The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Clement VIII (1592-1605)
Consistory of March 3, 1599 (IV)


(22) 1. BEVILACQUA, Bonifazio (1571-1627)

Birth. 1571 (1), Ferrara. Fifth of the eight children of Antonio Bevilacqua, count of Macastorna, and his secon wife, Isabella Turchi. He was aggregated to the Aldobrandini family by Pope Clement VIII on April 3, 1601. Related to Pope Gregory XIV. His last name is also listed as Aldobrandini Bevilacqua.

Education. Studied at the University of Padua (2), where he obtained a doctorate in utorue iure, both canon and civil law, presumably in 1590. Entered the ecclesiastical state in that same year.

Early life. Returned to Ferrara and became archdeacon of its cathedral chapter, 1590-1597. Went to Rome entering the service of Pope Gregory XIV as domestic prelate in 1591. Governor of Fano, ca. 1593. Governor of the Patrimony of Saint Peter, 1593. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1594. Governor of Camerino, October 14, 1596.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular patriarch of Constantinople, with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age, April 3, 1598. Consecration (no information found). His motto was Nè di tanta jattura mi querelo.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 3, 1599; received the red hat and the title of S. Anastasia, March 17, 1599. Prefect of the Sacred Consulta, 1599. Legate in Perugia and Umbria, September 25, 1600 until 1606. Opted for the title of S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni, February 26, 1601. Transferred to the see of Cervia, September 10, 1601. Prefect of the S.C. of the Index. Count of the Sacred Apostolic Palaces, April 22, 1602. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. Opted for the title of S. Prisca, August 31, 1611. Opted for the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, January 7, 1613. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, February 17, 1614, replacing the late Cardinal Francesco Mantica; elected again, January 12, 1615 until January 11, 1616. Prefect of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta from 1614. Marquis of Tornano, 1619. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, March 29, 1621. Obtained the title of duke over his fief, March 3, 1622. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, September 27, 1623. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Frascati, September 7, 1626. Prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, 1626 until his death. He had the sepulchral monument of Torquato Tasso built in the church of S. Onofrio al Gianicolo.

Death. April 7, 1627, at 9 p.m., Rome (3). Buried in the chapel of S. Sebastiano Martire in the church of S. Andrea della Valle, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 47-48; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1895; Del Re, Nicola. "I cardinali prefetti della sacra congregazione del concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), p. 115; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 5, 38, 39, 42, 46, 48, 146 and 162; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, V, 198-199; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 172, 234, 330, and 494.

Links. Biography by Gaspare De Caro, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 9 (1967), Treccani; biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; his prosopography, in German, Requiem Datenbank; his engraving, arms and portrait, Araldica Vaticana; and his genealogy, A3 B7, Libro d'Oro della Nobilità Mediterranea.

(1) This is according to his genealogy, linked above; and his first biography in Italian, linked above. His second biography in Italian, also linked above, indicates that he was born in 1570.
(2) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 47; Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, V, 198; and his second biography in Italian, linked above. His prosopography, linked above, and his first biography in Italian, also linked above, indicate that he obtained his law degree in Ferrara.
(3) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 5; his genealogy, linked above, indicates that he died on April 6, 1627.

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(23) 2 ROJAS Y SANDOVAL, Bernardo de (1546-1618)

Birth. April 20, 1546, Aranda de Duero, diocese of Osma, Spain. He was the second of the nine children of Hernando de Rojas y Sandoval and María de Chacón de Guevara. Uncle (1) of Cardinal Francisco Gómez Rojas de Sandoval, duke of Lerma (1618). After his elevation to the cardinalate, he reversed the order of his last names to please his nephew who had proposed and supported his promotion. He is also listed as de Sandoval y de Rojas; and as Bernardo de Sandoval only.

Education. University of Alcalá de Henares, Alcalá de Henares (bachiller, June 18, 1566; licentiate, October 25, 1567; doctorate in arts, November 3, 1567); University of Salamanca, Salamanca (licentiate in theology, July 24, 1576). Because of delicate health and defective eyesight, his uncle commuted the duty of saying the divine office for other devotions.

Early life. Received the tonsure from his uncle, Cristóbal de Rojas y Sandoval, bishop of Oviedo, November 13, 1555, in order to enable him to obtain ecclesiastical benefices. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Seville, June 4, 1574. Received the subdiaconate from his uncle Cristóbal, then archbishop of Seville, in the church of the monastery of El Escorial, June 5, 1576. Later, archdeacon of Ecija, archdiocese of Seville; and also, governor of the archdiocese in spite of his young age.

Sacred orders. (No further information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ciudad Rodrigo, January 8, 1586. Consecrated, April 20, 1586, Seville, by Cardinal Rodrigo de Castro, archbishop of Seville. Transferred to the see of Pamplona, March 16, 1588. Celebrated a synod in 1590 to apply the dispositions of the Council of Trent. Transferred to the see of Jaén, April 29, 1596.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 3, 1599. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Toledo, April 19, 1599. Received the red hat and the title of S. Anastasia, February 26, 1601. Did not participate in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Did not participate in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. Supreme chancellor of Castilla. Royal counselor. General Inquisitor of Spain, 1608-1618. He was a protector of Miguel de Cervantes y Saavedra, author of Don Quixote; in 1615, in the prologue of the second part of the work, the author thanked the cardinal for his "suma caridad". He also supported other famous authors like Vicente Espinel, Francisco de Quevedo y Villegas, Fray Luis de León, Luis de Góngora, Domenikos Teotocopoulos (El Greco) and Lope Félix de Vega Carpio. He founded the Cistercian convent of San Bernardo in Alcalá de Henaros, having charged Architect Juan Gómez de Mora with its construction.

Death. December 7, 1618, suddenly, Madrid. Transferred to Toledo and buried in the Sagrario chapel of its metropolitan cathedral.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 48-150; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1895-1896; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 168 and 268; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV,. 6, 194 and 339; Goñi Gaztambide, J. "Rojas y Sandoval, Bernardo de". Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; Suplemento (1987), 651-667; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1500-1699). Españoles obispos en España, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 34), p. 97; Laínez Alcalá, Rafael. Don Bernardo de Sandoval y Rojas, protector de Cervantes (1546-1618). Salamanca : Ediciones Anaya, 1958.

Links. His portrait and biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; his portrait and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his engraving, arms and portraits, Araldica Vaticana; La fecha de San Fermín by Maximo López Vilaboa / Aranda - domingo, 08 de julio de 2012, Diario de Burgos.

(1) This is according to his biographical entry in Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, but he actually was a cousin of the Marquis of Denia, father of Cardinal Francisco Gómez Rojas de Sandoval.

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(24) 3. VISCONTI, Alfonso (1552-1608)

Birth. 1552, Milan. Of an ancient and famous family. Son of Count Annibale Visconti, signore of Saliceti, and Lucia Sauli. Nephew of Cardinal Antonmaria Sauli (1587). Other members of the family were Pseudocardinal Bartolomeo Aicardi Visconti (1440); and Cardinals Carlo Visconti (1565); and Antonio Eugenio Visconti (1771).

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, in Pavia.

Early life. Admitted to Collegio of lawyers of Milan, 1574. Went to Rome. Joined the Oratory of St. Filippo Neri, 1577; became one of its four vicars; left the Oratory to pursue an ecclesiastical career. Protonotary apostolic. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1580. Collector of Portugal, 1584-1586; he was also named vice-legate before Cardinal Albrecht von Austria, who was viceroy of that kingdom. Lieutenant of the auditor of the Apostolic Chamber in the pontificate of Pope Sixtus V (1585-1590). Nuncio in Austria, April 15, 1589 to 1591. Governor of Borgo and the conclaves during the sedi vacanti of 1591 and 1592.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Cervia, February 8, 1591. Consecrated (no information found). Governor of Ascoli, Montalto, and Nursia, February 5, 1592. Nuncio to Hungary, 1595-1598; at the beginning of 1597, he accompanied Prince Sigismund Báthory, duke of Transylvania and Walachia, to conduct negotiations in Prague concerning the war against the Turks; he also went to Poland to negotiate with its king different affairs concerning the Catholic Church; he returned to Italy in the middle of 1598 after having rendered considerable services by his legation. On February 6, 1599 he went to Genoa as nuncio to welcome to the Papal States the new queen of Spain, Margarita von Austria, future wife of King Felipe III, and accompany her to Ferrara, where the pope blessed the solemn nuptials.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 3, 1599; received the red hat and the title of S. Giovannia a Porta Latina, March 7, 1599. Opted for the title of S. Sisto, January 24, 1600. Transferred to the see of Spoleto, September 10, 1601. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. Legate in the Marche Anconitana, and president of the city and state of Ascoli, October 23, 1606.

Death. September 19, 1608, Macerata. Transferred to Loreto and buried in its basilica.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 50-52; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1896-1897; Del Re, Niccolò. "Il governatore di Borgo". Studi Romani : rivista bimestrale dell'Istituto di Studi Romani, II (1963), 26; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 164; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 6, 42, 49 and 321; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano : Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana, 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), p. 175; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, pp. 87-88; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 122, 163, 976-977.

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(25) 4. TOSCHI, Domenico (1535-1620)

Birth. Friday June 11, 1535 (1), Castellarano, diocese of Reggio-Emilia. From a family probably rugunally from Florence. Son of Giovanni Battista Toschi, notary and procurator, and Onesta Bardiani. He was baptized on June 21, 1535, at the church of S. Maria, Castellarano; his god father was Nicolò delli Cegotti and his godmother was Caterina Toschi. He had five brothers (Bartolomeo, who died very young; Bartolomeo, Paolo Emilio, Prospero and Antonio) and six sisters (Lavinia, Giustina, Ippolita, Francesca and Maria, who had a twin sister that did not survived). Uncle of Giovanni Battista Toschi, bishop of Narni, Tivoli and Rieti; and of Giovanni Battista Genovesi, bishop of Montemarano. His last name is also listed as Tosco, Tuschi and Tuscus.

Education. Studied geometry in Rome; and at the University of Pavia, where he earned a doctorate in law.

Early life. Sent by his father to Rome to study under the direction of an uncle who was a lector of mathematics. When his uncle died, he returned home and found out that both his father and brother had also died. Entered the service of Marquis Sigismdo d'Este, signore of Castellarano, who, when he was named governor of Pavia, gave Domenico a position as a soldier in the fortress of the city; later he was promoted to sergeant. While in Pavia, he decided to study law and was encouraged by Marquis Sigismondo to pursue a legal career. Auditor universale of the causes of Marquis Sigismono and governor of the castle of S. Martino. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Reggio-Emilia. Returned to Rome and worked as advocate in the city and the Curia. Referendary of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature. Auditor general of Cardinal Pierdonato Cesi, legate in Bologna, 1580-1584. Vice-legate in Bologna, July 20, 1585 to August 13, 1586; governor, August 26, 1586. Counselor of state in Tuscany, 1588-1592. Auditor of the Sacred Consulta, 1592.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tivoli, May 10, 1595. Consecrated, May 21, 1595, at Gesù Church, Rome, by Cardinal Mariano Pierbenedetti, assisted by Marcantonio Bizoni, bishop of Foligno, and Fabrizio Perugini, bishop of Terracina. Governor of Rome, August 19, 1595 to March 3, 1599.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 3, 1599; received the red hat and the title of S. Pietro in Montorio, March 17, 1599. Opted for the title of S. Onofrio, July 25, 1604. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V (2). Resigned the government of the diocese in favor of his nephew Giovanni Battista Toschi before July 31, 1606. Opted for the title of S. Pietro in Montorio, May 5, 1610. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 11, 1616 to January 9, 1617.

Death. March 26, 1620 (3) Rome. The funeral took place in the church of S. Maria dell'Anima, Rome. Buried in the middle of the choir in his title (4).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 52-55; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1897-1899; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, p. 96; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 6, 42, 47 and 337; Govoni, Raffaella. Il Cardinale Domenico Toschi da Castellarano a Roma, 1535-1620. Reggio Emilia : Diabasis, 2009. (Stati di luogo). Note: Revised thesis; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), 151, 360, 951-952; Zedler, Johann Heinrich, and Carl Günther Ludovici. Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste. 64 v. Graz, Adakemische Druck, 1961- . Reprint. Originially published : Halle : J. H. Zedler, 1732-50. Vols. 19-64 ed. by Carl Günther Ludovici.

Link. Biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his engraving, Jean-Jacques Boissard, Bibliotheca chalcographica ... 1652-1669, Universität Mainnheim.

(1) This is according to Govoni, Il Cardinale Domenico Toschi da Castellarano a Roma, 1535-1620. Reggio Emilia : Diabasis, 2009. (Stati di luogo). Note: Revised thesis; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809, p. 14 and Del Re, Monsignor governatore di Roma, p. 96. Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1897, says that he was born in 1534. Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, indicates that he was born on June 11, 1534.
(2) Cited by Del Re, Monsignor governatore di Roma, p. 96, Giacinto Gigli's, Diario romano (1608-1670), a cura di Giuseppe Ricciotti, Rome : Tumminelli, 1958, p. 45, says that he was not elected pope in the second conclave of 1605 because of le parole oscene haveva in bocca, the obscene words he had in his mouth.
(3) His engraving, linked above, indicates that he died in 1630.
(4) Apparently he intended to be buried in the Visitation chapel of the metropolitan cathedral of Reggio. This is the text of his epitaph in that chapel taken from Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste: D. O. M. Dominicus tit. S.Onuphrii S.R.E. presb, Card. Tuschus, qui sub Gregorio XIII pont. Max. Auditor Generalis Bononiæ sub legatione Petri Donati card. Caesii, deinde sub Sixto V ibidem Vicelegatus extitit Antonii Mariæ Card. Salviati, qua legatione obita Gubernator ejusdem usque in adventum Henrici Card. Cajetani permansia, Posthaec a Serenissimo Ferdinando Medic. Magno Etruria Duci motu proprio in summo magistrato consiliariorum Status Florentiæ Auditor perpetuo deputatus, deinde a Clemente Pont. Max. vocatus, de S. Consultae Prelatus constitutus mox Episcopus Tiburtinus electus, postremo Almae Urbis Gubernator declaratus, tandem in Amplissimum Illustrissimorum & Reverendissimorum S.R.E. Cardinalium Collegium cooptatus. His omnibus laudabiliter gestis & Se mortalem sentiens Visitatione B. Virginis, cujus protectioni semper humilissime se commendavit, sacellum ornari mandavit, & Sibi vivens locum sepulturæ delegit. Anno MDCV, Aetatis suæ LXXI. The inscription on his tomb, transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli in Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1898, is a very succint one: DOMINICI. CARDINALIS. TVSCHI. OSSA.
(5) The engraving indicates that he died on March 26, 1630 when he was 71 years old. This information contradicts all the sources consulted.

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(26) 5. OSSAT, Arnaud d' (1537-1604)

Birth. July 20, 1537 (1), Larroque, Maignac, diocese of Auch, France. His father, Bernard D'Ossat, was a blacksmith and died in Spain; his mother, Bertrande Conté, was from Cassaignabère, territory that belonged to the seigneurs de Ramefort (2). His last name is also listed as Dossatus; and as Ossato.

Education. Studied at Collége de Auch; at Collége de France, Paris; also studied eloquence and philosophy under Pierre Ramus or Pierre de La Ramée, humanist and philosopher; later, studied law in Bourges, from 1566 to 1569; finally, continued his formation under Jacques de Cujas, famous juris consult and scholar of Roman law, for a few months.

Early life. A gentleman from his town, named Thomas de Marca, made him a student together with his nephew and pupil, Jean de Marca, seigneur de Castelnau de Magnoac, in the school where he was a tutor; he progressed so rapidly that he served as master of his companion of studies. Later, they were sent to the Collége de Auch. He received the ecclesiastical tonsure on December 26, 1556 from Dominique de Vigorre, vicar general of the archbishop of Auch. In 1559, he was charged with taking his student together with two other nephews of his benefactor to the Collége de France, Paris; his charge ended in 1562 and this allowed him to pursue his own studies. Received the ecclesiastical tonsure, December 1556. Taught rhetoric and philosophy in Paris. After studying law in Bourges, became an advocate before the Parliament of Paris. Tutor of Jean de la Barrière, future reformer of the Feuillants. While working at the parliament, he met Paul de Foix-Carmaing, its counselor and later archbishop of Tolouse; he entered his household in 1572; two years later, in 1574, they traveled together to Rome; and in 1580, when he was named French ambassador to Rome, Foix took Arnaud with him as secretary. Suspected of having sympathies towards the Calvinists, Ambassador Foix was defended by his secretary with a Mémoire that was distributed among the cardinals; when the ambassador left Rome, he stayed in charge of the embassy. Archbishop de Foix (3) was again named French ambassador before the Holy See and his loyal secretary remained with him until his death on May 29, 1584. After the death of Archbishop Foix, he continued as secretary of the successive cardinal protectors of France, Luigi d'Este (died in December 1586) and François de Joyeuse, from 1587. In 1588, he declined the post of minister of foreign affairs of King Henri III of France. Later, ca. 1589, he became secretary to Cardinal François de Joyeuse in Rome and in Venice. When France and Rome broke diplomatic relations after the assassination of Cardinal Louis de Lorraine de Guise, archbishop of Reims, on December 24 (or 23), 1588, he went back to his country. He returned after the death of King Henri III in 1589 as the private agent of the late king's widow, Louise de Vaudemont. He used his position to support the cause of King Henri IV, whose conversion he prepared the pope to accept. As agent for that prince, 1594-1595, cooperating with Jacques Davy du Perron, he negotiated the reconciliation with the pope, which took place on September 19, 1595. The reconciliation is considered his most important diplomatic act. At the time of his nomination, he was dean of Saint-Martin, Vabres; prior in commendam of the Benedictine monastery of Vesci, Clermont; abbot in commendam of the Cistertian abbey of Varennes, Bourges.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Rennes, September 9, 1596. Consecrated, October 27, 1596, at the church of S. Marco, Rome, by Cardinal Agostino Valier, bishop of Verona, assisted by Guillaume d'Avançon, archbishop of Embrun, and Francesco Serini, bishop of Bagnoregio. He never left Rome to go to his diocese. Counselor of state, 1597. He continued to be a valuable agent of France in Italy. He convinced Pope Clement VIII to postpone the publication that approved the decrees of the Council of Trent; and to accept the Edict of Nantes; the alliances of France with Turkey and England; the rigorous measures against the Jesuits; and the annulment of the marriage of King Henri IV and Marguerite de Valois. He acted as French ambassador during the absence of the titular, the duke of Luxembourg, in 1598.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 3, 1599; received the red hat and the title of Eusebio, March 17, 1599. Transferred to the see of Bayeux, June 26, 1600. He had almost completed the negotiations to resign the government of the diocese in favor of Jean d'Angennes when he died.

Death. March 13 (4), 1604, after a brief illness, Rome. Buried in the chapel of Sainte-Jeanne de Valois in the church of S. Luigi dei Francesi, Rome (5). The funeral oration was pronounced by Father Tarchino Galluzzi on March 18, 1604 in the church of S. Luigi dei Francesi, Rome. His tomb was modified in 1755 when that church was restored; there is a portrait and the arms of the cardinal above the tomb.

Bibliography. Bergin, Joseph. The making of the French episcopate, 1589-1661. New Haven ; London : Yale University Press, 1996, p. 679; Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 1297-1305; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 55-61; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1899-1900; Degert, Antoine. Le cardinal d'Ossat, évêque de Rennes et de Bayeux (1537-1604); sa vie, ses négociations à Rome. Thèse, Bordeaux. Paris : V. Lecoffre, 1894; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 6, 42 and 293; Guillotin de Corson, Amédée. Pouillé historique de l'archevêché de Rennes. 6 vols. Rennes : Fougeray, 1880 1886, I, 90-91; Ossat, Arnaud d', Cardinal, 1536-1604 ; Amelot de la Houssaye, Abraham Nicolas, 1634-1706, ed. Letres du cardinal d'Ossat : avec des notes historiques & politiqes de M. Amelot de La Houssaie. 5 v. Amsterdam : P. Humbert, 1732. Edition: Nouv. éd. cor. sur le manuscrit original, considérablément augm. & enrichié de nouvelles notes de M. Amelot de La Houssaie, qui ne se trouvent point dans la derniére ed. de Paris de 1697 ...Note: "Vie du cardinal d'Ossat. Par M. Amelot de La Houssaie": v. 1, p. 9-71; Tamizery de Larroque, P. "Lettres inédites du cardinal d'Ossat." Revue de Gascogne, XIII (1872), 126-137; 187-190; and 341-342; Thiroux d'Arconville, Marie Geneviève Charlotte Darlus. Vie du Cardinal d'Ossat [microform]. 2 v. Paris : Hérissant, le fils, 1771.

Links. Biography by Antoine Dégert, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in French, in Ossat, Arnaud d'. [Correspondance (français). 15??-1604] Lettres inédites du cardinal d'Ossat, publiées avec une notice et des notes par Philippe Tamizey de Larroque, éditeur : A. Aubry (Paris), 1872, pp. 6-15, Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Littérature et art, Gallica, Bibliothèque Nationale de France; Mémoire dressé par feu monsieur le cardinal d'Ossat sur les fautes, nullitez, attentats et abus commis par l'ivesque de Nantes, en l'union du prioré d'Iseron ` la chartreuse de Nantes, Prieuré d'Iseron, 1604, Bibliothèque Sainte Geneviève, Internet Archive; his engraving, arms and portrait, Araldica Vaticana; his engraving and arms, Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; and his tomb, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is according to his biographies linked above; the second one, in French, indicates that the date is based on the information in his baptismal certificate.Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1297, indicates that he was born in 1536.
(2) According to his biography in French, linked above, p. 8, many believe that he was the natural son of the the seigneur de Ramefort. This biography on p. 9, contradicts the affirmation of Berton, Dictionnaire des cardimaux, col. 1297, that he was an orphan by the time he was nine years old and in extreme poverty. According to that biography, based on his letters, his mother was still alive in 1568.
(3) He had been promoted to the see of Toulouse on November 5, 1582.
(4) This is according to his biography linked above, and to Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1299; Bergin, The making of the French episcopate, 1589-1661, p. 679, indicates that he died on May 14, 1604.
(5) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Dictionnaire des cardinaux, cols. 1305-1306: D. O. M. // Arnaldo Dossato Gallio S. Eusebii presb., card. // episc. Bajocen., qui omnium per multos annos // Gallicanorum in urbe negotiorum, consiliororum- // que particeps, et administer, rarissimae in re- // ges suos fidei, egregiorumque meritorum testi- // monio, sacra purpura ornatus, amplissimi or- // dinis dignitatem ea sapientiae, integritatisque // fama, eaque efficiorum in omnes propensione // cumulavit, ut sui desiderium exteris quoque // nationibus cum admiratione reliqueirt. // Vixit annos LXVII. mensis VI. dies XX. // Decessit prid. Id. Martii MDCIV.

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(27) 6. ZACCHIA, Paolo Emilio (1554-1605)

Birth. 1554, Castello di Vezzano, diocese de Luni. Son of Gaspare Zacchia and Veronica de' Nobili, of the signori of Vecciano. Of a Genoese family. Brother of Cardinal Laudivio Zacchia (1626) and uncle of Cardinal Paolo Emilio Rondinini (1643), on his mother's side. Distant relative of Cardinal Giuseppe Antonio Zacchia Rodinini (1844). Also, uncle of Gasparo Cecchinelli, bishop of Montefiascone e Corneto. Nephew of Marcello de' Nobili, canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Education. Studied at the University of Pisa, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Went to Rome called by his uncle, practiced law and later became auditor of Cardinal Pierdonato Cesi. Archdeacon of the cathedral chapter of Serzana, January 18, 1591. In the pontificate of Pope Clement VIII (1591-1605), domestic prelate of His Holiness; auditor of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace; commissary of the Apostolic Chamber; protonotary apostolic participantium; nuncio extraordinary in Spain to request King Felipe II's intervention in favor of the Holy See's claim over the city and state of Ferrara from the illegitimate D. Cesare d'Este; completed his mission with success.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 3, 1599; received the red hat and the title of S. Marcello, March 17, 1599.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Montefiascone e Corneto, May 14, 1601 (1). Consecrated, May 27, 1601, at the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Pope Clement VIII assisted by Cardinal Camillo Borghese and Cardinal Domenico Toschi. Named citizen of Viterbo by its senate, May 8, 1603. Prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, 1604 until his death. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V; he was bedridden in his cell and could not be present in the Pauline Chapel for the election but "sed consensum praestiterunt, et electionem hilariter approbaverunt" (2).

Death. May 31, 1605, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Marcello, Rome, where no trace of his tomb is found today.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 61-62; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1900; Del Re, Nicolò. "I cardinali prefetti della sacra congregazione del concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), p. 112; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 6, 44 and 247; Zacchia Rondinini, Antonio. Memorie della famiglia Zacchia Rondinini. Cenni storici e biografici. Documenti. Bologna : L. Parma, 1942, pp. 18-24, 37-39, 86, 111, 117-118.

Links. His bust by Alessandro Algardi, Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence; another view of the same bust.

(1) Succeeded in the see of Montefiascone e Corneto by his brother Laudivio Zacchia, August 17, 1605, and later by his nephew Gasparo Cecchinelli, May 13, 1630.
(2) Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentoris Aevi, IV, 9.

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(28) 7. DIETRICHSTEIN, Franz Seraph von (1570-1636)

Birth. August 22, 1570, Madrid, Spain. He was the ninth of the thirteen children of Adam von Dietrischstein, Imperial ambassador to Spain, and Margareta de Folch y de Raquensens. The other siblings were Maria, Anton (died in infancy), Anna, Sigismund, Anton, Hypolita, Johanna, Maximilian, Beatrix, Elizabeth, Margaretha and Marianna (died young). He was destined to the religious career at a young age.

Education. Studied in Vienna and Prague; and later, from 1588 at Collegium Germanicum, Rome.

Early life. Received the ecclesiastical tonsure in Vienna, March 22, 1582. While studying in Rome, he became a friend of Cardinal Ippolito Aldobrandini, future Pope Clement VIII. Filippo Neri highly appreciated him. Chamberlain of His Holiness. Canon of the cathedral chapters of Olomouc, 1591; of Wroclav and Passau, 1593. Propst of Leitmeritz, 1594.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1597, Rome, by Pope Clement VIII.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 3, 1599; received the red hat and the title of S. Silvestro in Capite, March 17, 1599.

Episcopate. Although the cathedral chapter of Olomouc opposed his episcopal promotion to that see, he was finally elected on May 26, 1599 (1). Legate to Milan to greet Archduke Albrecht of Austria and Infanta Isabel of Spain for their wedding, June 29, 1599. Preconized bishop of Olomouc, with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age, September 1, 1599. Consecrated, September 8, 1599, at the church of Santa Maria degli Angeli, Rome, by Pope Clement VIII, assisted by Cardinal Alfonso Gesualdo, archbishop of Naples and bishop of Ostia e Velletri, by Cardinal Cinzio Aldobrandini, by Cardinal Camillo Borghese, and by Cardinal Bonifacio Bevilacqua. Did not participate in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. President of the Privy Council of Emperor Rudolf II, 1607. The rebellion of the Bohemians broke out in 1618 with the defenestration of Prague and the beginning of the Thirty Years' War. The following year, he fled to Vienna. After the victory of the Emperor Ferdinand II in the battle of Weißen Berge November 8, 1620, he became Generalkommissar and governor of Mähren from March 1621 until 1628. He successfully implemented the Counter-Reformation and was a mediator in the disputes of the Habsburg family. Did not participate in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Did not participate in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, September 27, 1623. Prince of the realm, 1624. In 1635, he briefly was banished from the court and his possessions confiscated, but that same year, everything was restored. Protector of Germany, 1635. Imperial governor in Mähren, Bohemia and Lower Austria, 1636.

Death. September 19, 1636 (2), Brünn (Brno), diocese of Olomouc, during a meeting of the federal state parliament. Buried without special ceremonies, in accordance with his wishes, in the crypt of the cathedral of Olomouc (3). His large library established in Nikolsburg was completely plundered by the Swedish in 1645. His biography was published by Carlo Conti Romano in 1652.

Bibliography. Blcárek, Pavel. Kardinál František Ditrichštejn : 1570-1636 : gubernátor Moravy. České Budějovice : Veduta, 2007; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 62-65; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1900; Eberhard, Winfried. "Dietrischstein, Franz Seraph (seit 1623) Fürst von (1570-1636)". Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1448 bis 1648 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz, unter Mitwirkung von Clemens Brodkorb. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1996, pp. 129-133; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 6, 46, 49 and 264.

Links. Portrait and brief biographical data, in German, AEIOU, Österreich-Lexikon; his genealogy, A9, Genealogy EU; his portrait in Nikolsburg, Radio Praha, Český Rozhlas; his engraving and effigy in several coins, numismatika.cz; engraving and biographical data, in German, Universität Wien; engraving, arms, medals and biography, in Czech, Wikipedia; engravings, arms and portraits, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, p. 63, indicates that he was bishop of Marck in Bohemia before occupying the see of Olomouc. None of the other sources consulted mention this fact or even the existence of such a diocese.
(2) This is according to the electronic sources linked above; and Eberhard, "Dietrischstein, Franz Seraph (seit 1623) Fürst von (1570-1636)", Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1448 bis 1648 : ein biographisches Lexikon, p. 133. Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 6 and 264, says that he died on September 23, 1636.
(3) During the reign of Emperor Joseph II his remains were moved to a common grave in the former public cemetery of Olomouc. A train station stands nowadays on the site of the former cemetery. In 2009, the coffin of the cardinal was located in the cathedral crypt but no remains were found inside. Another version suggests that during the Thirty Year War, the cardinal's body was ransacked and dumped elsewhere by the Swedes.

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(29) 8. ANTONIANO, Silvio (1540-1603)

Birth. December 31, 1540, in the parish of S. Lucia alle Bottegheoscure, Rome (1). Of a poor family. Son of Matteo Antoniano, a merchant of wool and clothes, and Pace Colella. Grand-uncle of Cardinal Carlo Gualterio (1654).

Education. Studied at the University of Ferrara, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, in 1556.

Early life. Cardinal Otto Truchess von Waldburg protected and assisted him in his childhood providing a place to live and help to pursue his studies. At an early age, he showed great inclination toward poetry, and music; he played the lyre with perfection. Cardinal Gianagelo de' Medici became acquainted with young Silvio and appreciated his talents. Pope Julius III gave him room and board in the Apostolic Palace. Principe of Accademia Vaticana, 1560; it had been founded by Cardinal Carlo Borromeo. Duke Ercole II of Ferrara met him in Rome and impressed with his musical talent, took him to Ferrara to study. Professor of classical literature at the University of Ferrara. From Ferrara, he went to Venice with Cardinal Ippolito II d'Este in 1555. After the death of the duke, he went to Rome and Pope Pius IV named him professor of belles-lettres at Sapienza University, Rome, 1563; at this time he met Cardinal Borromeo and became his preceptor and secretary of Latin letters. In 1566, he gave up his chair there and began studying theology under Filippo Neri.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 17, 1568. Encouraged by Cardinal Borromeo, who took him to Milan, he wrote Tre libri dell' educazione cristiana de' figliuoli, a noted treatise on the Christian education of children which is still current and has pedagogical interest (2). He also wrote works in literature, history and liturgy. Named by Pope Pius V secretary of the Sacred College of Cardinals; occupied the posts for twenty-four years. Delivered the homily during the cappella papale that took place in the patriarchal Vatican basilica to celebrate the victory of Lepanto. Accompanied Cardinal Giovanni Morone, as secretary, in his legation to the Diet of Ratisbon in 1576. He declined the episcopal promotion to the sees of Pavia, Narni and Capua offered by Popes Sixtus V and Gregory XIV. Named by Pope Sixtus V secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars. Declined the appointment to secretary of memorials that Pope Gregory XIV wanted to confer on him. Secretary of Briefs, 1593. Master of the Papal Chamber. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 3, 1599; received the red hat and the title of S. Salvatore in Lauro, March 17, 1599. He was one of the compilers of the Roman Catechism and a member of the commission established by Pope Clement VIII to revise the Breviary. He had a great devotion for Filippo Neri, his contemporary and future saint, left his library to the Oratory and asked to be buried in its church.

Death. August 16, 1603, Rome. Buried in the tomb he had built in the chapel of Natività in the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome (3).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 65-72; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1901-1903; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 6 and 49; Rivera, Giuseppe. Memorie biografiche dei cardinali Abruzzesi. Aquila : Tipografia G. Mele, 1924, pp. 105-113.

Links. Biography by Paolo Prodi, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 3 (1961), Treccani; biography by Edward Pace, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; , in English; two hymns he composed and brief biographical data, in English, NetHymnal.

(1) Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 6; and his biographies, linked above, indicate that he was born in Rome. The site of Comune di Castelli, Naples; another site of the same comune; and a third site about Castelli, indicate that he was born there. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 65, says that he was born in Rome but also cites several sources that indicate he was born "nella terra di Castello, diocesi della Penna."
(2) The work was published in Verona, in 1583. It had several editions in Italian and was translated into French and German. According to the The Catholic Encyclopedia, linked above, its "principal features are insight into the mind of the child, sympathy with its dangers and needs, and solicitude for its moral training. Valuable suggestions are also given on physical culture, on the education of all classes of the people and on the preparation of teachers for their work."
(3) An inscription in his tomb indicates that he died in 1601:

SILVIUS ANTONIANUS S.R.E. PRESB. CARD.
SACELLUM SILVIUS ANTONIANUS S.R.E. PRESB. CARD.
SACELLUM TRANSLATUM DECENTIUS ORNAVIT
ANN. SAL. MDCI

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(30) 9. BELLARMINO, S.J., Roberto (1542-1621)

Birth. October 4, 1542, Montepulciano, Tuscany. Third of the three sons of Vincenzo Bellarmine and Cinzia Cervini. Nephew of Pope Marcellus II, on his mother's side. His baptismal name was Roberto Francesco Romolo. Of a noble but impoverished family.

Education. Joined the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). Studied at the newly established Collegio Romano, Rome, 1560-1563; Jesuit house of studies, Florence (October 1563); Jesuit house of studies, Mondovi, Piedmont (learned Greek and taught it as he learned it); University of Padua, Padua, 1567-1568 (Thomistic theology); University of Louvain, Louvain, Flanders (Holy Scriptures and Patristics).

Early life. Entered the Jesuit novitiate in Rome on September 20, 1560, in spite of his father's determined opposition, who wanted him to follow a career in politics, and with the help of his mother. After visiting Venice, he was sent by Francisco de Borja, superior general of the Jesuits, to teach and study at the University of Louvain, 1569. On January 6, 1570, he took his vows (1) in the chapel of the Jesuit College; on the fourth Ember day after Ash Wednesday, he received the tonsure, the four minor orders and the subdiaconate; on Saturday Sitientes (2); the diaconate from Bishop Cornelius Jansen, bishop of Ghent (3).

Priesthood. Ordained, Palm Sunday, 1570, Ghent, by Bishop Jansen. He celebrated his first mass in Louvain on the octave of Easter. Professor of theology at the University of Louvain, 1570-1576. Pope Gregory XIII in 1576 asked him to teach polemical theology at Collegio Romano; he dedicated eleven years to that endeavor and out of it he wrote his famous Disputationes de Controversiis Christianae Fidei adversus hujus temporis hereticos, the most complete work written until then in the defense of the Catholic faith to refute the attacks of the Protestants. Spiritual director of the Roman College, from 1588; from his lessons to Jesuit brothers and students resulted in Dottrina cristiana breve, a smal catechism for children, and one for teachers, Dichiarazione piu copiosa della dottrina cristiana. Both works remained in use until the First Vatican Council. During that time, he was also confessor of Aloysius Gonzaga until his death in 1591; many years later, he successfully promoted the cause of his beatification. At the request of Pope Clement VIII he wrote a small Catechism of the Catholic Religion that is still used in Italy. In 1590, he accompanied Cardinal Enrico Caetani as theologian in his legation to France to defend the interests of the Catholic Church threatened by the civil and religious wars. He was a member of the commission for the final revision of the Vulgate and wrote the preface of the edition known as the Sixto Clementine in 1592, explaining that due to errors and typographical mistakes in the original draft, the new edition was necessary. Rector of Collegio Romano, 1592-1594. Provincial of the Neapolitan Jesuit province, 1594-1597. Theologian to Pope Clement VIII, 1597-1599. In 1597, he was also named examiner of bishops and consultor of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition. His main concerns regarding the discipline of bishops were their appointment, residency, and transfer.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 3, 1599; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Via, March 17, 1599. At the closing of the century, in the polemic concerning the efficacious grace, he defended his disciple Fr. Leonard Leys, S.J., and to clarify the matter, he prepared a draft, De Controversia Lovaniensi, for Cardinal Ludovico Madruzzo, together with Cardinal Pompeo Arrigoni, president of the Congregation De Auxiliis Divinae Gratiae; he also debated in writing Fr. Domingo Baño, at the time, the most eminent theologian at the University of Salamanca. Fr. Baño was embroiled in the controversy with the also famous Fr. Luis Molina, S.J. (4).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Capua, March 18, 1602. Consecrated April 21, 1602, at the Sistine Chapel, Rome, by Pope Clement VIII assisted by Cardinal Camillo Borghese and Cardinal Alfonso Visconti. Cardinal Bonviso Bonvisi, archbishop of Bari was consecrated in the same ceremony. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. Opted for the title of S. Mateo in Via Merulana, June 1, 1605; never obtained the title (5). Recalled to Rome by the pope, he resigned the government of the archdiocese before August 31, 1605 (6). In 1606-1607, he was involved in the controversy between the Republic of Venice and the Holy See and wrote three rejoinders to the Venetian theologians; the matters at issue were the clerical immunity, the papal interdict, the reaffirmation of the principles of the Councils of Constance and Basel, and the denial of papal authority on secular affairs. Between 1607 and 1609, he was also involved in a controversy with King James I of England concerning the divine right of kings and the English oath of allegiance. Later, in 1610, he participated in yet another controversy with William Barclay and Roger Widdrington because of their Gallican doctrines. Because of this polemic, he wrote his renowned Tractatus de potestate Summi Pontificis in rebus temporalibus adversus Gulielmum Barclaeum (7). He was among the theologians consulted on Galileo Galilei's heliocentric theory when it first provoked controversies in Rome in 1615. He had maintained a friendly contact, through correspondence, with the scientist. When the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition condemned the heliocentric theory, Cardinal Bellarmino had to deliver the admonition of the congregation to Galileo and receive his submission. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 9, 1617 to January 8, 1618. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, August 31, 1621. Prefect of the S.C. of the Rites for a long time. Prefect of the S.C. of the Index at the end of his life.

Death. September 17, 1621, between 6 and 7 a.m., Rome (8). Buried in the crypt of Gesù church, Rome (9); a year later, his body was placed in the vault which once contained the remains of Saint Ignatius of Loyola. The funeral oration was delivered by Father Tarchino Galluzzi. On June 21, 1923, his body translated to the church of S. Ignazio, Rome, and placed at the feet of his "ghostly child", Saint Aloysius Gonzaga.

Sainthood. Pope Urban VIII started the beatification process in 1627 and he was given the title of Venerable. The process was delayed for political reasons (9) until 1923. Pope Pius XI beatified him on May 13, 1923; canonized on June 29, 1930; and named Doctor of the Church on September 17, 1931. His feast is celebrated on May 13. He is the patron saint of catechists.

Bibliography. Bernier, Alfred. Saint Robert Bellarmin de la Compagnie de Jésus et la musique liturgique. Montréal : Desclée de Brouwer & Cie, 1939; Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 335-485; Broderick, James. The life and times of Blessed Robert Francis Cardinal Bellarmine, S.J., 1542-1621. With an introduction by His Eminence Cardinal Ehrle, S.J. 2 vols. London : Burns Oates and Washbuourne, 1928; Broderick, James. Robert Bellarmine, saint and scholar. Westminster, MD. : Newman Press, 1961; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 72-79; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1903-1906; Couderc, Jean-Baptiste. Le Vénérable Cardinal Bellarmin. 2 vols., Paris ; V. Retaux et fils, 1893; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 6, 46, 48 and 133; Raitz von Frentz, Emmerich. Vita di S. Roberto Bellarmino della Compagnia di Gesù, cardinale di S. Romana Chiesa. Isola del Liri : A. Macioce & Pisani, 1930; "Saint Robert Bellarmine," chapter IV, pp. 74-109, of Giorgio de Santillana's, The crime of Galileo. Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1955.

Links. Biography by Sydney Smith, in English The Catholic Encyclopedia; his tomb, church of S. Ignazio, Rome, Requiem Datenbank; his bust, by Lorenzo Bernini, Gesù church, Rome Italica; another view of the same bust, Requiem Datenbank; biography in English, New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge; biography by Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon; portrait and biography, in English, The Galileo Project; his statue, Bellarmine University, Louisville, Kentucky; his engraving, Universität Mannheim; another engraving by Esme de Boulonois (Boulonnois), Fondazione Marco Besso, Rome; and seventeen portraits and photographs and his biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati.

(1) Pope Pius V had decreed in 1568 that religious men had to take their solemn vows before ordination. Accordingly, Bellarmino took his three vows before the ordination and in 1572, in octava Apostolurm, the four vows of the Society of Jesus afterward. Later, Pope Gregory XIII exempted the Jesuits from this law.
(2) This is how he refers to the Saturday of the fourth week of Lent in his autobiography in Latin in Broderick, The life and times of Blessed Robert Francis Cardinal Bellarmine, S.J., I, 468. The Introitus of the mass of that day started with the phrase "Sitientes, venite ad aquas, dicit Dominus, et qui non habetis pretium , venite et bibite cum laetitia."
(3) Should not be confused with his homonymous Cornelius Jansen, bishop of Ypres, who gave the name to Jansenism.
(4) On January 1, 1599, it was decided that theologians from each side should explain and discuss their viewpoints in the presence of Cardinal Ludovico Madruzzo. Cardinal Bellarmino was one of the theologians named to what became known as the Congregatio de Auxiliis but he did not participate in its proceedings during the first years because he had been named archbishop of Capua and he left for his see a week after having received the episcopal consecration.
(5) On June 20, 1605, Cardinal Antonio Zapata opted for this title.
(6) According to his biography in New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, p. 35, at the end of his life he returned to Montepulciano and was its bishop for four years. This information has not been mentioned in any of the other sources consulted and he is not listed in the catalog of the bishops of that see in Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 248, which indicates that Cardinal Roberto Ubaldini was the occupant from 1607 until 1623.
(7) In this work, the cardinal maintained that the pope had only an indirect, not a direct, power in temporal matters. This view, which he had expressed earlier, in his Disputationes , had almost made him fall into disgrace with Pope Sixtus V.
(8) His body was embalmed by the pope's physician. Successively, the doctor distributed towels, handkerchiefs, and sponges, stained with his blood, and took for himself a small piece of bone from the hinder part of the skull, as payment for the service, esteeming it "a peerless jewel and inestimable treasure". This done, the embalmed body was exposed. During the lying in state, the vestments were nearly all stolen piecemeal from the body, in spite of a strong guard of soldiers; and two bishops were walking away with his cardinal's hat, when a Jesuit and two guards forced them to give it up.
(9) This is his epitaph taken from Dictionnaire des cardinaux, cols. 484-486:

Roberto Card. Bellarmino Politiano, e Soc. Jesu
Marcelli II P. M. sororis filio.
Odoardus Card. Farnesius, sui erga virum quem patris loco
semper coluit amoris nunquam morituri monumentum pos.
Obdormivit in Domino anno Sal. M. DCXXI,
aet. suae LXXIX.

(10) According to his biography in The Catholic Encyclopedia, linked above: "... a technical obstacle, arising out of Urban VIII's own general legislation in regard to beatifications, required its prorogation at that time. Though it was reintroduced on several occasions (1675, 1714, 1752, and 1832), and though on each occasion the great preponderance of votes was in favour of the beatification, a successful issue came only after many years. This was partly because of the influential character of some of those who recorded adverse votes, Barbarigo, Casante, and Azzolino in 1675, and Passionei in 1752, but still more for reasons of political expediency, Bellarmine's name being closely associated with a doctrine of papal authority most obnoxious to the Regalist politicians of the French Court. 'We have said', wrote Benedict XIV to Cardinal de Tencin, 'in confidence to the General of the Jesuits that the delay of the Cause has come not from the petty matters laid to his charge by Cardinal Passionei, but from the sad circumstances of the times'."

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(31) 10. BONVISI, Bonviso (1551-1603)

Birth. July 7, 1551, Lucca. Of an ancient and noble family. His last name is also listed as Buonvisi. Relative of Cardinals Girolamo Buonvisi (1657) and Francesco Buonvisi (1681).

Education. Studied law in Lucca.

Early life. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Governor of Civittavecchia, January 11, 1588; again, January 9, 1591; and again, July 9, 1595. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, ca. 1591; later auditor. Governor of Viterbo, October 2, 1596. Vice-legate in the province of the Patrimony. Commissary general of the papal army in Hungary.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 3, 1599; received the red hat and the deaconry of Ss. Vito e Modesto, March 17, 1599. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Biagio all'Anello, July 5, 1599.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Bari, March 18, 1602. Consecrated, April 21, 1602, at the Sistine Chapel, Rome, by Pope Clement VIII assisted by Cardinal Camillo Borghese and Cardinal Alfonso Visconti. Cardinal Roberto Bellarmino, S.J., archbishop of Capua, was consecrated in the same ceremony.

Death. September 1, 1603, Bari. Transferred to Lucca and buried in the tomb of his ancestors in the basilica of S. Frediano (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 79-81; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1906; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 6, 40, 54 and 110; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), pp. 180, 194 and 212; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 215-216, 430, 515.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph:

CHRISTO RESVRGENTI
BONVISO BONVISI PATRICIO LVCENSI VTRIVSQUE SIGNATVRAE
REFERENDARIVS CAMERAE APOSTOLICAE XII VIRO PROVINCIAE
PATRIMONIO PROLEGATO EXERCITVS PONTIFICII IN
PANNONIA QUAESTORI SVMMO MOX SRE CARDINALI AC BARENSI
ARCHIEPISCOPO
(illegible) RELIGIONE INTEGRITATE PRVDENTIA LIBERALITATE
SINGVLARI ILLIBATAE CASTIMONIAE FAMA
CONSPICUO
(illegible) ET ANTONIVS FRATRI OPTIMO AC BEN M (illegible)
AETATIS FLORI MEDIOQ. GLORIAE CVRSV
EREPTO
PERPETVIS CVM LACRYMIS. P. CCC
VIXIT ANN. XLII MEN. VNV DIES XXIV
OBIIT KAL. SEPT. ANN. SALUTIS M.D.CIII

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(32) 11. ESCOUBLEAU DE SOURDIS, François d' (1574-1628)

Birth. October 25, 1574, Thouars, Poitou, France. Count of La Chapelle. Eldest son of François d'Escoubleau, signeur of Jouy, Aunau and Montdoubleau, marquis d' Alluye, governor of Chartres, and Isabeau Babou de la Bourdasière. He is also listed under Sourdis.

Education. Studied at Collège de Navarre, Paris (humanities).

Early life. Initially destined to a secular career. He fought in the siege of Chartres, 1591. Engaged to marry Catherine Hurault de Cheverny, daughter of the royal chancellor. During a visit to Rome, 1593-1594, where he met Federico Borromeo and Filippo Neri, he changed his mind and decided to enter the ecclesiastical state. Received the tonsure when he returned to France. Abbot commendatario of Preuilly; of Montréal; and of Aubrac, 1597 -1600.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 3, 1599 (1).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Bordeaux and primate of Aquitane, with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age, July 5, 1599 (2). Consecrated, December 21, 1599, at St-Germain des Près, Paris, by Cardinal François de Joyeuse, archbishop of Toulouse, assisted by Henri de Sourdis, bishop of Maillezais, and Charles de Balzac, bishop of Noyon. Received the red hat and the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, December 20, 1600. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. Coadjutor, with right of succession, of his uncle Hemri d'Escoubleau de Sourdis, bishop of Mallezais, July 4, 1605 (3). Opted for the title of S. Marcello, January 30, 1606. In 1607, he baptized the duke of Orléans, second son of King Henri IV of France. In 1615, he officiated in the ceremony of the wedding of Elisabeth of France and prince Felipe, future King Felipe IV of Spain. Did not participate in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Opted for the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, March 29, 1621. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, October 13, 1621. Did not participate in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. Celebrated an archdiocesan synod in 1624. Participated in the Assembly of the Clergy of 1625 in Paris.

Death. February 8, 1628, Bordeaux. Buried, church of the Carthusian monastery, Bordeaux.

Bibliography. Bergin, Joseph. The making of the French episcopate, 1589-1661. New Haven ; London : Yale University Press, 1996, p. 704-705; Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 875-876; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 81-83; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1907; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 6, 40, 44, 48 and 123; Ravenez, L.-W. Histoire du Cardinal François de Sourdis du titre de Sainte-Praxède, archevêque de Bordeaux, primat d'Aquitaine, abbé de Mauléon et d'Oyrvaux. Bordeaux : G. Gounouilhou, 1867.

(1) Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 876, indicates that he was created cardinal on March 3, 1598. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 81, says that he was recommended for the cardinalate by King Henri IV, who was in love with Gabbriella d'Escoubleau, niece of the cardinal, and that the recommendation had been included in the promise of matrimony.
(2) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 81, indicates that he was named to the see of Bordeaux by Pope Gregory XIV in 1591.
(3) The agreement was that he would resign the see of Bordeaux two months after succeeding his uncle, but the opposite happened. In 1615, after a furious family feud, he gave the see of Mallezais to his brother Henri and retained Bordeaux.

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(33) 12. ESTE, Alessandro d' (1568-1624)

Birth. May 5, 1568, Ferrara. Illegitimate son of Alfonso d'Este, marquis of Montecchio, and Violante Segni (1). Brother of Cesare, first duke of Modena. Nephew of Duke Alfonso II of Ferrara (2). Other cardinals of the family are Ippolito I d'Este (1493); Ippolito II d'Este (1538); Luigi d'Este (1561); Rinaldo d'Este (1641) and Rinaldo d'Este (1686).

Education. Studied in Padua (belle lettere, Latin, Italian, Spanish and French; science and law).

Early life. Provost of Santa Maria della Pomposa, January 1587. Archpriest of Bondeno, January 1587.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 3, 1599; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Adriano, April 17, 1600. Granted dispensation for two years from having to receive the subdiaconate and the diaconate, April 1599; dispensation renewed, March 1600, March 18, 1602 and February 15, 1603. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria Nuova, November 15, 1600. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. Protector of Spain from 1611. Governor of Tivoli, May 25, 1605; again, July 23, 1620. Opted for the deaconry of S. Eustachio, January 11, 1621. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata, April 19, 1621. Cardinal protodeacon.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Reggio-Emilia, with dispensation for not having yet received the sacred orders, October 13, 1621.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 18, 1621, Rome, by Pope Gregory XV. Consecrated, Sunday April 3, 1622, at the church of Santa Maria in Via Lata, Rome, by Cardinal Marcantonio Gozzadini, bishop of Tivoli, assisted by Raffaele Inviziati, bishop of Zante, and Giulio Sansedoni, bishop of Grosseto. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Maria della Pace, October 2, 1623.

Death. May 13, 1624, after a grave and long illness, Rome. Transferred to Tivoli and buried in the church of S. Maria Maggiore de' Francescani, next to the tomb of Cardinals Ippolito and Luigi d'Este.

Bibliography. Bernabei, Nicola. Vita del Cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena e biografie dei Cardinali Modenesi e di Casa d'Este, dei cardinali vescovi di Modena e di quelli educati in questo Collegio di San Carlo. Modena : Tipografica Rossi, 1885, pp. 255-257; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 83-84; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1907-1908; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 194; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 6, 45, 50, 52, 53 and 294; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 402 and 640.

Links. Biography by Paolo Portone, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 43 (1993), Treccani; his genealogy, Partie 3, 5, Genroy; and another genealogy, A5, Libro d'Oro della Nobilità Mediterranea.

(1) Weber, Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809, p. 640, indicates that his mother was Giulia della Rovere, his father's first wife, but, according to the two genealogies linked above, she died in 1563. Both genealogies indicate that Alfonso's second wife was Violante Segni (or Signa) and that they were married in 1584. This date presents a problem: the cardinal was born in 1568 and neither genealogy indicates he was illegitimate. A possible solution could be that the children were legitimized after the second marriage took place in 1584. The youngest child, Annibale, who died before 1584, is listed as illegitimate.
(2) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 83; Bernabei, Vita del cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena, p. 255, indicates that he was his cousin.

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(34) 13. DETI, Giovanni Battista (1580-1630)

Birth. February 16, 1580, Ferrara. Of the Aldobrandini family, originally from Florence. Relative of Pope Clement VIII.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Called to Rome by Pope Clement VIII at the instance of Cardinal Pietro Aldobrandini.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 3, 1599; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Adriano, March 17, 1599. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin, December 15, 1599. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro, October 6, 1614. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, June 7, 1623. Consecrated, Saturday June 24, 1623 at the church of S. Silvestro in Quirinale, Rome, by Cardinal Ottavio Bandini, assisted by Alfonso Gonzaga, titular archbishop of Rhodes, and Federico Cornaro, iuniore, bishop of Bergamo. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Frascati, March 2, 1626. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, September 9, 1626. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, proper of the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, August 20, 1629.

Death. July 13, 1630, at 10 a.m., after a brief illness, in his Roman residence. The funeral took place in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome and he was buried in the tomb of his family in the Aldobrandini chapel in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 84-85; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1908 and 1980; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 199; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 6, 36, 37, 39, 44, 50 and 52.

Link. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati.

(1) According to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 84-85, citing Marco Battaglini's Annali del sacerdozio e dell' imperio intorno all'intero secolo decimosettimo di nostra salute (4 vols. Venezia : Presso A. Poletti, 1701-1711), I, 65, he was vain, full of pride and of an undisciplined behavior, not suitable to his position as a cardinal. This obliged Pope Clement VIII to censure him rigorously for l'indecente libertà del suo vivere and it was said that the pope had regretted promoting him to the cardinalate.

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AVANÇON, Guillaume de St-Marcel d' (1535-1600)

Birth. 1535, Grenoble, France. Son of Jean de St-Marcel d'Avançon, French ambassador before the Holy See in 1555.

Education. Studied bonnes lettres in Grenoble.

Early life. Received the clerical tonsure. Nominated archbishop of Arlès by the king of France, 1557 (1).

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Embrun, February 7, 1560. Consecrated (no information found). Participated in the colloque of Poissy. On January 14, 1563, arrived in Trent to participate in the last session of the ecumenical council. Counselor of state of Kings Charles IX, Henri III and Henri IV. Commander of the bailliages of Embrun, Gap and Briançon, 1572; combatted the Huguenots and was lieutenant general of the Dauphiné. Participated in the Assembly of the Clergy, Blois, 1577 and 1578. In the War of Religion that ensued, the Huguenots occupied Embrun in 1585 and the archbishop fled to Rome. He returned to participate in the État Général of Blois, October 1588; he returned to Rome after the assassination of the duke of Guise, December 1588. In 1595 he was named abbot commendatario de Montmajour-lez-Arlès. In 1599 he returned to his see of Embrun.

Cardinalate. Pope Clement VIII granted him the cardinal's hat and issued the brief of nomination but when his chaplain arrived in Rome to receive it, the archbishop had died in France (2).

Death. Mid-July, 1600, Grenoble. Transferred to Embrun, was buried in altar of Saint-Andre, in its metropolitan cathedral.

Bibliography. Enciclopedia Universal Ilustrada Europeo-Americana. Madrid : Espasa Calpe, 1958, VI, 1203; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 190; Fornier, Marcellin. Histoire générales des Alpes Maritimes ov Cottiènes, et pertievlière de levr métropolitaine Ambrvn; chronographiqve et meslée de la séevlière avec l'ecclésiastiqve, divisée en cinq parties fort abondantes en diverses belles evriositez. Tome II. Paris : H. Champion; Gap : Jouglard, 1890, pp. 538-604.

Link. His biography, in Marcellin Fornier's Histoire générale des Alpes, Tome II, 538-604.

(1) This is according to Fornier, Histoire générales des Alpes Maritimes ov Cottiènes, II, 541; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 116, does not list him among the occupants of the see.
(2) This is according to Fornier, Histoire générales des Alpes Maritimes ov Cottiènes, II, 603-604.

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