The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Sixtus V (1585-1590)
Consistory of December 18, 1587 (V)


(19) 1. GONZAGA, Scipione (1542-1593)

Birth. November, 11, 1542, Mantua. Of the counts of Sabbioneta and signori of Bozzolo. Son of Carlo Gonzaga, first marquis of Gazzuolo, count of San Martino, and Emilia Cauzzi Gonzaga. Other cardinals of the family are: Francesco Gonzaga (1461); Sigismondo Gonzaga (1505); Ercole Gonzaga (1527); Pirro Gonzaga (1527); Francesco Gonzaga (1561); Giovanni Vincenzo Gonzaga, O.S.Io.Hier. (1578); Ferdinando Gonzaga (1607); and Vincenzo Gonzaga (1615). His first name is also listed as Scipio; and his last name as Gonzaga a Bozzolo. He was also called Mantuanus.

Education. He spent his youth in the household of Cardinal Ercole Gonzaga. Studied Greek, Latin, mathematics and philosophy at the University of Bologna, and at the University of Padua, where he obtained a doctorate; later he studied theology.

Early life. Founder of the Accademia degli Eterei, in Padua, a literary society. Published several literary works including poetry and his Commentariorum rerum suarum libri tres that were edited by Giuseppe Marotti in Rome in 1791 (1). Protector of Giambattista Guarini and Torquato Tasso, who entered the Accademia with the name Pentito and dedicated to him his inaugural sonnet. Marc-Antoine Muret also dedicated one of his works to Scipione. Went to Rome and became privy chamberlain of Pope Pius IV (1559-1565).

Priesthood. Ordained in Rome for the diocese of Mantua (no further information found). He was involved in Rome in a dispute with Guglielmo, duke of Mantua, over the possession of Gazuolo, Mantua; Pope Gregory XIII, unhappy with his conduct, ordered his incarceration. Pope Sixtus V freed him. The litigants soon reconciled.

Episcopate. Elected titular patriarch of Jerusalem (2), September 23, 1585. Consecrated, Friday October 4, 1585, at the church of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, Rome, by Cardinal Innico d'Avalos d'Aragonia, O.S. Iacobis, assisted by Enrico Caetani, titular patriarch of Alessandria, and by Annibale de Capua, archbishop of Naples. He was granted the pallium on October 7, 1585.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 18, 1587; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria del Popolo, January 15, 1588. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. He was a friend of Cardinal Carlo Borromeo and Filippo Neri, future saints, and his cousin Aloysius Gonzaga, also a future saint, owed to him the permission of his father to his joining the Society of Jesus. Governor of the Marquisate of Monferrato in place of Marquis Vincenzo.

Death. January 11, 1593, San Martino, Mantua. Buried in the chapel of S. Croce, built by his family in the church of S. Sebastiano in San Martino (3).

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1023; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 273-276; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1805; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 142; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen III (1503-1592). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 52, 66 and 210; Gonzaga, Scipione and Della Terza, Dante. Autobiografia. Modena : Panini, 1987. (Testi / Istituto di studi rinascimentali Ferrara; Variation: Testi (Istituto di studi rinascimentali (Ferrara, Italy)); Roggeri, Roggero ; Ventura, Leandro. I Gonzaga delle nebbie: storia di una dinastia cadetta nelle terre tra Oglio e Po. Cinisello Balsamo, Milano : Silvana, 2008, p. 158-159; Tamalio, Raffaele. La Memoria dei Gonzaga. Repertorio bibliografico gonzaghesco (1473-1999). Firenze : Olschki, 1999.

Links. Biography by Umberto Benigni, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; and his genealogy, A4 B2, C3, Genealogy EU.

(1) Scipionis Gonzagae Cardinalis, Commentariorum rerum suarum libri tres. Accessit liber quartus Paraleipomenon, auctore Josepho Marotto. Romae : Apud Salomonium, 1791.
(2) According to his biography linked above, through the influence of the Guise party he became bishop of Mende but none of the sources consulted mention this promotion and he is not listed in the catalog of the bishops of that see in Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 244.
(3) This is his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, III, col. 1805: D. O. M. SCIPIONI. GONZAGÆ. S. R. E. PRESB. CARD. PATRIARCHÆ. HIEROSOLIMINTANO. IMPERII. PRINCIPI. VITÆ, INTEGRITATE, LITERARVM. SCIENTIA. SERVM. VSV. LIBERALITATE. OFFICIO. ATQVE. ELEGANTIA. SINGVLARI. MORTALITATEM. OMNIVM. LAVDE. CONCLVSIT. SIVI. APVD. OMNES. ORDINES. INCREDIBILI. DESIDERIO. RELICTO. VIXIT. ANNOS. L. MENSEM. I. DIES. XXI. OBIIT. XI. IANVARII. MDXCIII. FRANCISCVS . EPISCOVS. MANTVANVS. ORD. MINORVM. DE. OBSERVANTIA. FERDINANDVS. ET IVLIVS. CÆSAR. HÆREDES, FRATRI. AMANTISS. POSVERE.

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(20) 2. SAULI, Antonmaria (1541-1623)

Birth. 1541 (1), Genoa. His first name is also listed as Antonio and as Marc Antonio. Son of Ottaviano Sauli and Giustiniana. Of a patrician family that gave the Republic of Genoa three doges and the Church eight bishops. Uncle of Cardinal Alfonso Visconti (1599) and Cardinal Girolamo Lomellini (1652). Another cardinal of the family was Bandinello Sauli (1511).

Education. University of Bologna, Bologna; University of Padua, Padua (doctorate in law).

Early life. Served the republic in several posts and then went to Rome. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace in the pontificate of Pope Pius IV (1559-1565). apostolic. Prelate aulicus vetus et honoratus. Nuncio in Naples, November 9, 1572 until October 15, 1577. Nuncio extraordinary in Portugal, 1579-1580.

Sacred orders. Received the minor orders (no further information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Philadelphia in Arabia and named coadjutor, with right of succession, of the archbishop of Genoa, November 27, 1585. Consecrated, Monday February 24, 1586, at the Sistine chapel, Rome, by Cardinal Domenico Pinelli, assisted by Alessandro Guidiccioni, bishop of Lucca, and by Giovanni Francesco Mazza Canobius, bishop of Forlì. Succeeded to the see of Genoa in 1586; resigned the government of the archdiocese before August 9, 1591.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 18, 1587; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Santi Vitale, Gervasio, e Protasio, January 15, 1588. Legate a latere for the affairs of the Ligue, 1587. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Opted for the title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, January 14, 1591. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, February 19, 1603. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, February 7, 1607. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Sabina, August 17, 1611. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, September 16, 1615. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, April 6, 1620. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Co-president, with Cardinal Ludovico Ludovisi, of the Congregatio de Propaganda Fide, established by Pope Gregory XV on June 22, 1622; occupied the post until November 12, 1622. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII.

Death. August 24, 1623, Rome. Deposited in the church of S. Maria del Popolo, his remains were later transferred to Genoa and buried in the tomb of his ancestors in Ecclesia Gentis Sauliæ.

Bibliography. Biaudet, Henry. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes jusqu'en 1648. Helsinki ; Suomalainen tiedeakatemia, 1910., pp. 130 and 285; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 276-278; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1806; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 143; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 52, 71, 215 and 273; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, IV, 36, 37, 38, and 46; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), pp. 135, 151 and 172.

(1) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 278, who says that he died in 1623 at 82 years of age; Biaudet, Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes jusqu'en 1648, p. 285, indicates that he was born in 1543.

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(21) 3. PALLOTTA, Giovanni Evangelista (1548-1620)

Birth. 1548, Caldarola, diocese of Camerino. Second of the four children of Desiderio Pallotta and Domenica Cianfortini. The other siblings were Martino, Girolama and Elisea. Uncle of Cardinal Giovanni Battista Maria Pallotta (1629). Other members of the family promoted to the cardinalate were Guglielmo Pallotta (1777), and Antonio Pallotta (1823). His first name is also listed as Evangelista only.

Education. Did his liberal studies and became a cleric in patria.

Early life. Went to Rome and entered the court of Cardinal Felice Peretti, future Pope Sixtus V, who obtained for him a canonship in the chapter of Santa Maria ad Martires. Once elected pope, he named him secretary of memorials and later, papal datary. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, November 9, 1585.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Cosenza, September 11, 1587. Consecrated, September 13, 1587, at the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, by Cardinal Costanzo da Sarnano, O.F.M.Conv., assisted by Ladislao Aquino, bishop of Venafro, and by Ottavio Paravicini, bishop of Alessandria.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 18, 1587; received the red hat and the title of S. Matteo in Merulana, January 15, 1588. Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica and president of the Fabric of St. Peter's. Protector of poet Torquato Tasso. Pro-datary of His Holiness. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Resigned the government of the archdiocese before April 5, 1591. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1595 to January 8, 1596. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, June 16, 1603. Cardinal protoprete. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati, January 24, 1611. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, April 6, 1620. Sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Death. August 22 (1),1620, Saturday, at 5 p.m. The funeral was celebrated in the church of S. Maria in Traspontina. Later, transferred to Caldarola and buried in the church of S. Caterina which he had founded.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 278-280; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1806-1807; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 145; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 52, 67 and 184; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, IV, 37, 38, 43 and 58; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 706.

Link. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 52; Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 37; and Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1807; his biography in Italian, linked above, says that he died on August 2, 1620.

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(22) 4. GONDI, Pierre de (1532-1616)

Birth. 1532, Lyon, France. Son of Antoine de Gondi and Catherine de Pierrevive du Perron. Of an illustrious family originally from Florence, allied to the Medicis. Uncle of Cardinal Henri de Gondi (1618), his successor in the see of Paris. Grand-uncle of Cardinal Jean-François-Paul de Gondi de Retz (1652).

Education. La Sorbonne University, Paris; University of Toulouse, Toulouse (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law).

Early life. Entered the ecclesiastical state. Cleric of Lyon. Entered the royal court in Paris. Received several prebends and ecclesiastical benefices from King Charles IX. Treasurer of the Sainte-Chapelle, Paris.

Sacred orders. Received the diaconate (no further information found). Chancellor and first almoner of Queen Elisabeth of Austria, wife of Charles IX. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monastery of St.-Pierre de Besna, Langres. Abbot commendatario of the Cistercian monastery of de la Cussaigne, Lyon.

Episcopate. Elected bishop-duke of Langres, May 15, 1566. Consecrated, May 19, 1566, at the church of Ss. Cosmo e Damiano, by Cardinal Prospero Publicola Santacroce, assisted by Girolamo Garimberti, bishop of Gallese, and by Vincenzo Lauri, bishop of Mondovì. Peer of France. Transferred to the see of Paris, December 14, 1569. Ambassador of France before the Holy See in the pontificate of Pope Pius V (1572-1585). President of the Royal Council. Viceroy of Provence for two years. Presided over the Etats Généraux, Paris, 1577. Commander of the Order of Saint Esprit, December 31, 1578.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 18, 1587; received the red hat and the title of S. Silvestro in Capite, May 23, 1588. Ambassador of France before the Holy See again. Presided over the Etats Généraux, Blois, 1588. Did not participate in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Did not participate in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Did not participate in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Did not participate in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. Planned to travel to Rome for the absolution of King Henri IV but Pope Clement VIII prohibited him from entering the Papal States for having supported the party of the proscribed king; wrote a letter to the pope justifying his conduct and he was allowed to go to Rome. Provisor of La Sorbonne University, 1594. In a very solemn ceremony, September 14, 1594, received King Henri IV in the cathedral of Paris after his reconciliation with the church. Participated in the Assembly of the Clergy of 1595 in Paris. Presided over the Etats Généraux, Rouen, 1596. Resigned the government of the diocese in favor of his nephew Henri de Gondi, who succeeded him on June 16, 1597 (1). Did not participate in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Did not participate in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. Baptized the future King Louis XIII in Fountainebleau, 1606 (2).

Death. February 17, 1616. Buried in the chapel of Notre Dame des Sept Douleurs (Gondi chapel) in the cathedral of Paris (3).

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1015; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 280-283; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1807-1808; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 128; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 52, 70, 226 and 270.

Links. His genealogy and heraldry, Arnaud Bunel, Héraldique européenne; and his monumet, Nôtre Dame Cathedral, Paris, Ministère de la Culture (France) - Médiathéque de l'architecture et du patrimoine.

(1) Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 270, indicates that Julian de Saint-Germain, titular bishop of Cesarea, was appointed his coadjutor with right of succession because of senescis, advanced age, on July 18, 1583. The source does not give any other information about him. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 282-283, says that his nephew, Henri de Gondi, future cardinal, was appointed his coadjutor in 1598; Armand Jean, Les évêques et les archevêques de France. Depuis 1682 jusqu'a 1801 (Paris ; Memers : Picard; Fleury, 1891), p. 282, says that Henri de Gondi was named coadjutor of his uncle by King Henri IV in 1596.
(2) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 282; considering that the Dauphin was born on September 27, 1601, it seems very unusual that there was a delay of five years between his birth and baptism.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli in Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, co. 1808: D. O. M. PETRVS S. R. E. Cardinalis de Gondi, Lingonum, & Parisorum Episcopus, Comes Iuniacensis, Sacri Ordinis S. Spiritus commendator Torquatus, Vir nota in Deum, pietate, in Ecclesiam observantia, in Reges fide, in subditos cura, in patriam caritate, in suos amore, domos dignitate publice, præsertim in pauperes, vinctos, religiosasq. familiæ liberalitate, auctoritatis, iusirs disciplinæ Ecclesiæ tenax, sacrarum Ædsum collapsarum restaurator, nomorum edificator, frequens ad PP. MM. Legatus, Regebus Carolo IX. Henrico III. carus, Henrici um Pont. Max. & Ecclesia Conciliator, Ludovici XIII. in fonte Progenitor, mortalitatis memor hoc sibi (funeri suo ann. 14. superstes) monumentum P. C Excessit ann. Domini MDCXVI. Ætatis LXXXIV. XIII. Kalendas Martias plenus dierum, et bonrum operum.

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(23) 5. BONUCCI, O.S.M., Stefano (1521-1589)

Birth. 1521, Arezzo. His last name is also listed as Benucci. Of a very poor family originally from Reggio, Lombardy. His father worked with wool or was a bricklayer. His baptismal name was Agostino.

Education. Entered the order of the Servants of Mary (Servites) at a very young age. Changed his baptismal name for Stefano. Obtained the title of magister.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Taught theology in the faculties of Padua and Bologna. Procurator general of his order, 1551. Visitor apostolic of the entire order and provincial of Tuscany. Theologian at the Council of Trent. Returned to Rome and was named examiner of the index of prohibited books and prior of the convent of S. Marcello. Pope Pius V sent him, together with Felice Peretti Montalto, O.F.M.Conv., as part of the legation a latere of Cardinal Ugo Boncompagni to Spain for the cause of Archbishop Bartolomé Carranza of Toledo. Elected superior general of his order in Cesena in 1572.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Alatri, January 23, 1573. Consecrated (no information found). Transferred to the see of Arezzo October 1, 1574. Pope Sixtus V called him to reside at the Vatican and named him consultor of the Holy Office.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 18, 1587; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro, January 15, 1588. He fell sick on December 26, 1588.

Death. January 2, 1589, in the monastery of his order in Rome. Buried in the church of S. Marcello, Rome (1). Forty two cardinals attended his funeral.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 283-286; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1808-1809; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 52, 65, 99 and 116; Oldoini, Agostino. Athenaeum Romanum : in qvo summorum pontificum, ac pseudopontificum, nec non s.r.e. cardinalium et pseudocard. scripta publich exponuntur. Perusiae [i.e. Perugia] : Ex typographia Camerali, apud haeredes Sebastiani Zechini, 1676. Republished in 1969 by Gregg International Publishers Limited, 1 Westmead, Farnborough, Hants., England, p. 618-619.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1808:

D.     O.     M.
FRATRI STEPHANO BONVCCIO
ORDINIS SERVORVM
CIVI ET EPISCOPO ARETINO
SANCTAE ROM. ECCL.
PRESB. CARD.
TT. SS. PETRI ET MARCELLINI
CVM INSIGNIS RELIGIO PRVDENTIA
ET DOCTRINA OMNIVM IVDICIO
ET VOTIS, EI MAIORA PARARENT EXTINCTO
ÆTATIS SVÆ ANNO. LXVIII
SALVT HVMANÆ
MDLXXXIX. DIE. SECVNDA. IANVARIJ
LVDOVICVS BONVCCIVS ET IO. BAPTISTA FRATER
PATRVO BENEMERITO PP.

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(24) 6. HURTADO DE MENDOZA, Juan (1548-1592)

Birth. 1548, Guadalajara, Spain. Son of Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, 5th count of Saldaña, and María de Mendoza y Fonseca, heiress of the Marquis of Cenete, eldest son of Cardinal Pedro Gonzalez de Mendoza (1473), also known as "El Gran Cardenal". He is also listed as Juan de Mendoza. In Rome, he was called "el bello español" (the handsome Spaniard). Other cardinals of the family were Diego Hurtado de Mendoza y Quiñones (1500); Íñigo López de Mendoza y Zúñiga (1530); and Francisco Mendoza de Bobadilla (1544).

Education. University of Alcalá, Alcalá (philosophy and theology).

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Salamanca. Archdeacon of the chapter of the metropolitan cathedral of Toledo, and later dean of the church of Talavera.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 18, 1587; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria Traspontina, March 6, 1589. The pope asked him to resign the deanship of Talavera, which he reluctantly did; in a consistory during the pontificate of Pope Gregory XIV, the post was returned to him. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Protector of Spain before the Holy See.

Death. January 6 (1), 1592, Rome, of calculus (probably kidney stones), during the vacant see. Deposited in the church of the Society of Jesus, Rome; and later transferred to Spain, was buried in the tomb of his ancestors in Guadalajara.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 286-288; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1809; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 52 and 66.

Links. The Hurtado de Mendoza family; the Mendoza last name; and his genealogy, in Portuguese; the site is only available weekdays until 7 p.m., Portugal's time.

(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 52; his genealogy, linked above, indicates that he died on January 8, 1592.

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(25) 7. LOUBENX DE VERDALLE, O.S.Io.Hieros., Hughes de (1531-1595)

Birth. April 13, 1531, castle of Loubenx, archdiocese of Auch (1), province of Guascogne d'Alti, France. Of a noble family originally from Carcassonne. His first name is also listed as Hughues and Hugues; and his last name as Lubens.

Education. Studied letters, eloquence and militaris virtutis (2)

Early life. Entered the Sovereign Order of Malta, 1547. Distinguished himself in the siege of Zara in 1552. Commander of the Granaro, 1554-1557; and commander of artillery during the siege of Malta, May and September 1565. Grand prior of the order in Toulouse. Commander of Pézenas. Ambassador of the order before the Holy See, 1579; in that same year, conventual bailiff of the Langue de Provence (one of the seven branches or langues of the order); the latter post carried the title of grand commander as well as the charges of control of accounts, treasury and government of the arsenal. Elected 52nd (3) grand master of the Sovereign Military and Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, January 12, 1582 until his death on May 4, 1595.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 18, 1587; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Portico Octaviae, January 15, 1588. Prefect of the Papal Galleys. He reformed the order and asked Jacopo Bosio to write its history, Historia Equitum S. Ioannis Hierosolymitani. Did not participate in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Did not participate in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Did not participate in the first conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Did not participate in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII.

Death. May 4, 1595 (4), at 5 p.m., Valletta, Malta. His body was embalmed and garbed in cardinals' robes, including a plain mitre of white damask, gloves, the ring given to him by Pope Sixtus V, purple coloured socks and a pair of rose-colored slippers of satin. A crucifix was placed on his chest; near the mitre, the cardinal's hat and to his right a sword as prescribed by the Cerimoniale Romano previously adopted at the funeral of Grandmaster Cardinal Pierre d'Aubusson. Solemn obsequies were held at the Conventual Church of S. Giovanni Battista, Valletta, on Saturday, May 6. He was buried in that same church (5).

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 1606-1611; Blondy, Aain. Un prince de la Renaissance à l'aube de la contre-réforme : Hugues de Loubens de Verdalle, 1531-1582-1595. Cardinal et grand maître de l'ordre de Malte. Avant-propos d'Aimery de Verdalle ; préface de Jean Leclant. Saint-Denis : Eds. Bouchene, 2005. Other title: Hugues de Loubens de Verdalle; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 288-289; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1809-1810; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 52 and 75; Galea, Michael. Grandmaster Hughes Loubenx De Verdalle 1582 - 1595. Valletta, Malta : Publishers Enterprises Group, Ltd., 2002.

Links. His image and arms, on stamps and medal; the commune of Verdalle.

(1) Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1809, says that he was Tolosanus and Vittorelli in his addition, col. 1810, says Narbonensis natus.
(2) Vittorelli's addition in Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1810.
(3) This is according to the site of the order linked above; Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1606, says that he was the 51st grand-master of the order.
(4) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 52. Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, cols. 1607 and 1611, indicates that he died on May 12, 1595.
(5) This is his epitaph transcribed by Andrea Vittorelli in Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1809: ILLVSTRISS. DOMINO. FR. HVGONI. DE. LOVBENX. VERDALÆ. CARD. AMPLISS. HIEROSOLYMITANÆQ. MILITIÆ. CVI. A. XIX. M. III. D. VERO. XXI. HONORIFICE. PRÆFVIT. DIGNISSIMO. MAGNO. MAGISTRO. PRINCIPI. INVICTISSIMO. PRVDENTISS. BARBARIS. HOSTIBVS. TREMEBVNDO. CATHOLICÆ. RELIGIONIS. STVDIOSISSIMO. IN. ADVERSIS. FORTI. IN PROSPERIS. CIRCVMSPECTO. MODERATO. PROVIDO. LXIV. ÆTATIS. SVÆ. ANNO. VITA. FVNCTO. VNIVERSA. RELIGIO. MOERENS. HOC. SVPREMVM. PIETATIS. OFFICIVM. VLTRO. LIBENSQ. REDDIDIT. OBIIT. IV. NONAS. MAII. ANNO. DOMINI. MDXCV.

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(26) 8. BORROMEO, seniore, Federico (1564-1631)

Birth. August 18, 1564, Milan (1). Son of Giulio Cesare Borromeo and Margherita Trivulzio; his father died when he was three years old. Cousin of Cardinal Carlo Borromeo (1560). Cousin of Cardinal Guido Luca Ferrero (1565). Relative of Pope Sixtus V; and of Cardinals Alessandro Farnese, iuniore (1534); and Mark Sittich von Hohenems (1561). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Federico Borromeo, iuniore (1670). Other cardinals of the family were Giberto Borromeo, seniore (1652); Giberto Bartolomeo Borromeo, iuniore (1717); Vitaliano Borromeo (1766); and Edoardo Borromeo (1868). His first name is also listed as Francesco Federico and Federigo.

Education. Started his education in Milan under his mother and his cousin Cardinal Carlo Borromeo. First pupil of Collegio Bellarmino, Pavia; University of Bologna, Bologna (mathematics and philosophy); University of Pavia, Pavia (diploma in theology, 1585; doctorate in law); continued his studies in Rome, 1586-1595, cultivating his passion for antiquities both sacred and secular.

Early life. In 1579, he lived in Bologna for a short time and while he was there he considered joining the Society of Jesus but his cousin the cardinal dissuaded him and instead told him to join the diocesan clergy. In 1580 he began his ecclesiastical career.

Sacred orders. Received the minor orders in 1585. In that same year he went to Rome and there he was greatly influenced by Filippo Neri future saint, and by Cardinal Cesare Baronio, fuure venerable. Chamberlain of His Holiness, 1586.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 18, 1587; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Domnica, January 15, 1588. Opted for the deaconry of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, January 9, 1589. Opted for the deaconry of S. Agata in Suburra, March 20, 1589. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Opted for the deaconry of S. Nicola in Carcere, January 14, 1591. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. Member of the commission for the revision of the Vulgatea and for the preparation of the Editio Romana of the documents of the Council of Trent.

Priesthood. Opted for the order of cardinal priests, September 17, 1593; the title of S. Maria degli Angeli was assigned to him, October 25, 1593. Ordained, December 7, 1593, by Cardinal Alessandro de' Medici, in his private chapel. After the death of the archbishop of Milan Gaspare Visconti, he accepted, thanks to the intervention of Filippo Neri, the succession that Pope Clement VIII had proposed to him.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Milan, April 24, 1595 (2). Consecrated, June 11, 1595, in the church of S. Maria degli Angeli, by Pope Clement VIII. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, whcih elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. he ones in 1621 and 1623. Founded the Ambrosian Library in 1609; and the picture gallery of the same name in 1621. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Founded the Seminary of Pollegio for the three Ambrosian valleys, 1622. First marquis of Angera, 1623. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII.

Death. September 21, 1631, Milan. Buried in front of the altar of the Madonna dell'Arbero in the metropolitan cathedral of Milan (3).

Bibliography. Albònico, Aldo. Il Cardinale Federico "americanista". Roma : Bulzoni, 1990; Balestreri, Isabella. Le fabbriche del Cardinale : Federico Borromeo, 1595-1631, l'Arcivescovado e l'Ambrosiana. Benevento : Hevelius, 2005. (Architettura, storie, teorie, luoghi ; 7); Braghetta, Francesco. Le Tre valli svizzere nelle visite pastorali del cardinale Federico Borromeo (1595-1631). Fribourg : Editions universitaires, 1977. (Cahiers de l'Institut des sciences économiques et sociales de l'Université de Fribourg, 33; Variation: Université de Fribourg.; Institut des sciences économiques et sociales.; Veröffentlichungen, 33); Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 289-296; Castiglioni, Carlo. Il cardinale Federico Borromeo. Preface by Monsignor Giovanni Galbiati. Torino : Società editrice internazionale, 1931; Cazzani, Eugenio. Vescovi e arcivescovi di Milano. Nuova ed./ a cura di Angelo Majo, 2. ed. Milano : Massimo : NED, 1996. Note: Originally published 1955, now enlarged and updated, p. 233-236; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1810; Cutler, Lucy C. "Representing an apernative empire at the court of Cardinal Federico Borromeo in Habsburg Milan" in The possessions of a Cardinal : politics, piety, and art, 1450-1700. Edited by Mary Hollingsworth & Carol M. Richardson. University Park, Pa. : Pennsylvania State University Press, 2010, p. 249-264; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, and 52, 72, 73, 74, 75 and 240; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, IV, 45; Giuliani, Marzia ; Borromeo, Federico. Il vescovo filosofo : Federico Borromeo e I sacri ragionamenti. Firenze : Leo S. Olschki, 2007. (Biblioteca della Rivista di storia e letteratura religiosa.; Studi ; 18). Other title: Sacri ragionamenti sinodali; Jones, Pamela M. Federico Borromeo and the Ambrosiana : art patronage and reform in seventeenth century Milan. Cambridge : University Press, 1993; Majo, Angelo. Storia della chiesa ambrosiana. 5 vols. 2nd ed. Milano : NED, 1983-1986, II, 188,190, 205, 210 and 231; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, VI, 60-62; Pagliughi, Paolo. Il cardinal Federico Borromeo arcivescovo di Milano. Genova : Marietti, 2010. (Collana di saggistica ; 119; Variation: Collana di saggistica ; 119). Prefazione di Dionigi Tettamanzi; Platt, Arlene Quint. Cardinal Federico Borromeo as a patron and a critic of the arts and his Musaeum of 1625. New York : Garland, 1986; Portaluppi, Geo. La Milano dei Borromei : Carlo e Federico, due arcivescovi in prima linea. Pavia : Selecta : Il regisole, 2002; Wright, Anthony David. Federico Borromeo and Baronius : a turning-point in the development of the Counter-Reformation Church. Reading : University of Reading, Department of Italian Studies, 1974. (Occasional papers - Centre for the Advanced Study of Italian Society ; no. 6.).

Links. Biography by Thomas Shahan, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography by Paolo Prodi, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 13 (1971), Treccani; his prosopography, in German, Requiem Datenbank; his portrait, Institut für Bibliotheks und Informationswissenschaft; and his statue, in Piazza S. Sepolchro, Milan; Serie cronologica dei vescovi di Milano (III-XXI secolo), in Italian, archdiocese of Milan; his portrait, Lombardian context XVII century, diocese of Bergamo, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

(1) This is according to his prosopography, linked above; his biography in English, also linked above, says that he was born on August 16, 1564.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 240; and Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 237; his prosopography, linked above, indicates that he was named on April 27, 1595.
(3) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

FEDERICVS
BORROMEVS
CARD ET ARCHIEP. MEDIOLANI
SVB PRAESIDIO
BEATISSIME VIRGINIS
HIC QVIESCIT
DECESSIT ANNO
M DCXXXI
XI CAL. OCTOBRIS

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