The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Sixtus V (1585-1590)
Consistory of November 16, 1586 (III)


(10) 1. DELLA ROVERE, Girolamo (1528-1592)

Birth. 1528 (1), Turin. Of a noble family. Son of Lelio della Rovere and Giovanna Planzasco.

Education. Studied Greek, Latin, eloquence, literature and law at the Universities of Padua and of Paris at a very young age; when he was nine, he disputò , e perorò at the University of Padua (2).

Early life. Considered an excellent orator, when he was at the French court as envoy of the duke of Savoy, he was charged with the eulogies of Kings Henri II and Charles IX. Provost in the archdiocese of Turin.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Toulon, France, January 26, 1560. Consecrated (no information found). Promoted to the metropolitan see of Turin, May 12, 1564.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 16, 1586; received the red hat and the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, January 14, 1587. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope rban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IV. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII (3). After his death, his large and rich library passed to the duke of Urbino and, later, during the pontificate of Pope Alexander VII, was transported to Rome and divided between the Vatican Library and that of the Archgymnasium of Rome.

Death. February 7, 1592, Rome. Buried in his title (4).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 247-248; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalvm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. avctoribuvs M. Alphonso Ciaconio Biacensi Ord. Præd. Poenitentiario Apostolico, Francisco Cabrera Morali, Andrea Victorello Bassanensi Doct. Theol. Iconibus Pontificum, horum, & Cardinalium Insignibus, & plurimorum Elogijs adiunctis. Alia plura Victorellus, et Ferdinandvs Vghellvs Florent. Abbas Ord. Cisterciensis Theol. Ex MSS. Præsertim monumentiis addiderunt. Hieronymus Aleander I. C. & alij Ciaconianum opus recenfuerunt. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630. Superiorvm permissv, et privilegiis, II, col.1798; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 51, 68, 309 and 315; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 3; Pastor, Ludwig von. The history of the popes : from the close of the Middle Ages. 40 vols. St. Louis, MO : Herder, 1923-1953.

(1) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 248, who says that he died before turning 64; his epitaph, transcribed in note 2, indicates that he died in 1592 at 61 years, 11 months and 26 days.
(2) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 247, citing Cardamo's Exempl. Geniturar.
(3) Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 51 and 68, indicates that he died on February 7, 1592; and on p. 309, that he died on January 26, 1592, therefore during the conclave. According to Pastor, The History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. XXII, "Clement VIII (1592-1605)", p. 10, n. 1, fifty-two Cardinals entered the conclave and they "were the same as those who had taken part in the conclave of Innocent IX., of course with the exemption of himself, of V. Gonzaga, who had died in the interval, and Giovanni Mendoza. Of those nominated by Innocent IX., Facchinetti was present, and Sega absent... . On January 12, 1592, there also arrived Joyeuse who took part in the scrutiny of the 13th..." He does not indicate that Cardinal Della Rovere died during the conclave. Neither does Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica, IV, 3, in its chronicle of this conclave. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 248, indicates that he died while he was in the conclave of 1592.
(4) This is his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1798: D. O. M. HIERONYMO. DE. RVVERE. TT. SANCTI. PETRI. AD.VINCVULA. PRESBYTERO. CARD. TAVRINENSI. ARCHIEPISCOPO. QVI. A. PVERITIA. ADMIRABILIS. INGENII. LINGVARVM. SCIENTIA. ELOQVENTIÆ. PRVDENTIÆ. AC. DOCTRINÆ. INSIGNE. DEDIT. DOCVMENTVM. VIRTVSTIQ. ET. NOMINIS. SVI. CELEBRITATE. ITA. SEMPER. APVD. MAGNOS. PRINCIPES. ET. NATIONES. CLAR. VIT. VT. NVLLO. VMQVAM. HONORIS. GR. ADV. NON. DINISSIMVS. HABERETVR. LELVS. ET. IVLIVS. FRATRES. PATRVO. OPTIMO. PP. VIXIT. ANNOS. LXI. MENSES. XI., DIES. XXVI. OBIIT. SEPTIMO. KALEND. FEBRVARII. DVM. COMITIIS. PONTIFICIIS. IN. CONCLAVI. INTERESSET. MDXCII.

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(11) 2. LÉNONCOURT, Philippe de (1527-1592)

Birth. 1527, in the castle of his fief in Lorraine, France. Of an ancient and noble family. Son of Henri de Lénoncourt, count of Nanteuil-le-Haudoin, governor of Valois, and Marguerite de Broyes. Nephew of Cardinal Robert de Lénoncourt (1538).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Went with his uncle the cardinal to Rome. On his return, he took the ecclesiastical habit. Cleric of the diocese of Meaux. Nominated bishop of Châlons-sur-Marne by the king of France indicating that he was 27 years old, the canonical age. The provision was revalidated on May 31, 1550 occasione falsæ expressione ætatis, in spite of the initial error concerning his age (1). Royal counselor of King Henri III of France (2). Preceptor of the Order of Saint-Esprit.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Châlons-sur-Marne, May 30, 1550; succeeded his uncle Cardinal Robert de Lénoncourt. Consecrated (no information found). Abbot commendatario of the Cistercian abbey of Barbello, archdiocese of Sens, 1552. Abbot commendatario of the monastery of Saint-Martin de Spernaco, 1552. Resigned the government of the diocese before April 13, 1556. Transferred to the see of Auxerre, February 7, 1560; succeeded his uncle the cardinal, who was the administrator of the diocese. Abbot commendatario of Rabais and of Oigny. Prior de la Charité. Resigned the government of the diocese before December 16, 1562. Commander of the royal orders, December 13, 1578.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 16, 1586; received the red hat and the title of S. Onofrio, January 15, 1588 (3). Prefect of the S.C. of the Index of Prohibited Books, 1588. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope rban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IV. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII.

Death. December 13, 1592 (4), Rome (5). Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Reims (6).

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1132; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 248-250; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1799; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 51, 76, 125 and 159; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 3.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 159.
(2) Ferdinand Ughelli in Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1799, says that some sources indicate that he was royal chancellor of France.
(3) Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1132, says that he was named archbishop of Reims in 1589, succeeding Cardinal Louis de Lorraine, but that he never took possession of the archdiocese; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 250, also indicates that he was archbishop of Reims. He is not mentioned in the catalog of archbishops of that see in Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 284-285.
(4) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 125.Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 51; Berton, Dictionnaire des Cardinaux, col. 1132, says he died on December 13, 1591.
(5) This is according to Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1132; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 250; and Eubel, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, III, 52; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II col. 1799, indicates that he died in Tours.
(6) This is according to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II col. 1799, who calls the cathedral Remesis Ecclesiæ Canonici; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 250, who says that he died in Rome, and adds, dove morì, ivi ebbe sepoltura, quantumque alcuni pretendamo, che fosse transferito a Rems, e che avesse la tomba nella capella della Madonna, where he died, there he was buried, although some pretend that he was transferred to Reims and that the tomb is in the chapel of the Madonna.

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bernerio.jpg

(12) 3. BERNERIO, O.P., Girolamo
(1540-1611)

Birth. 1540, Corregio, Modena. Of a noble family. Son of Pietro Bernerio and Antonia Doria. His last name is also listed as Bernieri. He was also known as the Cardinal d'Ascoli. Other cardinals members of his family were Scipione Cobelluzzi (1616), Francesco Cennini de' Salamandri (1621) and Desiderio Scaglia, O.P. (1621).

Education. Entered the Order of Preachers (Dominicans). Studied literas humaniores, liberal arts, philosophy and theology. Obtained the title of magister.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Lector of Sacred Theology. Member of the community of the Dominican convent of Cremona. Theologian of Cardinal Niccolò Sfondrati, bishop of Cremona, future Pope Gregory XIV. Inquisitor in Genoa. Prior of the Dominican convent of Santa Sabina, Rome.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ascoli-Piceno, August 22, 1586. Consecrated, September 7, 1586 in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, by Cardinal Giulio Antonio Santoro, assisted by Giulio Masetti, bishop of Reggio Emilia and by Ottaviano Paravicini, bishop of Alessandria.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 16, 1586; received the red hat and the title of S. Tommaso in Parione, January 14, 1587. Opted for the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, November 8, 1589 (1). Protector of the Order of the Servites in the pontificate of Pope Sixtus V. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. During the Jubilee Year of 1600, he commissioned several works to Lavinia Fontana, a painter whom he held in high regard. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, June 17, 1602. Cardinal protoprete. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, June 16, 1603. Resigned the government of the diocese of Ascoli-Piceno before January 7, 1605. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. Opted for the see of Porto e Santa Rufina, February 7, 1607. Sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Death. August 5, 1611 (2), Rome. Buried in the chapel of S. Giacinto, which he had founded, in the church of S. Sabina, Rome (3).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 250-253; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1799-1800; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 51, 66, 71 and 120; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 36, 37 43.

Webgraphy. His tomb and prosopography, in German; and his episcopal lineage, in English.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 51; his prosopography, linked above, says that he opted on September 8, 1589.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 51; and his prosopography linked above; Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 37, indicates that he died on August 8, 1611.
(3) This is his epitaph transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli in Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1800:

D.     O.     M.
Fr. HIERONYMVS BERNERIVS Corrigensit. ex
Ord. Prædicatorum tit. S. Maria super Minervam Presb.
Card. Asculanus, de morte & corporis resurrectione piè, &
religiose cogitant, hoc sibi sepulchrum, in quo cujus universæ
carnis viam ingressus fuerit, mortale suum conderetut, vi-
vens P. sacellum, ubi quotidie pro eius anima ut sacrum.
Vixit Annos LXX. Menses VII. Dies XI.
Obiit Episcopus Portuensis VI. Idus Augusti MDCXI.
Credo quòd redemptor meus vivit, & in novissimo
die de terra surrecturus sum.

There are slight differences between Ughelli's text and the epitaph in the photo linked above.

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(13) 4. GALLO, Antonio Maria (1553-1620)

Birth. 1553, Osimo. Of one of the principal and most illustrious families of that city. Second of the eight children of Pierstefano Gallo and Cleofe Massi. The other siblings were Felice, Laura, Girolama, Giulia, Gabriele, Maddalena and Ciriaco. His first name is also listed as Anton Maria; and his last name as Galio. Another cardinal of the family was Muzio Gallo (1785).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Went to Rome in 1574. Admitted into the family of Cardinal Felice Peretti Montalto, O.F.M.Conv., future Pope Sixtus V, and became his coppiere and later his secretary and private treasurer; once elected to the pontificate, he named him Scalco or superintendent of the papal refectory. Castellanus arcis of the city of Ravenna, June 8, 1585. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, November 1585. Domestic prelate of His Holiness.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Perugia, November 5 (1), 1586. Consecrated, November 11, 1586, Sistine Chapel, by Cardinal Giovanni Battista Castrucci, assisted by Pietro Lonelli, bishop of Gaeta, and by Antonio Meliori, bishop of San Marco.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 16, 1586; received the red hat and the title of S. Agnese in Agone, January 14, 1587. Protector of Loreto, August 22, 1587. Legate in Romagna, January 15, 1590. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Transferred to the see of Osimo, with the denomination of cardinal Perusinensis, July 19, 1591. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, August 30, 1600. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati, June 1, 1605. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, May 28, 1608. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, August 17, 1611. Sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, September 16, 1615. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Death. March 30, 1620, Rome. Buried in the church of in S. Maria in Aracoeli, Rome (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 253-256; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1800; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 144; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 51, 59, 125 and 272; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 36, 37, 38, 48; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 447; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 280, 365 and 687.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian; diocese of Frascati; his tomb in S. Maria in Aracoeli, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) According to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 272, n. 17, other sources, which he does not mention, say that he was elected on October 30, 1586.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli in Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardin alivm, II, col. 1800:

ANT. MARIÆ. CARD. GALLO. SACRI. COLLEGII. DECANO
PATRITIO. ET. EPISCOPO. AVXIMANO
ALMÆ. DOMVS. LAVRETANÆ, PROTECTORI
PETRUS. STEPHANVS. GALLVS. EX. TESTAMENTO, HÆRES
PATRVO. BENEMERENTI. POSVIT
.

    The text on his tombstone, placed at a later date, linked above, ends with this line: OBIIT. ANNO. MDCXX.

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(14) 5. SARNANO, O.F.M.Conv., Costanzo da (1531-1595)

Birth. October 4, 1531, Sarnano, Marca Anconitana. His family name was Torri and he changed it to the place of his birth following the custom of the religious order he later joined. He was also called Costanzo Boccafuoco because of his talent as a preacher. His first name is also listed as Costantino.

Education. Entered the Order of the Friars Minor Conventuals when he was ten years old; changed his baptismal name, Gasparo, to Costanzo. Studied philosophy and theology. Obtained the title of Magister when he was twenty-eight years old.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Professor of philosophy and theology at the University of Perugia, of Padua and of Rome. At the same time, he was also a noted and popular preacher. He was a friend of Fr. Felice Peretti, also a Franciscan, who later became Pope Sixtus V.Wrote several works in theology and Aristotelian philosophy; his Somma della teologia was published by the Vatican press in 1592.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 16, 1586; received the red hat and the title of S. Vitale, January 14, 1587. Charged by the pope with the compilation, expansion and correction of the works of St. Bonaventure.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Vercelli, April 6, 1587. Consecrated, July 12, 1587, church of S. Pietro in Montorio, Rome, by Cardinal Girolamo Bernerio, bishop of Ascoli Piceno, assisted by Giovanni Battista Albani, titular patriarch of Alexandria, and by Agostino Quintius, bishop of Curzola. Did not reside in his see because he was retained in Rome working in the curia. Opted for the title of S. Pietro in Montorio (1), April 20, 1587. Resigned the government of the diocese before May 29, 1589. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope rban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IV. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII.

Death. December 20, 1595, Rome. Deposited in his title, and later transferred to Sarnano and buried in the Conventual church of S. Francesco in that city.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 255-256; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1801; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 51, 68 and 71.

(1) According to Eubel, III, 68, this title was erected in 1587 and entrusted to the Order of the Friars Minor Observants.

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(15) 6. MATTEI, Girolamo (1547-1603)

Birth. February 8, 1547, Rome. Of a noble family. Son of Alessandro Mattei and Emilia Mazzatosta. Uncle of Cardinal Cosimo de Torres (1622). Another cardinal of the family was Ruggero Luigi Emidio Antici Mattei (1875).

Education. Studied letters and obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, at the University of Bologna.

Early life. Pope Pius V (1566-1572) named him referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, and protonotary apostolic (participantium ?). Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, April 2, 1572; later its president; and finally its auditor general, March 12, 1579. President of Rome's streets and jails. Governor of Civittavecchai, 1576 to 1577.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 16, 1586; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Adriano, January 14, 1587. Opted for the title of S. Agata in Suburra, April 20, 1587. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin, September 11, 1587. Member of the commission for the new editions of the Decretali, 1587. Opted for the deaconry of S. Eustachio, March 20, 1589. Abbot commendatario of Nonantola. Named legate in Avignon, declined in the same consistory in recognition of Cardinal Markus Sitticus von Hohenems Altemps, who had been named legato perpetuo by Pope Pius IV. Acting prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council when Cardinal Antonio Carafa, its prefect, was gravely ill, mid-May 1590 until January 14, 1591. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope rban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Named by Pope Gregory XIV member of the congregation for French affairs as well as of the congregation for the affairs with the duke of Ferrara. Prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council from January 14, 1591 until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IV. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. Opted for the order of cardinal priests, February 16, 1592; remained without a title until he opted for the title of S. Pancrazio, March 9, 1592. Charged by Pope Clement VIII (1592-1605) with the compilation of the Settimo delle Decretali.

Death. December 8, 1603, Rome. Buried in the chapel of his family, dedicated to S. Matteo, in the church of S. Maria in Aracoeli, Rome (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 256-259; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1801-1802; Del Re, Nicola. "I cardinali prefetti della sacra congregazione del concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), p. 111-112; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 51, 72, 73 and 74; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, IV, 47; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 215 and 772.

Webgraphy. His tomb in S. Maria in Aracoeli, Rome.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph transcribed by Ferdiandno Ughelli, in Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1802: D. O. M. HIC. IACET. HIERONYMVS. TT. S. PANCRATII. PRESB. CARD. MATTHÆIVS. VIXIT . ANNOS . LVI . MENSIS . IX . DIES . XIX . OBITT . VIII . DECEMB. MDCIII . CIRIACVS . ET . ASDRVBAL . FRATRI . BENEMERENTI . POSVERVNT.

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(16) 7. GIUSTINIANI, Benedetto (1554-1621)

Birth. June 5, 1554, Island of Chios. Genoese patrician. Son of Giuseppe Giustiniani and Girolama Giustiniani. The family went to Rome in 1566. Nephew, on his mother's side, of Cardinal Vincenzo Giustiniani, O.P. (1570).

Education. University of Perugia, Perugia; University of Padua, Padua; University of Genoa, Genoa (doctorate in law, 1577).

Early life. Pope Gregory XIII granted him the same benefices of his late uncle the cardinal. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1581. Abbreviatore di parco maggiore, 1582. Judge confidentiarum. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, May 2, 1585. General treasurer from May 1585 (1).

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 16, 1586; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, January 14, 1587. Opted for the deaconry of S. Agata in Suburra, September 11, 1587. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin, March 20, 1589. Acting camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church during the absence of Cardinal Enrico Caetani while the latter was legate in France, 1589-1590. Pope Sixtus V named him, together with three other cardinals, member of a special commission for the approval of the Order of the Clerics Regular Minors. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace. Supported the absolution of King Henri IV of France and for this, the monarch named him vice-protector of that kingdom.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Marcello, January 7, 1591. Legate in Marche, January 30, 1591; legation extended to include the city of Ascoli, July 19, 1591. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. Went to Ferrara with Pope Clement VIII in 1598 and there he was named prefect of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars (2). Opted for the title of S. Prisca, March 17, 1599. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. Legate in Bologna, September 25, 1606 until August 1611. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, August 17, 1611. Cardinal protoprete.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, June 4, 1612. Consecrated, July 2, 1612, church of San Silvestro al Quirinale, Rome, by Pope Paul V, assisted by Cardinal Giovanni Garzia Millini, and by Cardinal Marcello Lante. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Sabina, September 16, 1615. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, August 31, 1620. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV.

Death. March 27, 1621, Rome. Buried on the left side of the chapel of S. Vicente Ferrer in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome (3).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 259-265; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1802; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 51, 65, 72, 73. 74, ; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 37, 38, 43, 44 and 48; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), pp. 165, 185, 209, 219 and 234; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 122, 153, 287 and 704.

Webgraphy. His portrait, attributed to Bernardo Castello, La Repubblica.it; his tomb in S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, Requiem Datenbank; his portrait, Scuola ligure sec. XVII, archdiocese of Genoa, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

(1) He was the first prelate to obtain this post permanently because until then it was assigned only temporarily.
(2) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa VI, 260; the same source, V, 182, says that Cardinal Alessandro de' Medici was named to that post in the same consistory.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli in Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1802: BENEDICTVS . EPISCOPVS . PORTVENSIS . S. R. E. CARDINALIS . IVSTINIANVS . GENVENSIS. IOSEPHI . FILIVS . OBITT . ANNO . SALVTIS . MDCXXI . VI. KAL. APRILIS . ÆTATIS . LXVII.

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(17) 8. COLONNA, Ascanio (1560-1608)

Birth. April 3, 1560 (1). Neapolitan and Venetian patrician. Of the Paliano line of the Colonna family. Son of Marc'Antonio Colonna, duke of Paliano and Tagliacozzo, and Felicia Orsini. Other members of the family who were elevated to the cardinalate were Giovanni di San Paolo Colonna (1193); Giovanni Colonna (1212); Giacomo Colonna (1278); Pietro Colonna (1288); Giovanni Colonna (1327); Agapito Colonna (1378); Stefano Colonna (1378); Oddone Colonna (1405; later Pope Martin V); Prospero Colonna (1426); Giovanni Colonna (1480); Pompeo Colonna (1517); Marco Antonio Colonna, seniore (1565); Girolamo Colonna (1627); Carlo Colonna (1706); Prospero Colonna (1739); Girolamo Colonna di Sciarra (1743); Prospero Colona di Sciarra (1743); Marcantonio Colonna, iuniore (1759); Pietro Colonna (1766), who took the last name Pamphili.

Education. Studied Latin and Greek; at the University of Salamanca; University of Alcalá, Alcalá (obtained the title of magister in philosophy and theology and the doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law).

Early life. Named abbot of Santa Sofia, Benevento, by Pope Pius V.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 16, 1586; received the red hat and the deaconry of Ss. Vito e Modesto, February 25, 1587. Knight of the Sovereign Order of Malta, 1586. Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica. Abbot commendatario of Subiaco. Viceroy of Zaragoza, Aragón. Opted for the deaconry of S. Nicola in Carcere, December 5, 1588. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin, January 14, 1591 (2). Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. Prior of the Sovereign Order of Malta for Venice, 1594.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Opted for the order of cardinal priests, November 8, 1599. Opted for the title of S. Pudenziana, December 15, 1599 (3). Viceroy of Aragón in 1602 (4). Did not participate in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Did not participate in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. Opted for the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, January 30, 1606. Grand prior of Venice. Protector of Flanders.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, June 5, 1606. Consecrated, June 11, 1606, church of S. Maria degli Angeli, Rome, by Pope Paul V, assisted by Cardinal Domenico Pinelli, and by Cardinal Francesco Sforza. He was a close friend of Giuseppe Calasanzio, founder of the Piarists and future saint. Cardinal Agostino Valeri dedicated to him his six books della Consolazione.

Death. May 17, 1608, at 1 p.m., in the palace of the bishops of Palestrina, his Roman residence. Buried next to the tomb of Pope Martin V in the family's chapel in the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 265-267; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1803; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 51, 75, and 76; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 37, 42 and 49.

Webgraphy. The Colonna family, in English; and his genealogy, A5 B5 C3 D5 E6.

(1) This is according to Andrea Argoli, Andreæ Argoli D. Marci Serenissimo Annuente Senatu Equitis, In Patavino Lyceo Mathematicas scientias proftendis. De diebus criticis et de ægrorum decubitu libri dvo (Patauij : Apud Paulum Frambottum, 1652), p. 160; ; in the 16th-17th century, astrology was a considered a science; establishing the exact dates of birth and death was extremely important to accurately compose the astrological charts; the latter author, a professor of mathematics at La Sapienza University in Rome, was a contemporary of the cardinal; his genealogy indicates that he was born in 1569.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 51; the same author in III, 75, says that other sources, which he does not identify, indicate he opted on January 7, 1591.
(3) This is according to Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 49; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1803, says that he opted for this title on November 19, 1599.
(4) This is according to the addition of Andrea Vittorelli in Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1803, and his first genealogy linked above; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, indicates that he was viceroy of Catalonia.

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