilla Gonzaga (2). Nephew of Bishop Giangirolamo de' Rossi of Pavia, whom he succeeded in that see. Relative of Cardinals Giovanni Vincenzo Gonzaga, O.S.Io.Hier. (1578) and Scipione Gonzaga (1587).

Education. Studied theology and law, nelle più cellebri Università d'Italia (3).

Early life. Received the clerical tonsure. Privy chamberlain and protonotary apostolic in the pontificate of Pope Pius IV.

Sacred orders. In September 1560, he received all the sacred orders from Bishop Borso de Merli of Bobbio.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Conoviense and coadjutor of Pavia, with right of succession, September 4, 1560 (4). Consecrated, September 1560 (no further information found). Participated in the Council of Trent, 1562-1563. Succeeded to the see of Pavia, September 4, 1564.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 18, 1585; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Portico Octaviae, January 15, 1586. Opted for the title of S. Biagio dell'Anello, April 27, 1587 (5). Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV.

Death. April 28, 1591, Rome. Buried in his title. Later, transferred to the church of S. Carlo ai Catinari, Rome, and buried in front of the altar of the chapel of S. Anna (6).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 238-244; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1796; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 51, 61, 75 and 269; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), VI, 820; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 423, no. 260.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Historia d'Antonio Maria Spelta, Pavia, 1602, in Italian, p. 478-495; biography, in Memorie degli scrittori e letterati parmigiani, by Ireneo Affò, p. 184-187; his tomb in S. Carlo ai Catinari, Rome, Requiem Datenbank; his image and biography, in Italian, Corte dei Rossi; and plan of the second conclave of 1605 by Heinrich Ullrich, Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nürnberg, Germany.

(1) This is according to his first biography in Italian, linked above. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1796, says that he was born in 1532.
(2) This is according to his first biography in Italian, linked above. Weber, Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte, VI, 820, lists his father as Pietro Maria Rossi, marquis of San Secondo.
(3) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 238.
(4) Pavia was also known by its ancient name Ticinum and is how it is referred to in the cardinal's epitaph. It is today the capital of the province of Pavia and is called Ticino.
(5) This title was erected in 1587. Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, indicates that he was cardinal deacon of S. Maria in Portico Octaviae when he opted for this new title but does not indicate when he opted for the order of cardinal priests. It was unusual for a bishop to be created cardinal deacon but the author in the section of the deaconry of S. Maria in Portico Octaviae does not mention that it had been elevated pro illa vice to title.
(6) This is his epitaph taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D    ·    O ·    M
HIPPOLYTO · RVBEO · CARD ·
AVITÆ · NOBILITATIS · SPLENDORE
SVMMÆQ · VIRTVTIS · LAVDE · CLARISS
QVI · EPISCOPVS · TICINEN · CONCILIO
TRIDENTINO · INTERFVUIT · IN · SVAQ
ECCLESIA · XXX · ANNOS · REGENDA
PATERNAM · IN · POPVLVM · SIBI · COM
MISSVM CHARITATEM · PERPETVVM
IN · RETINENDA · ECCLESIASTICA
DISCIPLINA · STVDIVM · SINGVLAREM
IN · OMNI · VITA · INTEGRITATEM
PRÆSTITIT
IOANNES · VINCENTIVS · ET · SCIPIO
CARDD · GONZAGÆ · TESTAMENTI
EXECVTORES · AFFINI · ET · COLLEGÆ
OPTIMO · POSVERVNT
VIXIT · ANNOS · LIX · MENSIS.    DIES.
OBIIT · IV · KAL · MAII · CIƆIƆXCI

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(7) 6. PINELLI, seniore, Domenico (1541-1611)

Birth. October 21, 1541 (1), Genoa. Of a patrician family. Son of Paride Pinelli, senator of the Republic of Genoa, and Benedetta Spinola.

Education. University of Padua, Padua, 1556-1562 (law).

Early life. Public professor of law at the University of Padua for one year. Returned to Genoa and entered the Collegio degli Avvocati. Went to Rome in 1563. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace in the pontificate of Pope Pius IV (1559-1565); later, besides, named by Pope Pius V (1566-1572), Correttore delle lettere. Named one of the reformers of the tribunals of Rome. Civil lieutenant of the auditor of the Apostolic Chamber. Cardinal Alessandro Sforza, legate in Bologna, requested him as vice-legate but Pope Gregory XIII denied the petition saying that he was needed in Rome. Apostolic commissary for the cause of the border between the cities of Terni and Narni that was causing turmoil among its citizens; he carried out his mission to the satisfaction of both sides. Vicegerent of the cardinal camerlengo, Luigi Cornaro (2). Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber (3), XV Kalendas February, 1584.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Fermo, with dispensation for not having received the sacred orders six months before, August 14, 1577. Consecrated (no information found). Resigned the government of the diocese before January 14, 1585. Named nuncio in Spain but before the appointment could take effect, he was promoted to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 18, 1585; received the red hat and the title of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna, January 15, 1586. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica. Legate in Romagna, July 28, 1586 until November 1587. Named by Pope Sixtus V legate delle pontificie galee in 1590. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Named by Pope Urban VII prefect of the Sacred Consulta; confirmed by Pope Gregory XIV. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Opted for the title of S. Crisogono, January 14, 1591. Legate in the provinces of Perugia and Umbria, February 18, 1591 until 1597. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1599-1600. Prefect of the congregation for the compilation del Settimo delle Decretali. Legate a latere for the opening and closing of the holy door at the patriarchal Liberian basilica during the Jubilee Year of 1600. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, April 22, 1602. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, February 19, 1603. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Frascati, June 16, 1603. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, June 1, 1605. Sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. In the absence of Cardinal Pietro Aldobrandini, he acted as pro-penitentiary and pro-prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, February 7, 1607. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Death. August 9, 1611, at 1 a.m., Rome. Buried in the tomb he had prepared in front of the Confessione in the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 235-238 ; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1795-1796; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 51, 61, 64 and 197; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 36, 37, 38 and 46, Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), pp. 133-134, 150, 170; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 330, 365 and 845.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; his portrait, Scuola ligure sec. XVII, archdiocese of Genoa, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his tomb, patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, Datenbank.

(1) This is according to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1795, who says 10 Kal. Novemb., citing the life of the cardinal written by Cardinal Cesare Baronio, whom he called Stephanus. The date coincides with the assertion of Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 235, that when he went to Rome in 1563 he was in età di circa 23 anni and on p. 237, he adds that he died in 1611 at 70 pointing out that Chacón transcription of the cardinal's epitaph (see note 4), is in error when it says that he was 60 (LX) when he died. His biography, linked above, indicates that he was born in 1551 but mentions that Gaetano Moroni in his Dizionario di Erudizione Storico-Eclesiastica indicates that he was born in 1541. Katterbach, Referendarii utriusque Signaturae, p. 134, also indicates that he died at 70. Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, also indicates that he died on October 21, 1541.
(2) As customary at the time, he purchased the post from the camerlengo per lo prezzo di cinquantamila scudi, Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 236.
(3) He purchased the office collo sborso di quarantamila scudi, Cardella, collo sborso di quarantamila scudi, Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 236.
(4) This is his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, 1796: DOMINCVS. CARDINALIS. PINELLVS. ARCHIPRESB. VIVENS. NOVISSIMA. COGITANS. SIBI. FIERI. MANDAVIT. ANNO. IVBILÆi. MDC. ÆTATIS. LX.

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(8) 7. AZZOLINI, seniore, Decio (1549-1587)

Birth. July 1, 1549, Fermo. Of a noble family. Son of Pompeo Azzolini. Grand-uncle of Cardinal Decio Azzolini, iuniore (1654). His last name is also listed as Azzolino.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Went to Rome and entered the court of Cardinal Felice Peretti, future Pope Sixtus V, and became his private secretary. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, July 6, 1585.

Priesthood. Received the priestly ordination, (no further information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Cervia, November 15, 1585. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 18, 1585; received the red hat and the title of S. Matteo in Merulana, January 15, 1586. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica. One of the cardinals charged with the affair of the election of the new king of Poland.

Death. October 9, 1587, Rome. Buried in the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 244-245; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1797; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 51, 67 and 164.

Webgraphy. Biography by Gaspare De Caro, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 4 (1962), Treccani; his tomb, patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, col. 1797: D. O. M. DECIO. AZOLINO. FIRMANO. S. R. E. CARDINALI. ET HVIVSCE. BASILICÆ. ARCHPRESBYTERO. A. SIXTO. V. PONT. MAX. ET. IN REBVS. AGENDIS. PRVDENTIAM. AD. CARDINALATVM. ASSVMPTO. ET. POST. XXI. MESES. EXTINCTO. ÆTAT. SVÆ. ANN. XXXVIII. MDLXXXVII. P. D. M. PII. GRATIQ. ANIMI. SVI. MONVMENTVM. BENEMERENTI. POSVERE. In the same place, the author adds that not long after, in the chapel of the Presepis, another epitaph with the cardinal's effigy was placed by his friend Cardinal Giovanni Battista Castrucci: D. O. M. DECIO. AZOLINO. FIRMANO. S. .R. E. CARDINALI. QUI. FIDEM. ET. INTEGRITATEM. SVAM. SIXTO. V. PONT. M. IN. CARDINALATV. PRIMVM. DEINDE. IN. PONTIFICATV. ITA. PRÆBVIT. VT. ANNI. SPATIO. AS. SVMMAS. DIGNITATIS. MERITO. EIVS. SIT. EVECTUVS. MAIVS. IN. DIEM. PROBITATIS. SVÆ. DATVRVS. SPECIMEN. NISI. I,,ATVRA. MORTE. PRÆREPTVS. IN. MEDIO. VITÆ. CVRSV. DEFECISSET. VIXIT. ANNOS. XXXVIII. MENSIS. III. DIES. IX. OBIIT. ANNO. MDLCCCVII. IO. BAPTISTA. CARD. CASTRUCIVS. MEMOR. AMICO. OPTIMO. POSVIT.

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(9) 8. ALDOBRANDINI, seniore, Ippolito (1536-1605)

Birth. February 24 (1), 1536, Fano. Baptized on March 4, 1536, according to the registry of baptisms in the cathedral of Fano. Of a distinguished family from Florence. Son of Silvestro Aldobrandini, governor of Fano, and Lisa Donati. Brother of Cardinal Giovanni Aldobrandini (1570). Uncle of Cardinals Pietro Aldobrandini (1593) and Cinzio Passeri Aldobrandini (1593). Grand-uncle of Cardinals Silvestro Aldobrandini, O.S.Io.Hier. (1603) and Ippolito Aldobrandini, iuniore (1621). Other cardinals of the family were Baccio Aldobrandini (1652); and Alessandro Aldobrandini (1730).

Education. Studied law at the universities of Padua, Perugia and Bologna, where he was taught by future cardinal Gabriele Paleotti and obtained a doctorate in that discipline. His father was also a lawyer.

Early life. Consistorial lawyer in the pontificate of Pope Pius V (1566-1572). Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, 1569. Accompanied Cardinal Michele Bonelli, O.P., on a mission to Spain and France, 1571-1572. Filippo Neri, the future saint, was his spiritual director for thirty years.

Priesthood. Ordained in late 1580, probably through the influence of Filippo Neri. Secretary of Memorials, 1585. Datary of His Holiness, May 15, 1585.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 18, 1585; received the red hat and the title of S. Pancrazio. Penitentiary major, June 12, 1586 until his election to the papcy. Legate a latere in Poland, 1588-1589, to settle the dispute between King Zygmunta III Wasy and the House of Habsburg. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope on January 30, 1592. Took the name Clement VIII. Consecrated bishop of Rome, February 2, 1592, Sistine Chapel, by Cardinal Alfonso Gesualdo, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, assisted by Cardinal Tolomeo Galli, bishop of Frascati, and by Cardinal Gabriele Paleotti, bishop of Sabina. Crowned, February 9, 1592, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Francesco Sforza di Santa Fiora, protodeacon of S. Maria in Via Lata. He created 53 cardinals in six consistories.

Death. Thursday, March 3 (2), 1605, at 5 a.m., Rome. Buried in the Paoline Chapel, patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome.

Bibliography. Annuario Pontificio per l'anno 2006. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2006; Baldini, Artemio Enzo. Puntigli spagnoleschi e intrighi politici nella Roma di Clemente VIII : Girolamo Frachetta e la sua relazione del 1603 sui cardinali. Milano : Angeli, 1981. (Quaderni dellIstituto e contemporanea dell'Universitá di Genova); Borromeo, Agostino. "Clemente VIII." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, 249-269; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 245-247; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1797-1798; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 51 and 68 ; Fattori, Maria Teresa. Clemente VIII e il Sacro Collegio 1592-1605 : meccanismi istituzionali ed accentramento di governo. Stuttgart : Hiersemann, 2004. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 33); Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 1 and 3. Kelly, J. N. D. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, pp. 275-276; Orbaan, Johannes Albertus Franciscus. Rome onder Clemens VIII (Aldobrandini), 1592-1605. 's-Gravenhage : M. Nijhoff, 1920; Zedler, Johann Heinrich, and Carl Günther Ludovici. Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste. 64 v. Graz, Adakemische Druck, 1961- . Reprint. Originially published : Halle : J. H. Zedler, 1732-50. Vols. 19-64 ed. by Carl Günther Ludovici.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English; biography, in German; portrait, arms and biographical information, in English; portrait , at the bottom of the page; his episcopal lineage, in English; his portrait, designed by Jacopo Ligozzi, draftsman; executed by Romolo di Francesco Ferrucci del Tadda, mosaicist; his bust, by Taddeo Landini, Villa Aldobrandini; his engraving by F. Huelsen, incisore; another engraving, Archconfraternity Santa Maria Odigitria dei Siciliani, Rome; and his tomb in the Paoline Chapel, patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome.

(1) This is according to Kelly, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes, p. 275; and his genealogy linked above; his biography in The Catholic Encyclopedia, also linked above, indicates that he was born in March 1536; his biography in German, linked above, indicates that he was born in 1536; his first biography in Italian, linked above, gives March 4, 1536 as the date of his baptism and most probably that is also the year of his birth because it is very improbable that they would have waited over a year to baptize him; his second biography in Italian, linked above, says that he was born in 1535; and his genealogy, also linked above, says that he was born on February 24, 1535. Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, gives March 3, 1536, as the date of his birth.
(2) This is according to Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 1, and Annuario Pontificio per l'anno 2006, p. 19*; The Catholic Encyclopedia, linked above, Kelly, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes, p. 275; and Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, say that he died on March 5, 1605.

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