The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Gregory XIV (1590-1591)
Consistory of March 6, 1591 (II)


(2) 1. PARAVICINI, Ottavio (1552-1611)

Birth. July 11, 1552, Rome. His first name is also listed as Ottaviano.

Education. Educated under Francisco Maria Tarugi, Orat., future cardinal.

Early life. For almost twenty years, he served the mass celebrated by St. Filippo Neri. Cesare Baronio, Orat., future cardinal, was his godfather when he received the sacrament of confirmation. (No further information found).

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Alessandria, with dispensation for not having yet received the sacred orders, March 5, 1584. Consecrated, July 15, 1584, cathedral of Milan, by Cardinal Carlo Borromeo, archbishop of Milan, assisted by Filippo Sega, bishop of Piacenza, and by Francesco Bosio, bishop of Novara. Nuncio in Switzerland, with faculties of legate a latere, 1587-1591.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 6, 1591; received the red hat and the title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, November 20, 1591. Named legate to France to calm the turbulence that was affecting the kingdom, but the legation did not take effect because of the death of the pope. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. Opted for the title of S. Alessio, March 9, 1592. Resigned the government of the diocese before May 10, 1596. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 7, 1608 to January 12, 1609.

Death. February 3 (1), 1611, Rome. Buried on the left side of the main altar of the church of S. Alessio, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, pp. 314-315; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1842-1843; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 54, 103; Fink, Urban. Die Luzerner Nuntiatur 1586-1873 : Zur Behördengeschichte und Quellenkunde der päpstlichen Diplomatie in der Schweiz. Luzern ; Stuttgart : Rex Verlag, 1997. (Collectanea Archivi Vaticani ; Bd. 40) (Luzerner Historische Veröffentlichungen ; Bd. 32), p. 178-179; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 39, 42, 77.

Webgraphy. His tomb, S. Alessio, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is according to his epitaph, linked above, which says that he died "III Non. Febr.". The nonas were the fifth day of the Roman month and placing "III" before it indicates that it was three days before the fifth of February (counting it), therefore, the third of the month; Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 39, indicates that he died on February 5, 1611.

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(3) 2. ACQUAVIVA D'ARAGONA, seniore, Ottavio (1560-1612)

Birth. 1560, Naples. Of a patrician family. Son of Giovanni Girolamo Acquaviva d'Aragona, tenth duke of Atri, and Margherita Pio di Carpi. His last names are also listed as Aquaviva and d'Aragonia. Nephew of Cardinal Giovanni Vincenzo Acquavivad'Aragona (1542) and of Fr. Claudio Acquaviva, S.J., superior general of the Society of Jesus. Brother of Cardinal Giulio Acquaviva d'Aragona (1570) and of Bl. Ridolfo Acquaviva, S.J., martyred in the East Indies in 1583. Grand-uncle of Cardinal Ottavio Acquaviva d'Aragona, iuniore (1654). Other cardinals of the family are Francesco Acquaviva d'Aragona (1706); Troiano Acquaviva d'Aragona (1732); and Pasquale Acquaviva d'Aragona (1770).

Education. Studied at the University of Perugia belle lettere and Greek; and earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Went to Rome. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1584 (1). Domestic prelate of His Holiness. Vice-legate in the province of the Patrimony. Governor of Viterbo, March 20, 1589. Majordome (or oeconmous) of Pope Gregory XIV, 1590-1591.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 6, 1591; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, April 5, 1591. Legate in Campagna e Marittima, March 3, 1591. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Maria del Popolo, March 15, 1593. Legate in Avignon, 1593 to 1601; from 1597 resided in Rome. Opted for the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, April 22, 1602. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, June 5, 1605.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Naples, August 31, 1605 (2). Consecrated, September 18, 1605, church of the Gesù, Rome, by Cardinal Roberto Bellarmino, assisted by Antonio Caetani, archbishop of Capua, and by (no information found). Celebrated diocesan synods in 1607, 1611 and 1612. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 12, 1609 to January 11, 1610.

Death. December 5, 1612 (3), Naples. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Naples (4). His funeral monument is in the sacristy of the chapel of Monte di Pietà, Naples (5).

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre .... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 249-254; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, pp. 317-320; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1845; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 54 and 73; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 43, 45, 48 and 254; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), pp. 156, 178, 193, 208; Oldoini, Agostino. Athenaeum Romanum : in qvo summorum pontificum, ac pseudopontificum, nec non s.r.e. cardinalium et pseudocard. scripta publich exponuntur. Perusiae [i.e. Perugia] : Ex typographia Camerali, apud haeredes Sebastiani Zechini, 1676. Republished in 1969 by Gregg International Publishers Limited, 1 Westmead, Farnborough, Hants., England, p. 511-512; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. and 132, 181, 430, 440; Zedler, Johann Heinrich, and Carl Günther Ludovici. Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste. 64 v. Graz, Adakemische Druck, 1961- . Reprint. Originially published : Halle : J. H. Zedler, 1732-50. Vols. 19-64 ed. by Carl Günther Ludovici; Zigarelli, Daniello Maria. Biografie dei vescovi e arcivescovi della chiesa di Napoli con una descrizione del clero, della cattedrale, della basilica di s. Restituta e della cappella del tesoro di s. Gennaro. Napoli: Tipografico di G. Gioja, 1861, pp. 152-156.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 1 (1960), Treccani; his engraving by Jacopo Piccino, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; his engraving and prosopography, in German, Requiem Darenbank; engravings and arms, Araldica Vaticana; and the Acquaviva cardinals by Thomas Shahan, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia.

(1) This is according to Weber, Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809, p. 440, his prosopography, linked above, indicates that he was named on March 6, 1591.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 254; Zigarelli, Biografie dei vescovi e arcivescovi della chiesa di Napoli, p. 152, says that he was named on April 1, 1605 by Pope Leo XI but that this pontiff died before the bull of appointment was issued; Pope Leo XI reigned for only twenty seven days.
(3) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 54 and his prosopography linked above; Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, indicates that he died on September 12, 1612.Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalvm, II, col. 1845 indicates that he died on December 15, 1612.
(4) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Oldoino, Athenaeum Romanum, p. 511-512:

OCTAVIO AQVIVIVIO ARAGONIO.
CARDINALI
ARCHIEPISCOPO NEAPOLITANO PVRPVRA,
ET LITERARVM MAXIME GRÆCARUM ORNAMENTO
MAIORVM. DECORA ADEPTO
QUÆ FVERVNT
E. REPVBLICA CHRISTIANA
IN PONTIICIIS PRÆCIPVE COMITIIS
ATQVE
IN AVENIONENSI LEGATIONE CVM
ARDERET PROVINCIA CIVILIBVS DISCORDIIS
ARDERET. BELLO GALLIÆ,
STRENVE CVNCTA. EXECVTO
IN OMNI VITA SINGVLAREM. MAGNI CONSILII
EXCELSI ANIMI LAVDEM PROMERITO
D. FRANCISCVS AQVIVIVVUS
MARCHIO. AQVAVIVÆ
EX. D. TARSIA. NEPOTE
DVCE HADRIANORVM XI PRONEPOS.
OBIIT. ANNO. SALVTIS MDCXII.
NATVS ANN. LII.

(5) This is its inscription taken from Chacón and added by Ferdinando UghelliII, col. 1845: OCTAVIO. AQVAVIVIO. ARAGONIO. CARD. ARCHIEP. NEAP. OB. LEGATAM. MONTI. PIETATIS. SVPELLECTILEM. AVREORVM. MILLIVM. XX. PRÆTITVMQ. ETIAM. POST. OBITVM. PASCENDI. GREGIS. MVNVS. QVEM. CONSILIO. DOCTRINA. OPIBVS. STRENVE. ALVERAT. PRÆFECTI. DOCVMENTO. POSTERIBVS. PP.

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(4) 3. FARNESE, Odoardo (1573-1626)

Birth. December 7, 1573, Parma. Of the dukes of Parma. Youngest of the the three children of Alessandro Farnese, third duke of Parma and Piacenza, and Princess Maria de Portugal. The other siblings were Margherita (a Benedictine nun) and Ranuccio. The father also had an illegitimate daughter, Isabella Margherita, by Catherine de Roquoi. His first name is also listed as Edoardo. Great grand-son of Pope Paul III; and grand-nephew of Cardinals Alessandro Farnese, iuniore (1534) and Ranuccio Farnese, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1545). Uncle of Cardinal Mario Alberizzi (1675).

Education. Educated under his uncle Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, iuniore.

Early life. Resigned the duchy of Parma in favor of his brother Ranuccio. Abbot commendatario of Grottaferrata, March 1589.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 6, 1591. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Adriano, November 20, 1591. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. Opted for the deaconry of S. Eustachio, June 12, 1595. Governor of Vetralla, 1600. Legate in Viterbo, September 25, 1600. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata, November 13, 1617. Cardinal protodiacono. Opted for the order of cardinal priests, January 11, 1621; no title was assigned to him at the time. Did not participate in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, March 3, 1621. Consecrated, Friday July 2, 1621. Gesù church, Rome, by Cardinal Roberto Bellarmino, assisted by Diofebo Farnese, titular Latin patriarch of Jerusalem, and by Galeazzo Sanvitale, archbishop of Bari. Protector of Portugal. After 1622 he ruled the duchy of Parma as regent during the minority of his nephew. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Frascati, September 27, 1623 (1).

Death. February 21, 1626 (2), Parma. Transferred to Rome, was buried in front of the main altar of the Jesuit church of Gesù (3).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, pp. 315-317; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1843-1844; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 191; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 54; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 38, 51and 53; Mansour, Opher. "Cardinal vistues : Odoardo Farnese in his Camerino" in The possessions of a Cardinal : politics, piety, and art, 1450-1700. Edited by Mary Hollingsworth & Carol M. Richardson. University Park, Pa. : Pennsylvania State University Press, 2010, p. 226-248; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), III, 527; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp.424, 430 and 659.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; portraits, genealog and biography in English, Wikipedia; his genealogy, A2 B3 C1 D3, EU Genealogy; his portrait by Annibale Carracci, Wikimedia; his portrait, atrium of the sacristy, Gesù Church, Rome; memorial to Cardinal Odoardo Farnese, pavement of Gesù Church, Rome; Cardinals Alessandro and Odoardo Farnese, atrium of the sacristy, Gesù Church, Rome; his portrait, Roman school, 17th century, diocese of Civitavecchia-Tarquinia, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

(1) This is according to Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 38; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 315, says that he was named bishop of Frascati in 1624.
(2) Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 38, indicates that he died at 53; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 317, says that he died at 52.
(3) This is the inscription on the pavement over his tomb taken from Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalvm, II, col. 1844: ODOARDO. S.R.E. CARDINALI. FARNESIO. ODOARDO. S.R.E. CARDINALI. FARNESIO. EPISCOPO. TUSCULANO. ALEXANDRI. PARMÆ. ET PLACENTIÆ. DUCIS. ET. PRINCIPIS. MARIÆ. LUSITANÆ FILIO. The same source transcribed the inscription place in his coffin: ODORADUS Card. FARNESIVS Alexandri Parmæ, & Placentiæ Ducis, & Mariæ Lusitanæ filius, Alexandri Card. Farnesii, Templi Nominis IESV fundatoris pronepos, episcopu Tusculanus, Legatus Patrimonii, Domus Professæ Societ. IESV, eiusq. Sacraris fundator, Protector regnorum Lusitaniæ, Aragoniæ, Angliæ Suetiæ, Nationis Helvetiæ Catholicæ, Reip. Ragusinæ, Vallis Tellinæ, Ordinis Caribusiani, Orfanorum, soeminarum et quæs pudicitiæ ad castitatem religiosam refugientum, Hospitsii S, Iacobi Insanabilium, Sodalitatum Rosarii, Caritatii Mortis, Sacri Vexilli, Montis Carmeli, S. Caroli quæ omnia curæ suæ commissæ in Vrbe loca beneficiis, amplissi miis, atque erogate pecunia locupletanus; extra Vrbem in super Coenobia & Temple fundavit; egregium Princeps, Romaneq; Curiæ, ac Sacro Cardinalium Collegio vimax, etiam post mortem, prudentiæ, ac pietatis exemplum, de tanto demum nomine, si virtutem excipiat, exiguus hic cineres.

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(5) 4. PIATTI, Flaminio (1552-1611)

Birth. July 11, 1552, Milan. Of a patrician family. Son of Girolamo Piatti and Antonia Vicemale. His last name is also listed as Plato. Related to Pope Gregory XIV (1590-1591).

Education. Studied law.

Early life. Consistorial advocate, 1583. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, 1586.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 6, 1591; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Domnica, April 5, 1591. Together with twelve other cardinals was charged with the affairs of the duke of Ferrara. Participated in the conclave of 1591, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Participated in the conclave of 1592, which elected Pope Clement VIII. Opted for the deaconry of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, March 9, 1592. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Clemente, March 15, 1593. Opted for the title of S. Onofrio, June 10, 1596. Opted for the title of S. Maria della Pace, April 24, 1600. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 11, 1610 to January 10, 1611.

Death. November 1, 1613 (1), Rome. Buried in the Jesuit church of Gesù, Rome (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, V, pp. 320-321; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1846; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 54 and 74; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 41, 42, 45 and 51; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 428.

Webgraphy. His tomb in Gesù Church, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is according to Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 45, indicates that he died on November 1, 1613; Weber, Senatus divinus, p. 428; and Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, V, 321, who also indicate that he died in 1613; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 54; says that he died on November 2, 1612; and Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalvm, II, col. 1846, says that he died in 1611.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph placed on the floor above his tomb as transcribed by Ferdinando Unghelli in Chacón's, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalvm, II, col. 1846:

D.     O.     M.
FLAMINII PLATI Patricii Mediolanensis
S. R. E. Presb. Card. ossa hic iacent
cuius peritiam legum
oppotunitatem consiliorum studium religionis
non hic discet sepulchrali fide posthumasq. famæ
disces, sid curas, ad Romanæ Rota Iudicibus
a Purpuratorum Patrum Senatus
apud quos college incomparailis admiratio
in perpetuum vivet
quod autem vero mortalis fuit
Hieronymus Platus, Comes Carpintaniæ erga
optimum patrum pietatis monumentum composuit.
Obiit Anno Domini MDCXI. Ætatis suæ LXIII.

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