The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Clement VIII (1592-1605)
Consistory of September 17, 1593 (I)


(1) 1. SASSI, Lucio (1521-1604)

Birth. October 21, 1521, Nola. His last name is also listed as Sasso and Saxi. Of a noble patrician family. Son of Marco Sasso. Among the members of the family is Fra Gerardo Sassi, founder of the Order of Malta.

Education. Educated in the city of Naples.

Early life. Occupied several prefectures in the kingdom of Naples. Went to Rome and became auditor and counselor of Cardinal Girolamo Verallo. Papal prelate and referendary of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice in the pontificate of Pope Julius III (1550-1555). Governor of Fano, February 14, 1561. Lieutenant of the governor of Spoleto, August 29, 1563. Protonotary apostolic. Governor of Ravenna and vice-legate in Romagna, September 1, 1565. Governor of Perugia, February 18, 1568 March 13, 1570.

Priesthood. Incardinated in the diocese of Rome (no further information found).

Episcopate. Elected first bishop of Ripatransone, October 3, 1571. Resigned the government of the diocese before May 20, 1575. Vicar of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, 1575. Regent of the Apostolic Penitentiary for more than twenty years. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature, 1581. Datary of His Holiness, 1590-1593.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 17, 1593; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Quirico e Giulitta, October 11, 1593. Pro-datary of His Holiness, 1593 until his death.

Death. February 29 (1), 1604. Buried at the right side of the minor nave near the Holy Door in the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 1-2; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalvm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque Clementem IX P. O. M. 4 vols. Romae : Cura, et Svmp. Philippi, et Ant. De Rvbeis. Svperiorvm Permissv., 1630, II, cols. 1871-1872 ; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 285; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, IV, 4 and 49.

Links. His portrait in his tomb, with closer view of the epitaph.

(1) This is according to his epitaph, linked above, which indicates that he died PRID. KAL. MART CHRI. SAL. MDCIV, the day before March 1, 1604. Since 1604 was a leap year, he must have died on February 29. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 285, indicates that he died on February 3, 1604.
(2) This is the text of his brief epitaph transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli in Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalvm, II, col. 1872: D. O. M. LVCIVS. SAXVS. EPISCOPVS. SACRÆ. POENITENTIARIÆ. REGENS. A. CLEMENTE. VIII. IN. ORDINE. CARDINALIVM. COOPTATVS. H. S. M. His nephew Mario had a black stone place in his tomb with the following inscription, taken from the same source: D. O. M. LVCIO SAXO Neapolitano, tituli Sanctorum Quirici & Iulita S. R. E. Presp. Card. qui viri clarissimi Marii Saxi patris fui quondam Caroli V. Imp. August. in Regno Neapolitano Consiliarii, ab eodemq; ad varias provincias regendas adhibiti, laudem emulatus, cum se Romam contulisset, ob doctrinam , atque prudentiam inter Iustitiæ Referendarios a Iulio Tertio Pont. Max. Gratiæ a Pio Quarto adscriptus, primsq; ad Episcopatum Ripæ Trasonis a Pio V. prouectus, Sacræ inde Pænitentiaria a Gregorio XIII. præpositus per annos fere XX. Vicarius, ab Urbano VIII. Datarius creatus, in eodemq; munere a suobis sequentibus Pontificibus gregorio XIV. & Innocentiis Nono confirmatum, tandem a Clemente VIII. sola assiduorum pro Apostolica Sede laborum inspectione, prima lectione, una cum illustrisimis nepotibus, nominatuionis prærogativa, in amplissimum ordinem adscritus, non minus ex eo accepit, quam eidem contulit ornamenti. Marius Saxus Fabii filius, hærer, Patruo optime merito, atque honore dignissimo posuit. Vixit Annos LXXXIt. Menses IV. Dies VIII. Obiit pridie Kal. Mertii, Anno Christiana salutis M D C I V.

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(2) 2. TOLEDO HERRERA, S.J., Francisco de (1532-1596)

Birth. October (1) 4, 1532 (2), Córdoba, Spain. Son of Alfonso de Toledo, an actuary of Jewish ancestry, and Isabel de Herrera. He had seven sisters, three of them nuns, and a brother.

Education. Studied philosophy and arts in Valencia (3) and theology in Salamanca under Domingo de Soto, noted Spanish theologian and chaplain of Emperor Charles V; professor of arts at the university while studying theology, 1558.

Priesthood. Ordained (no date found). Entered the Society of Jesus in Salamanca, June 3, 1558; novitiate at Simancas for some months; professed, 1564, Rome. Called to Rome by the superior general of the Society of Jesus, Diego Línez in 1559. At Collegio Romano, he was named master of novices; professor of philosophy, 1559-1562; Scholastic philosophy and moral theology, 1562-1569; and prefect of studies. Rector of several seminaries, among them Collegio Germanico, in Rome. Named apostolic preacher in 1569, he remained in the post for twenty-four years. In that same year, he was named theologian of the Apostolic Penitentiary and consultor of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition. Member of almost all the congregations of the Roman Curia. In 1570, he intervened in the process against Archbishop Bartolomé Carranza de Miranda, O.P., of Toledo, supporting the archbishop. In 1571, accompanied Cardinal Gianfrancesco Commendone on his mission to Emperor Maximilian and to King Sigismund of Poland. Envoy of several popes to Austria, Poland, Germany, Bavaria, and Flanders. In Louvain, where he had been sent by Pope Gregory XIII, he received the retraction of Michel de Bay (Baïus), professor of the university of that city, whose interpretations of the works of St. Augustine had been condemned by the church. He played an important part in the revision of the Vulgate (4). Member of the missions sent by the pope to reconcile King Henri IV of France with the Church.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 17, 1593; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Traspontina, October 11, 1593. In 1594, he wanted to resign the cardinalate in order to be free to retire and die in a Jesuit house; his wish was not fulfilled. He was the first Jesuit cardinal. Some of his contemporaries considered him one of the most learned men of his age, and even a genius. The topics of his works were mainly philosophical, theological, and exegetical. He saw himself as a disciple of St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas.

Death. September 14, 1596. Buried in the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome (5).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 2-7; Cereceda, F. "En el cuarto centenario del P. Francisco Toledo", Estudios Eclesiásticos, XIII (1934), 90-110; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalvm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque Clementem IX P. O. M. 4 vols. Romae : Cura, et Svmp. Philippi, et Ant. De Rvbeis. Svperiorvm Permissv., 1630, II, cols. 1872-1874; Echarri, J. "Un influjo espaqol desconocido en la formación del sistema cartesiano. Dos textos paralelos de Toledo y Descartes sobre el espacio", Pensamiento 6 (1950), 291-323; Galdós, R. "Méritos escriturísticos del Cardenal F. de Toledo", Archivo Teológico Granadino 3 (1940), 19-33; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, IV, 4 and 45; Gómez Hellín, L. "Toledo lector de filosofía y teología en el Colegio Romano", Archivo Teológico Granadino, 3 (1940), 1-18; Luis, A. "Un testigo excepcional de la devoción a la Virgen en el siglo XVI. Mariología de Francisco de Toledo (1534-1596), Scripta de Maria 5 (1982), 315-347; Pérez Goyena, A. "Catedráticos de teología españoles en Roma", Estudios Eclesiásticos, V (1926), 26-43; Santos, Daniel de. " Toledo, Francisco de (Cardenal)." Gran Enciclopedoa Rialp, XXII, p. 537; Súñer, P. "Toledo, Francisco de." Diccionario de Historia Eclesiástica de España, IV, 2572-3574; Stegmüller, Friedrich. "Tolet et Cajétan", Revue Thomiste 39 (1935), 358-370; Tellechea, J. I. "Censura inédita del P. Toledo sobre el Catecismo de Carranza, cotejo con la de Melchor Cano," Revista Española de Teología, XXIX (1969), pp. 3-35.

Links. Biography, in English; biography, in German; bibliography and biography, in French; his prosopography, in German; his engraving; and his tomb in the patriarchal Liberian basilica, ArtServe, The Australian National University.

(1) This is according to his biography in English in The Catholic Encyclopedia, linked above. His prosopography, also linked above, indicates that he was born on November 4, 1532. The first date is more plausible because October 4 is the feast of St. Francis of Assisi and his baptismal name is Francisco.
(2) Diccionario de Historia Eclesiástica de España, IV, 2572, indicates that he was born c. 1534.
(3) This is according to his biography in English linked above; his biography in French, also linked above, indicates that he studied philosophy in Zaragoza.
(4) Member of the commission appointed by Pope Sixtus V in 1585, under the direction of Cardinal Antonio Carafa, to complete this work, the result was finally published in a precipitated way in 1590, after the pope himself took over the final drafting, without holding account of the recommendations made by Fr. Toledo. Pope Sixtus V died in the same year, and his successor Pope Gregory XIV set up a new commission, on the recommendation of Fr. Roberto Bellarmino, S.J., and placed it under the direction of Cardinal Marco Antonio Colonna, and with Fr. Toledo as one of the advisers. After the untimely deaths of Pope Gregory XIV and his successor Pope Innocent IX ("the year of the three popes"), Pope Clement VIII took in hand the project of the revision of the Vulgate and entrusted the final drafting to Fr. Toledo. The final version, known by the name of Sixto-Clementine edition, was finally made public on November 9, 1592 by the bull Cum sacrorum Bibliorum.
(5) This is the text of his epitaph given by Ferdinando Ughelli in Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalvm, II col. 1874: D.O.M. FRANCISCO TOLETO Cordubensi, S.R.E. Presbytero Cardinali, summo Theologo, Verbi Dei praedicatori eximio, in rebus magnis agendis consilio & prudentia singulari, qui ob excellentem virtutem, & merita, praeclaro Clementis VIII. Pontificis Maximi iudicio primus in Societatem IESV amplissimam dignitatem intulit. Vixit An. LXIII. Menses XI. Dies X. Obiit Anno MDXCVI. Die XIV. Sept. Sancta Dei Genitrice haerede instituta, Presbyteris, qui ad eius Altare Missas celebrans, censum, perpetuum attribuit, iussit, Benedictus Iustinianus, Petrus Aldobrandinus Cardinales executeres testamentarii, Collegæ optimo, et Capitulum, & Canonici husus Basilicæ viro amplissimo, & optime de se merito posuerunt.

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(3) 3. ALDOBRANDINI, Pietro (1571-1621)

Birth. March 31, 1571, Rome. Eldest of the two children of Pietro Aldobrandini, consistorial lawyer, and Flaminia Ferracci, of humble condition. The other sibling was Olimpia, who married Gianfrancesco Aldobrandini. Nephew of Pope Clement VIII on his father's side. Cousin of Cardinal Cinzio Passeri Aldobrandini (1593). Uncle of Cardinals Silvestro Aldobrandini, O.S.Io.Hier. (1603), and Ippolito Aldobrandini, iuniore (1621). Other cardinals of the family were Baccio Aldobrandini (1652); and Alessandro Aldobrandini (1730). His last name is also listed as Aldovrandini.

Education. Educated by the priests of the Congregation of the Oratory of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome; and then by Filippo Neri, future saint, who still lived there, and predicted that he would be elevated to the cardinalate. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Protonotary apostolic. Consistorial lawyer. Prefect of Castle Sant'Angelo, 1592. Abbot commendatario of Ss. Vincenzo ed Anastasio alle Tre Fonatane alle Acque Salvie.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of September 17, 1593; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Nicola in Carcere, November 3, 1593. Together with Cardinal Cinzio Aldobrandini, named cardinal nipote or secretary of State; gradually, he took over the affairs of the papal court. Governor of Fermo, January 27, 1595 until December 14, 1605. Abbot commendatario of Fossanova, 1595. Governor of Ferrara, January 28, 1598 until July 1605; he had negotiated joining of the city to the Papal States. Legate a latere of the papal army in Ferrara. Accompanied the queen of Spain on her voyage from Ferrara to Milan.

Priesthood. Ordained (no date found), on his return from that voyage by Pope Clement VIII in Loreto, together with Cardinal Bartolomeo Cesi. Named camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, ad vitam, December 20, 1599 until his death. Governor of Civita Castellana, February 28, 1600; prorogated for another triennium, February 20, 1603. He negotiated the rehabilitation of King Henri IV of France and the addition of Ferrara to the Papal States. Legate a latere to bless the marriage of King Henri IV of France and Caterina de' Medici in Florence, September 25, 1600. At the same time, he was named legate before King Henri IV of France and all the other kings and princes that would participate in the termination of the war started between France and the duke of Savoy for the marquisate of Saluzzo; the legation ended successfully on March 26, 1601. Grand penitentiary, 1602 until May 1605. Prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Siganture (?). Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Pancrazio, June 14, 1604. Poet Torquato Tasso dedicated the work Discorsi del poema eroico to him.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Ravenna, September 13, 1604. Consecrated, October 17, 1604, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Pope Clement VIII, assisted by Cardinal Francesco Tarugi, Cardinal Alessandro de' Medici, and by Cardinal Ottavio Bandini. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. Opted for the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, June 1, 1605. Abbot commendatario of Rosazzo, 1610. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 10, 1611 to January 9, 1612. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, June 4, 1612. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, retaining the archdiocese of Ravenna, August 31, 1620. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV; died the day after its closing. Protector and supporter of writers and painters.

Death. February 10, 1621, in the palace where he resided in Rome. Buried in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome (1). The funeral oration was delivered by Father Angelo Galluccio, S.J.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 7-11; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalvm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque Clementem IX P. O. M. 4 vols. Romae : Cura, et Svmp. Philippi, et Ant. De Rvbeis. Svperiorvm Permissv., 1630, II, cols. 1875-1877; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, IV, 4, 38, 43, 46, 47, 54 and 292; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 212, 243-244, 249, and 450.

Links. Biography by Elena Fasano Guarini, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 2 (1960), Treccani; his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; his genealogy, A1 B4 D7 H4 K1, Libro d'Oro della Nobilità Mediterranea; his portrait, Roman School, 17th century, diocese of Civitavecchia-Tarquinia, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

(1) This is the text of his epitaph transcribed by Andrea Vittorelli in Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalvm, II, col. 1877: PETRO. SABINENSI. EPISCOPO. CARDINALI. ALDOBRANDINO. SANCT. TOM. ECCL. CAMERARIO. ARCHIEPISCOPO. RAVENNATI.MAGNA. APVD. PRINCIPES. GRATIA. ET. AVTHORITATE. PERPETVA. ANIMI. ÆQVITATE. ET CONSTANTIA. DOMI. FOR. ISQ. CLARISSIMO. QVARTVM. LEGATO. SEMPER. PIO. LIBERALI. MAGNIFICO. PRINCIPI. OPTIMO. ALDOBRANDINA. FAMILIA. SOLLEMNE. FVNVS. PVBLICVM. AMORIS. DOLORISQ. ARGVMENTVM. SOLVIT. IV. KAL. IVNII. MDCXXI.

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passeri.jpg

(4) 4. PASSERI ALDOBRANDINI, Cinzio
(1551-1610)

Birth. 1551 (1), Senigallia. Of a family that originated in Ca' Passeri, near Bergamo. Son of Aurelio Personeni and Giulia Aldobrandini (2). His last name is also listed as Aldobrandini Passeri; and as Aldovrandini. Given the last name Aldobrandini by his maternal uncle Cardinal Ippolito Aldobrandini, seniore (1585), before he became Pope Clement VIII. Cousin of Cardinal Pietro Aldobrandini (1593). Uncle of Cardinals Silvestro Aldobrandini, O.S.Io.Hier. (1603) and Ippolito Aldobrandini, iuniore (1621).

Education. Sent to Rome in 1565 to be educated in letters and customs by his maternal uncle. Collegio Germanico, Rome; University of Perugia, Perugia (law); University of Padua, Padua (doctorate in law).

Early life. Accompanied Cardinal Ippolito Aldobrandini, seniore in his legation to establish the peace between Poland and Germany, 1588; sent back to Rome to bring Pope Sixtus V the news of the success of the mission. Referendary of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, 1592.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of September 17, 1593, with dispensation for having a cousin in the Sacred College of Cardinals; received the red hat on September 23, 1593; and the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro on October 11, 1593. Together with Cardinal Pietro Aldobrandini, named cardinal nipote or secretary of State; gradually, the affairs of the papal court were taken over by Cardinal Pietro. Governor of Spoleto, February 4, 1595 to February 21, 1607. Prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, December 23, 1599 until his death. Legate in Avignon, 1601-1607. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Named grand penitentiary by Pope Leo XI in 1605 but could not yet occupy the post because he had not yet been ordained a priest. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V.

Priesthood. Ordained, probably in 1605. Grand penitentiary, May 1605 until his death. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, June 1, 1605. Distinguished himself for his generosity to the poor and as protector and supporter of the arts and letters; he founded in his own house an academy that counted among its members Francesco Patrizio, Giambattista Raimondi, Scipione Pasquale, bishop of Casale; Pietro Nores, gentleman from Cyprus; and poet Torquato Tasso, who dedicated to him his famous poem Gerusalemme liberata.

Death. January 1, 1610, Rome. Buried in his title (3).

Bibliography. Beltrami, Giuseppe. Notizie su prefetti e referendari della Segnatura Apostolica desunte dai brevi di nomina. Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1972, p. 6; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 11-16; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalvm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque Clementem IX P. O. M. 4 vols. Romae : Cura, et Svmp. Philippi, et Ant. De Rvbeis. Svperiorvm Permissv., 1630, II, col. 1877; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, IV, 4, 48 and 52;Morera, Trento. I cardinali governatori di Capranica. Roma : Romagrafik, 1983, pp. 61-63; Siena, Ludovico de. Storia della città di Sinigaglia. Bologna : Arnaldo Forni, 1977. (Historiae urbium et regionum Italiae rariores ; 127 : Nuova serie ; 43). Reprint of the 1746 ed. published by Stefano Calvani, Sinigaglia, 1746, pp. 269-271.

Links. Engraving and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; brief biographical entry, in Italian, Enciclopedia on line, Treccani; his genealogy, A1 B4 C1 D7 E1 F4 G2, H4 I1 J5 K1, Libro d'Oro della Nobilità Mediterranea; and his tomb in the church of S. Pietro in Vincoli, RomeArtServe, The Australian National University; his portrait, Lombard School, 16th century, diocese of Bergamo, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

(1) This is according to his genealogy linked above; his biography in Italian, also linked above, indicates that he was born in 1560.
(2) This is according to the epitaph on the tomb of the Servant of God Francesco di Bergamo in the mortuary chapel of the Capuchins in Rome, and the genealogy of the Aldobrandinis linked above. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 11, indicates that the mother's name was not Giulia, as the continuators of Chacón's Vitæ et res getæ Pontificum Romanorum et S.R.E. Cardinalium point out, but Elisabetta as invicibilmente demonstrates Lodovico Siena in his Storia della città di Sinigaglia, p. 269.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph placed on his urn by his relative Prince Giambattista Pamphilj in 1707, taken from Lodovico Siena, Storia della città di Sinigaglia, p. 271: CINTHIO. ALDOBRANDINI. S. R. E. CARD. CELEMNTI. VIII. PONT. MAX. SANGUINE. AC. VIRTUTIBUS. CONJUNCTO. LITTERARUM. FAUTORI. BENEFICENTISS. PER. PROSPERA. ET. ADVERS. SEMPER, INVICT. JO. BAPTIST. PAMPHILIUS. ALDOBRANDINUS. MELDULÆ. PRINCEPS. ET. SARSINÆ. DUX. MATERNI. GENERIS. MEMOR. NEDIUTIUS. IN. OBSCURO. PRÆCLARI. CINER. JACERENT. IN. HAC. TEMPLI. LUCEM. TRANSFER. JUSSIT. ANNO. SALUTIS. HUMANÆ. MDCCVII.

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