The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Sixtus V (1585-1590)
Consistory of December 20, 1589 (VIII)


(30) 1. PIERBENEDETTI, Mariano (1538-1611)

Birth. 1538, Camerino. Of a noble family. Son of Carlo Pierbenedetti and Catarina Dommelusi. Nephew of Battista Mariano, a relative of Pope Paul III (1). He is also listed as Marianus Perbenedictus.

Education. Collegio Romano, Rome (doctorate in philosophy and theology, 1574).

Early life. Went to Rome in 1556. After listening to the sermons of Gabriello Fiamma at the church of S. Maria dell'Anima, Rome, decided to change his life (2) and enter the ecclesiastical state. Received several benefices, among them the abbey of Triglio, the priorate of the cathedral chapter of Camerino and a canonry in the chapter of the church of S. Angelo in Pescheria, Rome. While studying at Collegio Romano, he founded, together with Agostino Valeri and Ottavio Bandini, future cardinals, the Marian sodality of SS. Nunziata.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Martorano, January 30, 1577. Consecrated by Cardinal Felice Peretti (no further information found). Apostolic visitor of the churches of Calabria together with Gasparo del Fosso, archbishop of Reggio. Called to Rome by his friend Pope Sixtus V and named governor of Rome and vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, August 20, 1585; ceased as camerlengo on August 1, 1589, when the pope with his motu proprio Dum singula separated the posts (3); continued as governor until his promotion to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 20, 1589; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro, January 15, 1590. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Almoner of Pope Gregory XIV. Resigned the government of the see before April 25, 1591. Provost of S. Erasmo, diocese of Aquila. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Pope Innocent IX appointed him together with Cardinal Antonmaria Salviati to preside over all the tribunals of the Roman Curia with ample faculties to judge and define all the causes. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. Named, together with Cardinals Alessandro Damasceni Peretti and Antonmaria Salviati, to the prefecture of Rome, of the Sacred Consulta, and of the cities of the entire papal state, 1592. Pope Clement VIII offered him the dioceses of Viterbo and Fermo but he declined. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Named prefect of the Congregation of the Sacred Consulta. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. Named superintendent of the political and military affairs of the papal state. He was offered the dioceses of Vicenza and Benevento but he declined. Prefect of the Congregation for the Floods of the three legations of Ferrara, Bologna and Romagna. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, February 7, 1607. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati, May 28, 1608.

Death. January 21, 1611, Rome. Buried in the chapel of the Presepe in the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome (4).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 303-306; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1815-1816; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, p. 93; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 53, 65 and 237; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, IV, 38 and 46; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 360 and 843.

Links. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; engravings and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his tomb in the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, The Australian National University; his tomb, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) His biography in Italian, linked above, says that Pope Gregory XIII (1572-1585) was his uncle but this is not mentioned in any of the other sources consulted.
(2) According to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 303, Quantunque dotato delle più belle qualità, secondando in gioventù il suo focoso temperamento, si diede al libertinaggio, alla vanità e bizarrie del secolo, "Although equipped with beautiful qualities, in his youth, following his ardent temperament, he gave himself to libertinage, vanity and the oddities of the world."
(3) By the motu proprio Romani Pontificis providentia, April 23, 1592, Pope Clement VIII united both posts again.
(4) This is the text of his epitaph transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli in Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1816: D. O. M. MARIANO PIERBENEDICTO S. R. E. Cardinali de Camerino Episcopo Tusculano, qui auitam nobilitatem multiplice doctrina, vitæ integritate, scelerum odio, rei Catholica Ecclesiasticæ libertatis, & publici boni acri studio illustrauit, a Gregorio XIII. & ampleore cum potestate ab Inocentio IX. Clem. VIII. Leone XI. Tribunalibus Ecclesiasticæ ditionis, & politicis consultationibus præpositu, a S. D. N. Paulo V. donec Scipionem Borghesium nepot. votis communibus Cardinalem daret, negotiis omnibus Ecclesiastici status etiam militaribus Præfectus, quibus aliiisq; muneribus præclare gestis. Obiit anno ætatis LXXII. Salutis MDCXI. XIII. Kalen. Febr. Marianus Perbenedictus nepos, & hæres, patruo de fe, bene merito mæstiss. P. C.

Cool Archive

(31) 2. PETROCCHINI, O.E.S.A., Gregorio (1535-1612)

Birth. 1535, Montelparo or Montelbero, diocese of Piceno. Of honestis parentibus. His last name is also listed as Petrochini di Montelbero or Montalparo.

Education. Started his studies in Montelparo. Entered the Order of the Hermits of Saint Augustine at a young age. Studied in Bologna (1557) and at the University of Macerata (philosophy and theology; magister in arts; doctorate in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Cursor in Milan, 1561. Regens of the convent of Fermo, 1574. Professor at the University of Macerata, 1578. Prior of the monastery of Salerno, 1580. Provincial of the Marca Anconitana, 1585. Beyond everybody's expectations, Pope Sixtus V named him superior general of the order in the chapter celebrated in Rome in 1587 after the death of Fr. Spirito Vicentini. Named by the pope commissary apostolic to Spain to visit the convents of his order at the end of 1588. After he returned to Rome from Spain, the pope promoted him to the cardinalate. He was a famous orator.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 20, 1589; received the red hat and the title of S. Agostino, March 23, 1590. Abbot commendatario of the abbey of Cavour, province of Turin. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. Camerlengo of the Scared College of Cardinals, January 7, 1605 to January 8, 1607. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, May 28, 1608. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, January 24, 1611. Cardinal protoprete.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, August 17, 1611 (1). Consecrated, October 2, 1611, at the Sistine Chapel, Rome, by Pope Paul V, assisted by Cardinal Giovanni Garzia Millini and by Cardinal Michenangelo Tonti. In the same ceremony was consecrated Cardinal Felice Centini, O.F.M.Conv., bishop of Mileto.

Death. May 19, 1612, Rome. Buried in the chapel of S. Monica in the church of S. Agostino, Rome (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, 306-308; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1816-1817; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 53 and 60; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, IV, 38, 43 and 46.

Links. Biography, in Latin under "Petrocchini Fr. Gregorius", by P. David Aurelius Perini, Ordinis Erem. S. Augustini, Bibliographia Augustiniana, Volume Terzo N-S, Firenze, 1935; engravings, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his tomb in the church of S. Agostino, Rome, Requiem Datenbank; his portrait, Central Italian area, XVII century, diocese of San Benedetto del Tronto-Ripatransone-Montalto, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

(1) According to his biography in Latin, linked above, citing Tomás de Herrera's Alphabetum Augustinianum : Matriti 1644 (Madrid, 1644), I, 34, he was named bishop of Bagnoregio in 1591 but this appointment is not mentioned by any of the other sources consulted.
(2) This is his epitaph transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli in Chacón's Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1817: D. O. M. FRATRI. GREGORIO. PETROCCHINO. A. MONTELPARO.S. R. E. CARD. PRÆNESTINO
VIRO, DIVINARVM. RERVM. SCIENTIA. VITÆ. INNOCENTIA. MORVM. SVAVITATE. ET. MIRA. HVMANITATE. TOTI. AVLÆ. CONSPICVO. QVOD. COMMVNI. AVRA. ET. BENEVOLENTIA. IN OMNI. VITA. AC. PVBLICO. MOERORE. AC. LVCTV. IN. MORTE. COMPROBAVIT. VIXIT. ANNOS. LXXVI. MENSES. III. DIES. VIII. OBIIT. XIV. KAL. IVNII. MDCXII. IACOBVS. PHILIPPVS. PETROCHINVS. NEPOS. EX. TESTAMENTO. HÆRES. PATRVO. OPTIMO. ET. BENEMERENTI. CVM. LACRYMIS. P. C.

Cool Archive

(32) 3. LORRAINE-VAUDÉMONT, Charles III de (1567-1607)

Birth. July 1, 1567 (1), at 7 a.m., Nancy. Second of the nine children of Duke Charles III "le Grand" of Lorraine and Princess Claude of France, daughter of King Henri II of France. The other siblings were Henri II "le Bon" (duke of Lorraine), François II (duke of Lorraine), Chrétienne, Antoinette, Anne, Catherine (abbess of Remiremont), Elizabeth and Claude. Duke Charles III also had an illegitimate son, Charles de Remoncourt (abbot of Luneville and Senones). Great-grand-nephew of Cardinal Jean de Lorraine (1518). Nephew of Cardinal Charles de Lorraine de Vaudémont (1578). Uncle of Cardinal Nicolas François de Lorraine-Vaudémont (1626). He is also listed as Carlo di Lorena; and as Carolus de Lotharingia.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapters of Trier, Cologne, Mainz and Strassbourg. Abbot commendatario of Gorze, Clairlieu, Saint Mihiel, Saint Vincent in Metz and Saint-Victor in Paris.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Metz (2), July 18, 1578. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 20, 1589. Did not participate in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Did not participate in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Agata in Suburra, April 5, 1591. Did not participate in the first conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Did not participate in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. Legate of the Holy See in the duchies of Lorraine and Bar and in the Trois Evêchés, Metz, Toul and Verdun, 1591-1607. Elected bishop of Strassbourg by its Catholic cathedral chapter, June 9, 1592; confirmed by the pope as administrator, July 1, 1592; the Lutheran chapter elected Johann Georg von Brandenburg as administrator; an armed fight ensued for the control of the diocese and continued until 1604 when the elector of Brandenburg gave up and the cardinal became the only and legitimate bishop recognized by both chapters. Did not participate in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Did not participate in the conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. In spite of all the vicissitudes, he was able to implement the reforms mandated by the Council of Trent in his two dioceses.

Death. November 24 (3), 1607, at 6 a.m., Nancy, of a painful backbone illness he had suffered since he was 25. Buried in the Primatialkircheof Nancy, later its cathedral.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 654; Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1448 bis 1648 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz, unter Mitwirkung von Clemens Brodkorb. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1996, pp. 354-356; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, ; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. ; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 53, 72, 117 and 242; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, IV, 93.

Links. His genealogy, A1 B1 C1 D3 E1 F1 G2, Genealogy.EU; his arms and portrait, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) The see had been occupied by members of the family since the end of the 15th century.
(2) This is according to Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1448 bis 1648, p. 354; and his two genealogies linked above; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 309, says that he died in 1607 nella robsta età di quarant'anni, "at robust age of forty years" which indicates that, according to this source, he was born in 1567; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 654, says that he was born on July 2, 1576.
(3) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 53; Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1448 bis 1648, p. 356; and his two genealogies linked above; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 654, says that he died on November 30, 1607 in his thirty-second year.

Cool Archive

(33) 4. PEPOLI, Guido (1560-1599)

Birth. May 6, 1560, Bologna. Scoond of the two sons of Cornelio Pepoli, count of Castiglione, and Sulpitia Isolani, of the counts of Minerbio. The other son was Filippo (a count who died without descendents). His family was related by marriage to the family of Pope Gregory XIII; and to Pseudocardinal Giacomo Isolani (1413). His last name is also listed as Pepuli.

Education. Studied at the University of Siena, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on December 5, 1583.

Early life. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Protonotary apostolic participantium, February 2, 1583 (1). Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, December 10, 1584 (2). Secretary apostolic. Treasurer general of His Holiness, March 2, 1587.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 20, 1589; received the red hat and the deaconry of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, January 15, 1590. Participated in the first conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Urban VII. Participated in the second conclave of 1590, which elected Pope Gregory XIV. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. Opted for the deaconry of S. Eustachio, February 6, 1592. Governor of Tivoli, 1595. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Biagio dell'Anello, June 12, 1595. Opted for the title of S. Pietro in Montorio, January 8, 1596.

Death. June 1599 (3), Rome. Buried in the church of S. Biagio dell'Anello, Rome (4).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, ; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. ; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 53, 73; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, IV, 47; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), p. 169; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 539; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 492 and 834.

Link. Arms and brief biographical data, in Italian, on p. 55 of Bartolomeo di Galeotti's Trattato degli huomini illustri di Bologna, Ferrara : Vittorio Baldini, 1590; his portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Weber, Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809, p. 834; Galeotti's Trattato degli huomini illustri di Bologna, p.55, indicates that he purchased the post (as it was the custom at the time) in 1580 for 7000 ducati.
(2) This is according to Galeotti's Trattato degli huomini illustri di Bologna, p. 55, who says that he bought the post (as it was customary at the time) for 36 mila d'oro; Weber, Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809, p. 834, indicates that he was mila d'oro; Weber, Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809, p. 834, indicates that he was named VII Kal. febr. 1584.
(3) This is according to Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 47; Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1818, indicates that he died die 18 Kalen. Februarii 1599; and the transcription of his epitaph by Ferdinando Ughelli, col. 1819 of the same work, indicates that he died octavo kalend. februar. ann. MDXCIX.
(4) This is his epitaph taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1818-1819: GVIDONI. PEPVLO. S. R. E. TIT. S. PETRI. IN. MONTE. AVREO. PRESBYTERO. CARDINALI. QVI. A. GREGORIO. XIII. IN. PRTO. PRIMI. APOSTOLICORVM. DEINDE. IN CAMERÆ. APOST. CLERICORVM. NVMERVM. COOPTATVS. A. SIXTO. V. THESAVRAR. GENERALIS. ET. MOX. AB. EODEM. CARD. CREATVS. GENERIS. SPLENDORE. ANIMI. MAGNITVDINE. RELIGIONE. IN. DEVM. OFFICIO. IN. AMICOS. BENIGNITATE. IN OMNES. INSIGNIS. FVIT. VIXIT. ANNOS. XXXVIII. MENS. IX. OBIIT. OCTAVO. KALEND. FEBRVAR. ANN. MDXCIX. INFRASCRIPTI. EIVS. DOMESTICI. PATRONO. OPTIME. GRATI. PP. OCTAVIVS. HERCVLANVS. IO. ANDREAS. PMIVS. SANCTES. ORLANDINVS. IACOBVS. CAROLLVS. ANNIBAL. IACOMEC. HERMES. CVSANVS. ET BLASIVS. VANINVS.

Top Consistories Catalogs Home

©1998-2014 Salvador Miranda.