The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Clement VIII (1592-1605)
Consistory of June 4, 1604 (VI)


(36) 1. OLIVIER-RAZALI, Séraphin (1538-1609)

Birth. Lyon, 1538. His mother was from Bologna. He took Razali as second last name, which was that of the second husband of his mother, Francesco Razali, also from Bologna.

Education. Studied in Tournon and at the University of Bologna, where he earned doctorates in canon and civil law.

Early life. Professor at the University of Bologna, 1562. Went to Rome and Pope Pius IV named him auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota in 1564; he occupied the post for forty years and became its dean. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Member of the commission for the reform of the calendar. Intervened in the negotiations to obtain the absolution of King Henri IV of France in 1592. Given the see of Rennes after the transferral of Cardinal Arnaud d'Ossat to Bayeux in 1600; after two years in which no action was taken, he declined it for himself and negotiated that François Larchiver, rector of the church of S. Luigi dei Francesi in Rome, was named in his place (1).

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular patriarch of Alessandria, retaining the auditorship, August 26, 1602. Consecrated, Sunday September 15, 1602, at the church of S. Luigi dei Francesi, Rome, by Cardinal Arnaud d'Ossat, assisted by Horace Capponi, bishop of Carpentras, and by Jérôme Centelles, bishop of Cavaillon. Nuncio of Pope Gregory XIII to congratulate King Henri III of France for his accession to the throne of Poland. Envoy of Pope Sixtus V to France to pacify the disturbances after the death of King Henri III.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 9, 1604; received the red hat and the title of S. Salvatore in Lauro, June 25, 1604. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V.

Death. February 10 (2), 1609, Rome. Buried in the church of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, Rome.

Bibliography. Bergin, Joseph. The making of the French episcopate, 1589-1661. New Haven ; London : Yale University Press, 1996, p. 405; Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 1289-1292; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 86-88; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 158; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 7, 49, 76 and 293; Guillotin de Corson, Amédée. Pouillé historique de l'archevêché de Rennes. 6 vols. Rennes : Fougeray, 1880-1886, I, 91-92.

Webgraphy. His engraving by Matthaeus Greuter.

(1) This is according to Bergin, The making of the French episcopate, 1589-1661, p. 405; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1290, and Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 87, say that he was named bishop of Rennes but resigned before taking possession; and Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 293, does not mention him in the catalog of the occupants of that see; Guillotin de Corson, Pouillé historique de l'archevêché de Rennes, I, 91-92, says that he was named bishop of Rennes and resigned two years later without having taken possession; during those two years, the author adds, the diocese continued to be governed by Cardinal Arnaud d'Ossat through his grand vicar.
(2) This is according to Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 7; Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1290, says that he died on March 9, 1609, citing the eulogy of the cardinal by Fr. Alby in 1644; Guillotin de Corson, Pouillé historique de l'archevêché de Rennes, I, 91-92, says that he died in March 1609 and that no inscription was placed on his tomb in the church of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio.

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(37) 2. GINNASI, Domenico (1551-1639)

Birth. June 19, 1551 (1), Castel Bolognese, diocese of Imola. Third child of Francesco Ginnasi, a physician, and Caterina Pallantieri. His last name is also listed as Ginnasio.

Education. Studied at the University of Bologna (philosophy and theology; doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, 1572).

Early life. Called to Rome by his father in 1572.

Priesthood. Ordained during the pontificate of Pope Gregory XIII (1572-1585). Named papal prelate by Pope Gregory XIII. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1581. Domestic prelate of His Holiness. Vice-legate of Campagna, February 4, 1586.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Manfredonia, December 17, 1586. Consecrated, December 28, 1586, Sistine Chapel, Rome, by Cardinal Decio Azzolini, assisted by Giulio Ricci, bishop of Teramo and by Vincenzo Casali, bishop of Massa Marittima. Vice-governor of Fermo, February 18, 1595 until June 1596. Declined the appointment of treasurer general of the Apostolic Chamber offered by Pope Clement VIII. Nuncio in Tuscany, August 11, 1598. Nuncio in Spain, February 5, 1600 until June 1605.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 9, 1604. Did not participate in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. Received the red hat and the title of S. Pancrazio, June 20, 1605. Opted for the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, January 30, 1606. Resigned the government of the archdiocese in favor of his nephew Annibale Ginnasi (2), November 5, 1607. Prefect of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, which usually met in his house. He gave the last rites and viaticum to Camillo de Lellis, future saint, in the morning of July 2, 1614. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 8, 1618 to January 7, 1619. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, September 16, 1624. Cardinal protoprete. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, March 2, 1626. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, August 20, 1629. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, proper of the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, July 15, 1630.

Death. March 12, 1639, Rome, of a virulent attack of gout (3). Exposed and buried in the parish church of S. Lucia delle Botteghe Oscure, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, pp. 88-93; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 301; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 7, 36, 37, 40, 44, 47 and 316; Grandi, Paolo. Il cardinale Domenico Ginnasi : un esempio di vita e di carita, Castel Bolognese 1550 - Roma 1639. Presentazione di S. E. Mons. Giuseppe Fabiani ; prefazione di Padre Raimondo Spiazzi O. P. Castel Bolognese : Banca di credito cooperativo della Romagna occidentale, stampa, 1997; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (= Studi e Testi 55), p. 164; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 181, 243 and 701-702.

Webgraphy. Portrait, bust and biography, in Italian; brief biographical data, also in Italian; and his tomb in the church of S. Lucia dei Ginnasi, Rome.

(1) This is according to Andrea Argoli, Andreæ Argoli D. Marci Serenissimo Annuente Senatu Equitis, In Patavino Lyceo Mathematicas scientias proftendis. De diebus criticis et de ægrorum decubitu libri dvo. (Patauij : Apud Paulum Frambottum, 1652), p. 268; his two biographies, linked above, say that he was born in 1550; and Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 7, indicates that he died at 78 in 1639, therefore, according to this, he would have been born in 1561.
(2) This is how Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 316, lists him; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 89, calls him Annibale Serughi.
(3) According to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 92, in 1629 infermatosi a morte, and the future Saint Giuseppe Calasanzio went to assist him and told him that the Lord wanted him alive for another ten years. He recovered quickly, nè più conobbe timore, living until 1639.

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(38) 3. ZAPATA Y CISNEROS, Antonio (1550-1635)

Birth. October 8, 1550, Madrid, archdiocese of Toledo, Spain. Eldest son of Francisco Zapata de Cisneros, first count of Barajas. He is also listed as Zapata y Mendoza; the second last name was his mother's; his father's was Zapata y Cisneros. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros, O.F.M.Obs. (1507). Baptized in the church del Salvador, Madrid. Resigned his rights of primogeniture in favor of his brother to enter the ecclesiastical state.

Education. Studied at Colegio de San Bartolomé, University of Salamanca, where on October 16, 1579, he obtained a licenciate in canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained to the priesthood (no further information found). Inquisitior and racionero in Cuenca. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Toledo. Inquisitor in Toledo.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Cádiz, August 17, 1587. Consecrated, November 1587, Madrid, by Cardinal Gaspar de Quiroga Vela, archbishop of Toledo, assisted by Sebastian Pérez, bishop of Osma, and by Diego de la Calzada, titular bishop of Salona and auxiliary of Toledo. Transferred to the see of Pamplona, May 13, 1596. Member of the Council of State from 1599; did not exercise his functions during his long stay in Rome; resumed the post from 1618 until 1634. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Burgos, September 11 (1), 1600.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 9, 1604. Resigned the government of the archdiocese before October 20, 1604. Did not participate in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. Received the red hat and the title of S. Matteo in Merulana, June 20, 1605. Protector general of Spain before the Holy See. Opted for the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, June 5, 1606. In 1611 represented the Spanish Ambassador in Rome, Francisco de Castro, during his absence, and soon thereafter functioned as Inquisitor. Opted for the title of S. Balbina, October 17, 1616. Returned to Spain in 1617 accompanying the remains of St. Francisco de Borja. Imposed the cardinal's hat to Fernando de Austria, 1619. Viceroy of Naples, 1620-1622; returned to Spain on December 22, 1622. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Did not participate in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. Baptized Princess María Catalina, daughter of King Felipe IV of Spain, 1623. Co-administrator of the archdiocese of Toledo (2), together with Cardinal Infante Fernando de Austria (3), 1625. Named by Pope Urban VIII inquisitor general of Spain, January 30, 1627; occupied the post until 1632. Resigned all his posts and retired to Barajas, near Madrid, in 1634.

Death. April 27 (4), 1635, Madrid. Buried, church of the convent of the Franciscans Discalced, Barajas.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, pp. 93-96; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 200; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 7, 40, 42, 47, 123 and 271; Goñi, J. "Zapata, Antonio." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975, IV, 2802-2805; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1500-1699). Españoles obispos en españa, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 34), p. 100; "Zapata, Antonio." Enciclopedia universal ilustrada europeo-americana. 70 vols. Madrid : Espasa-Calpe, 1958, c1907?-1930.

Webgraphy. Biography, in German; biography, in Spanish.

(1) This is according to Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 122; Guitarte Izquierdo, Episcopologio Español (1500-1699), p. 100, indicates that he was promoted on September 1, 1600.
(2) His biography in Spanish, linked above, erroneously indicates that he was named archbishop of Toledo.
(3) He dedicated his work Discurso de la obligación, en conciencia y justicia, que los prelados tienen en proveer las dignidades y beneficios eclesiásticos to the cardinal-infante.
(4) This is according to Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 7; Goñi, "Zapata, Antonio", p. 2802; his biography in German linked above; and Guitarte Izquierdo, Episcopologio Español (1500-1699), p. 100; "Zapata, Antonio", Enciclopedia universal ilustrada europeo-americanaand Diccionario hispanoamericano de heráldica, onomástica y genealogía (by Endika de Mogrobejo, with the collaboration of Aitziber, Irantzu y Garikoitz de Mogrobejo-Zabala. Bilbao, Vizcaya : Editorial Mogrobejo-Zabala, 1995-2000), indicates that he died on April 23, 1635.

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(39) 4. SPINELLI, Filippo (1566-1616)

Birth. 1566, Naples. Eldest of the five children of Carlo Spinelli, duke of Seminara, and Vittoria di Capua, of the counts of Palena. Neapolitan patrician. His brother Pietro Antonio Spinelli, S.J., was rector of Collegio Germanico, Rome. Other cardinals of the family were Giuseppe Spinelli (1735) and Ferdinando Spinelli (1785).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. After his studies, he went to Rome. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber in 1592.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Colosso (1) and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Policastro, April 22, 1592 (2). Consecrated, May 6, 1592, Rome, by Cardinal Alfonso Gesualdo, bishop of Ostia and Velletri. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, 1597. Nuncio in Austria, August 26, 1598 until July 1603. Succeeded to the see of Policastro, 1603. Vice-legate in Ferrara, April 24, 1604. He was promoted to the cardinalate at the instances of Emperor Rudolf II.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 9, 1604; received the red hat and the title of S. Bartolomeo all'Isola, August 2, 1604. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. Transferred to the see of Aversa, June 6, 1605. Opted for the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, September 10, 1608.

Death. May 25, 1616, Naples, while realizing a pastoral visit of his diocese. Buried in the church of the Jesuits, Naples, with a brief epitaph. Twenty years later, Pierantonio Spinelli, archbishop of Rossano, erected a monument to his memory in the church of S. Domenico.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, p. 96; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 7, 40, 45, 106, 283, and 296; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LXVIII, 289-290; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, pp. 97-98; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 908; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), 249 and 925-926.

Link. Biography by Ekkart Sauser, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon.

(1) This see is also known as Rodi.
(2) The bishop was his uncle Ferdinando.

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(40) 5. CONTI, Carlo (1556-1615)

Birth. August 28, 1556, Rome. Of the ancient and noble family of the counts of Conti di Poli. Son of Torquato Conti, duke of Poli, and Violante Farnese, of the signori of Farnese and Latera. His family gave the Church three popes, Innocent III, Gregory IX, Alexander IV. Grand-uncle of Pope Innocent XIII. Uncle of Cardinal Giannicolò Conti (1664). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Bernardo Maria Conti, O.S.B.Cas. (1721). Other cardinals of the family were Giovanni dei conti di Segni (1200); Ottaviano dei conti di Segni (1205); Lucido Conti (1411) (pseudocardinal); Giovanni Conti (1483); and Francesco Conti (1517).

Education. Studied at Collegio Germanico, Rome; and at the University of Perugia, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature in the pontificate of Pope Gregory XIII (1572-1585). Vice-legate in Viterbo, 1581. Governor of Rimini and Camerino, January 30, 1585. Had the title of magister.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ancona, with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age and for not having received the sacred orders three months earlier, July 1, 1585. Consecrated, Sunday, July 21, 1585, at the church of S. Giacomo degli Spagnoli, by Cardinal Giovanni Battista Castagna, assisted by Filippo Sega, bishop of Piacenza and by Vincenzo Casali, bishop of Massa Marittima. Governor of Perugia, January 10, 1594. Governor of Marche, May 6, 1595. Nuncio extraordinary in Austria (1). Vice-legate in Avignon, November 18, 1599; and January 1, 1600 to November 1604.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 9, 1604. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. Received the red hat and the title of S. Crisogono, June 1, 1605 (2). Opted for the title of S. Clemente, August 17, 1605. Opted for the title of S. Prisca, January 7, 1613.

Death. December 3, 1615, suddenly, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, Rome; later, transferred to Poli (3).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, p. 97; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 142; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, pp. 51, 87 and 93; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 108; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 7, 41, 49; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), p. 161; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), 132, 171, 287, 330, 350, 429, 592-593.

(1) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 97; Donato Squicciarini's, Nunzi apostolici a Vienna (Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998), does not mention him at all.
(2) This and the successive options are according to Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 7; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 97, indicates that he received the title of S. Crisogono at the time of his creation, and later opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina; Cristofori, Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, p. 51 indicates that after dismissing the the title of S. Prisca in 1615, he opted for that of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, which he occupied until May 25, 1615. After both dates, Cristofori places a question mark (?). He does not indicate any other option after the latter date although the cardinal did not die until the following December 3. Moreover, Cristofori does not list Cardinal Conti among the occupants of the title of S. Prisca (p. 109) although he indicates that when he opted for S. Lorenzo in Lucina he had dismissed that title. Customarily, the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina was occupied by the most senior cardinal priest, the protoprete, and Cardinal Conti never reached that antiquity.
(3) This is according to Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 7; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 97, indicates that he was buried in his title, S. Lorenzo in Lucina.

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(41) 6. MACIEJOWSKI, Bernard (1548-1608)

Birth. 1548, Poland. Son of Bernard Maciejowski, castle master of Lublin, and his secound wife, Elżbieta z Kamienieckich. His uncle was Samuel Maciejowski, bishop of Kraków from 1546 to 1550 (1). He is also listed as Ciolek Macceonio and Macziejowski.

Education. Studied in Rome and Perugia; versatum in Sacred Scriptures and canon law, sed non doctor.

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Kraków, 1584. Dean of the collegiate church of Warsaw, 1585; and canon cantor in the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Gniezno.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1586, Rome. Dean of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Gniezno.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Luck, retaining his previous benefices and with dispensation for not having a doctorate, June 8, 1587. Consecrated, January 24, 1588, probably in the primate's collegiate church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary and St. Nicholas in Łowicz, by Stanisław Karnkowski, archbishop of Gniezno. Ambassador of King Zygmunt III Waza of Poland before the Holy See, 1590-1591. He was one of the main creators of the Union of Brest (1596). Transferred to the see of Kraków, May 23, 1600.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 9, 1604; received the red hat and the title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, January 7, 1605. Did not participate in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Did not participate in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. Promoted to the metropolitan and primatial see of Gniezno, July 31, 1606. Legate a latere to the wedding of King Zygmunt III Waza of Poland and Princess Konstanze of Austria. He was a protector of the Jesuits and a strong supporter of the teachings of the Council of Trent.

Death. January 19, 1608, Kraków. Buried in the chapel he had built in the cathedral of Kraków (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, pp. 97-99; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 229; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 7, 43, 166 and 195; Nitecki, Piotr. Biskupi Kościoła w Polsce w latach 965-1999. Słownik biograficzny. Przedmowa Henryk Gulbinowicz. Warszawa : Instytut Wydawniczy "Pax", Warszawa 2000, col. 273-274.

Webgraphy. His portrait, arms and biography, in Polish, Wikipedia; his portrait and biography, in Polish, archdiocese of Gniezno, Poland; brief biographical data, in Polish, Grupa Onet.pl SA; his portrait and biography, in French, Wikipedia; La bible de Maciejowski , in French, Le Temps d'un Rêve; Maciejowski Bible , YouTube; his 'Epistola pastoralis' of 1601 by P. Krasny, in English, CEJSH, The Central European Journal Of Social Sciences and Humanities; his works, WorldCat.

(1) According to Krzysztof Rafał Prokop, Polscy kardynałowie (Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM, 2001), p. 103, King Zygmunt II August sought the cardinal's hat for Samuel Maciejowski. In 1550, the new Pope Julius III is likely to have appointed him a cardinal, but Bishop Maciejowski died on October 26.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from gostino Oldoini, Agostino, Athenaeum Romanum : in qvo summorum pontificum, ac pseudopontificum, nec non s.r.e. cardinalium et pseudocard. scripta publicè exponuntur (Perusiae : Ex typographia Camerali, apud haeredes Sebastiani Zechini, 1676. Republished in 1969 by Gregg International Publishers Limited), p. 127-128:

Spectet posteritas viuam probi viri
Effigiem
BERNARDI MACZICIOVVSKI
S.R.E. Cardinalis
Episcopi primù Cracoviæ
Deinde Archiepiscopi Geinensis,
Et
Vitam præclaram imitetur,
Hic
Quiequam honoris ac dignitaties,
Quod in eum caderet domi,
Forisque fuit
Amplissimis virtutibus coniecutus
De pia quoque triumphavit
Inuidia.
Ciuis, Senator
Pontifex inter paucos pius,
Magnanimus, liberalis
Fortunatus in omni vita.
Si turbatam Patriæ tranquillitatem,
Quam
Sollicitè curabat.
Ante obitum restitutam vidisset
Hoc vnum
Perpetuæ felicitati defuit,
Moritur Cracoviæ
XIX. Ianuarij
Anno à partus Virginis
MDCVIII.
Ætatis suæ LX.
.

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(42) 7. MADRUZZO, Carlo Gaudenzio (1562-1629)

Birth. 1562, Issogne Castle, Valle d'Aosta. Son of Baron Giovanni Federico Madruzzo, count sovereign of Valangin, and Isabella di Challant. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Cristoforo Madruzzo (1542) and nephew of Cardinal Ludovico Madruzzo (1561).

Education. Studied in Ingolstadt, 1577-1582; rector honorarius, 1583. Studied in Pavia, 1584-1586 (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law).

Early life. Spent the early years of his youth in military exercises. Received the clerical tonsure, 1581. Abbot commendatario of San Cristoforo, Nizza Monferrato, until 1616. Abbot commendatario of Saint-Paul, Besançon, until 1616. Provost of SantOrso, Aosta, until 1616. Canon of the cathedral chapters of Trent and Augsburg. In 1582 accompanied his uncle Cardinal Ludovico Madruzzo, bishop of Trent, to the Diet of Augsburg; and in 1594 to the Diet of Ratisbon. Postulated by the cathedral chapter of Trent as bishop coadjutor of his uncle.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Smirne and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of his uncle Cardinal Ludovico Madruzzo, bishop of Trent, October 23, 1595. Consecrated, February 11, 1596, at the cathedral of Trent, by Giacomo Rovelli, bishop of Feltre assisted by Sebastiano Cattaneo, O.P., bishop of Chiemsee and by Alberto Valier, titular bishop of Famagusta (1). Succeeded to the see of Trent, April 2, 1600.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 9, 1604. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V; he was bedridden in his cell and could not be present in the Pauline Chapel for the election but sed consensum praestiterunt, et electionem hilariter approbaverunt (2). Received the red hat and the title of S. Tommaso in Parione, June 20, 1605. Named legate a latere to the Diet of Ratisbon, February 25, 1613; the Diet took place the following May. Opted for the title of S. Cesareo in Palatio, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, 1616. Resided in Rome from November 1620 (3). Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, March 2, 1626. Cardinal protoprete. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, September 16, 1626.

Death. August 14 (4), 1629 (5), at 9 p.m., in his Roman residence. The funeral took place in the church of S. Maria del'Anima, Rome. Buried, August 15, 1629, in his family's chapel in the church of S. Onofrio, Rome.

Bibliography. Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1448 bis 1648 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz, unter Mitwirkung von Clemens Brodkorb. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1996, pp. 441-443; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, pp. 99-100; Dal Prà, Laura. I Madruzzo e l'Europa, 1539-1658 : i principi vescovi di Trento tra Papato e Impero. Milano : Charta, 1993. Note: Exhibition catalog./ "Trento, Castello del Buonconsiglio; Riva del Garda, Chiesa dell'Inviolata, 10 luglio-31 ottobre 1993", p. 68-74; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 7, 44, 50, 51, 319 and 344.

Webgraphy. Biography by R. Becker, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Treccani; his portrait and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; extensive biography, in Italian, Trentino Cultura; Castel Madruzzo, in Italian, Fondazione Incontri di Madruzzo; and I Madruzzo: Principi Vescovi per un ventenni, in Italian, Trentino Cultura.

(1) This is according to the information provided by the director and editor of Revue des ordinations épiscopales, Mr. Charles N. Bransom, Jr.; Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1448 bis 1648, pp. 442, indicates that he was consecrated by Sebastiano Cattaneo, O.P., whom he says was an archbishop, assisted by the bishops of Feltre and Verona, but does not give their names.
(2) Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentoris Aevi, IV, 9.
(3) His nephew, Carlo Emmanule Madruzzo, was named titular bishop of Aureliopolis and coadjutor, with right of succession, of Trent on August 24, 1622.
(4) Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 7, n. 5, indicates that other sources falso dicitur that he died on August 3, 1629.
(5) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 100, indicates that he died at 70 in 1629 and, therefore, he would have been born in 1559 but all the sources consulted say that he was born in 1562.

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(43) 8. DU PERRON, Jacques Davy (1556-1618)

Birth. November 25, 1556, St-Lô, Normandy, France (1). Of the houses of Duperron, Creteville and Langueville. His last name is also listed as Duperron and Davy du Perron. His parents, Julien Davy, signeur Du Perron, a physician, and Ursule le Cointe, were Calvinists and, claiming religious persecution, settled in Bern, Switzerland soon after his birth. He spent his childhood in Switzerland.

Education. His education started in Switzerland and was completed probably in France. At 10, after having learned Latin and mathematics from his father, studied, without the assistance of teachers, Greek, Hebrew and philosophy. Also, studied the Church Fathers and ecclesiastical writers, especially St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas.

Early life. He was part of the entourage of Marshal Matignon, which enabled him to enter academic and court circles in Paris during the reign of King Henri III of France. Converted to Catholicism in 1577. Entered the ecclesiastical state and was named lecteur de la chambre du roy (2); occupied the post until the king's death in 1587. By royal commission, he delivered the eulogy of Mary Stuart, queen of Scotland, in 1587. After the death of King Henri III, he placed himself under the patronage of Cardinal Charles II de Bourbon-Vendôme, who aspired to become the royal successor, but later he turned to the new King Henri IV and in the early 1590s, became his first almoner. He also enjoyed the patronage of Gabrille d'Estrées and it is said that she obtained for him the promotion to the diocese of Évreux, to which the king nominated him in 1591.

Sacred orders. Had not received them by the time he was elected bishop.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Évreux, December 11, 1592. Commissioned by King Henri IV, together with Cardinal Arnaud d'Ossat, to obtain his absolution from the Holy See, which occurred on September 17, 1595. Consecrated, December 27, 1595, at the church of S. Luigi dei Francesi, Rome, by Cardinal François de Joyeuse, archbishop of Toulouse assisted by Guillaume d'Avançon, archbishop of Embrun and by Anne d'Escars de Givry, bishop of Lisieux.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 9, 1604; received the red hat and the title of S. Agnese in Agone, January 7, 1605. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. In Rome, took part in the meetings of the Congregatio de Auxiliis established by Pope Clement VIII, to end the discussions on grace and freedom between the Molinists and the Dominicans. Grand almoner of France, October 1606. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Sens, October 9, 1606, retaining the administration of Évreux for two years; administration prorogated for another biennium, September 3, 1607; ceased as administrator, July 4, 1608. In 1611, he was able to stop the decision of the Parliament which condemned one of Cardinal Roberto Bellarmine's works, and defended the latter's thesis of the pope's infallibility and superiority over councils. The following year, he met with his suffragan bishops in Paris and condemned the work of Edmond Richer, syndic of the Sorbonne, De ecclesiasticæ et politicæ potestate. Participated in the États Généreaux of 1614 urging the acceptance of the discipline and reform decrees of the Council of Trent. His numerous works were compiled in three volumes and published in Paris in 1620 and 1622, preceded by his biography. He was the first of several convert cardinals.

Death. September 5, 1618, Bagnolet (or Batignolles), a suburb of Paris (3). Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Sens (4).

Bibliography. Bergin, Joseph. The making of the French episcopate, 1589-1661. New Haven ; London : Yale University Press, 1996, p. 615; Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 849-859; Burigny, Jean Lévesque. Vie du Cardinal du Perron, Archevêque de Sens, & Grand-Aumônier de France. Paris : Chez De Bure, Pere, Quai des Augustins, à l'image de Saint Paul, 1768; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, pp. 100-104; Chassant, Alphonse; and Sauvage, G. Ern. Histoire des évêques d'Évreux. Avec des notes et des armoires. Évreux : Tavernier, 1846, pp. 147-151; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 153-154; Féret, Pierre. Le cardinal du Perron : orateur, controversiste, écrivain : étude historique et critique. Paris : Didier, 1876; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 7, 39, 179 and 313; Grente, Georges. Quae fuerit in cardinali Davy du Perron vis oratoria .... Parisiis : apud Victorem Lecoffre, 1903. Dissertation: Thèse--University de Paris. Language: (Latin Series: Variation: History of religions preservation project).

Webgraphy. Biography by Charles Dubray, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography by C. Pfender, in English, New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge; engravings, arms, works, bibliography and biography, in French, Wikipedia; biography, in French, by Alphonse Chassant, Histoire des évêques d'Évreux : avec des notes et des armoiries, p. 147-151, Gallica, Bibliothèque Nationale de France; brief biographical data and a poem , in French, Nox Oculi, Mario Tessier; his engraving, works, bibliography and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; and his engraving by an anonymous artist, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin.

(1) This is according to his biography in The Catholic Encyclopedia, linked above; Bergin, The making of the French episcopate, 1589-1661, p. 615, indicates that he was probably born in Bern, Switzerland; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 849, indicates that he was born in the canton of Bern; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 101, says that he was born in the castle of St-Lô, Lower Normandy, and cites other soucres which indicate that he was born either in Genève or in the canton of Bern, nei confine della Savoja; Chassant, Histoire des évêques d'Évreux, p. 47, indicates that he was born in Saint-Lô but the following page, after telling how his father had to seek refuge in Switzerland (first in Genève and later in Bern), indicates that Jacques was born in the latter; and the text in his portrait, also linked above, says that he was born in Val de Joux, which is in the canton of Vaud, not in the canton of Bern, Switzerland.
(2) This is according to Bergin, The making of the French episcopate, 1589-1661, p. 615; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 101, indicates that he was named bibliotecario regio, royal librarian.
(3) Biographie universelle, ancienne et moderne (Paris : Michaud frères, 1811-1862 ), vol. 12, indicates that he lived in Bagnolet and that when he became ill, he was taken to Paris, where he died after suffering for 14 days.
(4) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 859: HC. FR. L. M. PP. Jacet hic quod claudi potuit Jacobi Davy Perronii, quis S. R. E. TT. S. Agnetis in agone presbyter, card. annos quaterdenos archiepiscopus Senonum, Galliarum, et Germaniæ primas, magnus Franciæ elemosinarius duodenos, inter homines mortales ternos et sexagenos mortalis homo vixit, mortalis esse desiit Non. Sept. an Christii M. DC. XVIII. At vivet posthac, æternumque apud omnae gentes, atque nationes gloria immortalis, quem ex hæresi toties reportatæ victoriæ, acta in Italia, Franciaque constituendis, ac conformandis Ecclesiæ nutantis rebus felicia justa, et præclara : libri denique quos plurimos atque, divinissimos, incomparabilis ingenii clarissima monumenta reliquit, et meritissimo perpererunt.

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(44) 9. DEL BUFALO-CANCELLIERI, Innocenzo (1566-1610)

Birth. 1566, Rome. Of a patrician family. Son of Tommaso del Bufalo and Silvia de' Rustici. His last name is also listed as Bufalo, Bubalus and Bubalis.

Education. Studied together with future cardinal Pietro Aldobrandini. Obtained a doctorate in law in Rome.

Early life. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace in the pontificate of Pope Sixtus V (1585-1590). Abbreviatore di parco maggiore, 1586. Vicar of Cardinal Domenico Pinelli, archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica. Governor of Narni, October 19, 1590. Governor of Benevento, May 28, 1591. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, August 28, 1594. Inquisitor in Malta, 1595. Vice-governor of Fermo, July 15, 1598.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Camerino, May 14, 1601. Consecrated May 20, 1601, at the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Mariano Pierbenedetti assisted by Napoleon Comitoli, bishop of Perugia and by Tommaso Vannini, bishop of Avellino. Domestic prelate of His Holiness. Nuncio in France, June 14, 1601 (1) until September 26, 1604. In November 1603, he requested to return to Rome for health reasons.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 9, 1604; received the red hat and the title of S. Tommaso in Parione, December 10, 1604. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. Opted for the title of S. Marcello, June 1, 1605. Prefect of the Sacred Consulta, 1605-1606. Opted for the title of S. Pudenziana, January 30, 1606. Resigned the government of the diocese before February 20, 1606. Opted for the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, November 19, 1607.

Death. March 27, 1610, Rome (2). Buried in the tomb of his ancestor in the church of S. Maria in Via, Rome (3).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, pp. 104-105; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 7, 44, 47, 49, 50 and 131; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), 180, 194 and 212; Oldoini, Agostino. Athenaeum Romanum : in qvo summorum pontificum, ac pseudopontificum, nec non s.r.e. cardinalium et pseudocard. scripta publich exponuntur. Perusiae [i.e. Perugia] : Ex typographia Camerali, apud haeredes Sebastiani Zechini, 1676. Republished in 1969 by Gregg International Publishers Limited, 1 Westmead, Farnborough, Hants., England, p. 169-170; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 139, 243, 305, 621.

Webgraphy. His prosopography, in German, Requiem Datenbank; his tomb in S. Maria in Via, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is according to Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 131; Weber, Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809, p. 621; and his prosopography, linked above. Katterbach, Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII, p. 180, indicates that he was appointed on May 25, 1601.
(2) According to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 105, he resigned the government of the diocese because its climate was contrary to his health, and obtained a pension of one thousand scudi, which was not sufficient. The cardinal informed Pope Paul V of the need in which he found himself and the pope responded freddamente, coldly, which caused him a profonda malinconia, a profound melancholy, that ridusse alla tombe nel fiore dell'età, reduced him to the tomb in the prime of his age. He was only 44 years old.
(3) This is the text of the inscription in his tomb, taken from Oldoino, Athenaeum Romanum, p. 169:

D.     O.     M.
INNOCENTIO BVBALO
De Cancellarijs
Romani nobilitatis,
Et virtutis Viro
Post Vrbium, Præturas
Ad Melitensem insulam
A Clemente VIII.
Cum extraordin. potestatw misso
Mox ab eo Pontifice
Episc. Camerino ,
Denique pro eodem apud Gall. Regem
Nuncium agenti
Sanctæ Romanæ Ecclessiæ
Cardinali creato
Quam dignitatem
Dum acerrimo iudicio
Incenso Eccleslasticæ amplitudinis studio
Intima doctrina,
Morum suauitate,
Singulari vitæ innocentia sustinet
Romæ moritur
Anno Domini MDCX.
4. Kal. Aprilis ,
Ætatis suæ XLIIII.
Mutius frater
Et Hæres posuit.

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(45) 10. DELFINO, Giovanni (1545-1622)

Birth. December 15, 1545, Venice. Of a patrician family. Second of the six children of Senator Iseppo (Giuseppe) Delfino and his second wife, Maria Contarini. The other children were Benedetto, Daniele, Andrea, a daughter, and Dionisio. His last name is also listed as Dolfino and Delfini. Other cardinals of the family are Giovanni Delfino (1667); Daniele Marco Delfino (1699); and Daniele Delfino (1747).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Ambassador of the Republic of Venice before the Holy See, 1594 -1598. Having decided to enter the ecclesiastical state, tried diligently during his embassy to obtain the good graces of Pope Clement VIII and of the Aldobrandini family. Returned to Venice when his embassy ended and was named procuratore of the patriarchal cathedral S. Marco.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Vicenza, November 24, 1603. Consecrated, December 27, 1603, at the church of S. Sisto, Rome, S. Sisto by Cardinal Alfonso Visconti, assisted by Tommaso Contarini, bishop of Candia, and by Leonardo Mocenigo, bishop of Ceneda.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 9, 1604; received the red hat and the title of S. Matteo in Via Merulana, November 24, 1604. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. Opted for the title of S. Marco, June 1, 1605. Resigned the government of the diocese before June 19, 1606. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 7, 1619 to January 13, 1620. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Opted for the title of S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni, June 23, 1621 (1). Opted for the title of S. Carlo ai Catinari, August 23, 1622.

Death. November 25, 1622, Venice. Buried in the tomb of his ancestors in the church of S. Michele (in Isola) di Murano, Venice. The news of his death reached Rome on December 1, 1622.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 105-106; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 7, 2, 41, 44, 47and 367; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 316.

Webgraphy. Biography by Gino Benzoni, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 40 (1991), Treccani; his portrait by Leandro da Ponte, Bassano, Museo d'Arte Medievale, Padua; his portrait by Niccolò Bambini, Friulan area, (1710-1712), diocese of Udine, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his portrait, secolo XVII (1603), diocese of Vicenza, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

(1) According to Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 7, on June 21, 1621, the pope granted permission to Cardinals Delfino and Prioli to exchange their respective titles of S. Marco and S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni. Cardinal Delfino retained the palace of S. Marco in Rome.

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(46) 11. SANNESIO, Giacomo (1560-1621)

Birth. 1560 (1), Belforte, Marca, diocese of Camerino. Of a very humble family.

Education. Studied law.

Early life. Presided the trials of appeal of the civil causes in Camerino. Went to Rome and, with the assistance of his brother, was admitted in the court of Cardinal Pietro Aldobrandini. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Secretary of the Sacred Consulta. Protonotary apostolic.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 9, 1604; received the red hat and the title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, June 25, 1604. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Orvieto, June 20, 1605. Consecration (no information found). Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 13, 1620 to January 11, 1621. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV.

Death. February 19, 1621, at 6 a.m., Rome. Buried in the church of S. Silvestro nel Quirinale, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 106-107; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 8, 50, and 353.

(1) This is an approximate date based on the indication of Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 107, that he died in 1621 in età di sopra sessanta'anni (of an age over sixty years).

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(47) 12. VALENTI, Erminio (1564-1618)

Birth. 1564, Trevi, diocese of Spoleto. His last name is also listed as Valente and Valenti de Trivio. Antoher cardinal of the family was Ludovico Valenti (1759).

Education. Obtained a doctorate in law.

Early life. An advocate in Rome, was admitted to the court of Cardinal Ippolito Aldobrandini, future Pope Clement VIII, who later assigned him as secretary to Cardinal Pietro Aldobrandini. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 9, 1604; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Traspontina (1), June 25, 1604. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Faenza, August 3, 1605. Consecrated, September, 18, 1605, at the church of Santa Maria in Vallicella, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Aldobrandini, assisted by Luigi de Torres, archbishop of Monreale, and by Laudivio Zacchia, bishop of Montefiascone.

Death. August 22, 1618, Faenza. Buried in the church of S. Maria delle Lagrime, Faenza.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 107-109; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 8, 45 and 185.

Link. Guided visit to the church of Chiesa della Madonna delle Lacrime, Trevi, where his funeral monument is.

(1) Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 45, lists him as Carlo Valente in the catalog of occupants of this title.

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(48) 13. AGUCCHI, Girolamo (1555-1605)

Birth. January 15, 1555, Bologna. Son of Gian Giorgio Agucchi and Isabella Sega. Nephew of Cardinal Filippo Sega (1591). His last name is also listed as Agucci and Agocchi.

Education. University of Bologna, Bologna (doctorate in law).

Early life. Notary of the Holy See. Protonotary apostolic, April 15, 1592. Special papal envoy in Flanders. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1595. Vice-governor of Fermo, September 20, 1596. Majordome of Cardinal Pietro Aldobrandini, November 1, 1597; traveled with the cardinal to Ferrara, 1598. Secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, 1600. Provost of Ss. Simone e Giuda, Novara. Preceptor (or commendatore) of the Arch hospital Santo Sprito in Sassia, Rome.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 9, 1604; received the red hat and the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, June 25, 1604. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI.

Death. April 27, 1605, Rome. On that day Pope Leo XI also died. Buried in his title (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 109; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 8 and 48.

Webgraphy. His portrait by Domenico Zampieri, called Il Domenichino, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence; another portrait by the same artist, Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica, Rome; his prosopography, in German; his engraving; and his tomb in S. Pietro in Vincoli, Rome, RomeArtServe, The Australian National University.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, linked above:

D. O. M.
HIERONYMO AGVCCHIO
BONONIENSI
S. R. E. PRESBYTERO CARDINALI
S. PETRI AD VINCVLA
VI PHILIPPI SEGAE CARD. PLACENT AVVNCVLI
PRAECLARAS VIRTVTES AEMVLATVS
CVM APOSTOLICAE SEDI TRIGINTA FERE ANNOS
VARIIS IN LOCIS OPERAM STRENVE NAVASSET
AC MULTIPLICEM ETIAMTVM MVNERVM
CVRARVMQ MOLEM IN VRBE SVSTINERET
VIR VERE MAGNVS ETAD SVMMA QUAEQ NATVS
AB OPTIMO GRATISSIMOQ PONT CLEMENTE VIII
AMPLISSIMAE DIGNITATIS INSIGNIA
BONORUM OMNIVM VOTIS DIVTIVS FERVENDA
CONSECVTVS EST
IO BAPTISTA AGVCCHIVS
PROTONOTARIVS APOST
FRATRI OPTIMO P
VIXIT ANNOS L MENSES III DIES XII
OBIIT EADEM DIE QUAE LEO PP XI
XXVIII APRILIS MDCV

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(49) 14. PAMPHILJ, Girolamo (1544-1610)

Birth. 1544, Rome (1). Of a noble family. Son of Pamphilio Pamphilj and Orazia Mattei. Great-great-grandson of Pope Alexander VI (1492-1503). Uncle of Pope Innocent X (1644-1655). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Camillo Francesco Maria Pamphilj (1644). Other cardinals of the Pamphilj family were Benedetto Pamphilj, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1681); Giuseppe Maria Doria Pamphilj (1785); Antonio Maria Doria Pamphilj (1785); and Giorgio Doria Pamphilj (1816). He was a very close friend of St. Filippo Neri, his spiritual director.

Education. Studied law.

Early life. Entered the court and house of Cardinal Pietro Aldobrandini. At the instance of Girolamo Mattei, auditor of the Apostolic Chamber, Pope Gregory XIII named him regent of the Apostolic Chancery. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota; later, its dean.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 9, 1604; received the red hat and the title of S. Biagio dell'Anello, June 25, 1604. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. Vicar general of Rome, 1605-1610.

Death. August 11, 1610, Rome (2). Buried in the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 110; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 8 and 40.

Webgraphy. His tomb in S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome; with a closer view of his epitaph.

(1) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 110, that says that he died in 1610 at 66; his epitaph, linked above, also indicates that he died when he was 66 years old.
(2) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 110, citing Teodoro Amidenio's manuscript on the lives of the cardinals, num. 41, says that his death was due to all'inavvertenza di aver dormito in una camera di fresco imbiancata, inadvertently having slept in a chamber recently whitewashed.

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(50) 15. TAVERNA, Ferdinando (1558-1619)

Birth. 1558, Milan. Of a patrician family. Son of Palatine Count Cesare Taverna, count of Landriano and senator, and Antonia Beccaria. His first name is also listed as Ferrante and his last name as Taberna.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, in Collegio d'avocati of Milan. Had the title of magister.

Early life. Called to Rome by his uncle Lodovico Taverna, bishop of Lodi and governor of Rome. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace and domestic prelate of His Holiness, 1588. Governor of Viterbo, 1591. Governor of Città di Castello, February 1, 1595 until April 27, 1596. Vice-governor of Fermo, June 8, 1596 until September 25, 1596. Apostolic collector in Portugal, October 15, 1596. Governor of Rome, April 30, 1599 until June 9, 1604. At the instance of Cardinal Pietro Aldobrandini, he was promoted to the cardinalate.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Novara, November 16, 1615. Consecrated, December 7, 1615, at the Sistine Chapel, Rome, by Pope Paul V, assisted by Cardinal Evangelista Palotti and by Cardinal Benedetto Giustiniani. Cardinal Francesco Maria Bourbon del Monte Santa Maria, bishop of Palestrina, was consecrated in the same ceremony.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 9, 1604; received the red hat and the title of S. Eusebio, June 25, 1604. Legate in the province of Marche and governor of Ascoli, November 24, 1604 until October 23, 1606. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V.

Death. August 29, 1619, Novara. Buried in the cathedral of Novara (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 110-111; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, p. 97; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 8, 42 and 262; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), pp. 191, 200, 228; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 122, 207, 243, 287, 360, 430, and 941.

Webgraphy. Brief biographical data, in Italian, no. 97 in "Cronotassi dei vescovi novaresi".

(1) This is according to Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 8, and Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 111; his biographical data, linked above, says that he was buried in Milan.

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(51) 16. MARZATO, O.F.M.Cap., Anselmo (1543-1607)

Birth. November 6 (or 16), 1543, Monopoli, where his father was governor. The family was originally from Sorrento. Son of Andrea Marzato and Cornelia Mailla, whose family was related to the Tolomei family of Siena. His baptismal name was Claudio.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Declined the invitation to marry a rich and noble young woman from his city and joined the Order of the Friars Minor Capuchins in 1558; took the name Anselmo da Monopoli, which he alternated with that of Anselmo da Sorrento; professed in 1572.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Dedicating himself to preaching, became a famous orator and preached in Italy and France. Invited to preach before the pope and cardinals; they were very satisfied with his ministry (1). Traveled to Ferrara with Pope Clement VIII and according to the Franciscan rule, he did it on foot. Theologian of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office. Theologian to Cardinal Pietro Aldobrandini, legate a latere in France. In 1589, he was elected provincial minister of the Roman province of the Capuchins. Apostolic preacher of the Sacred Palace, 1595. Procurator general of his order, 1599. He was also a celebrated theologian and philosopher.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 9, 1604; received the red hat and the title of S. Pietro in Montorio, June 24, 1604. Denominated the cardinal of Monopoli. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. Always wore the habit of his order. He was the first Capuchin cardinal.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Chieti, February 12, 1607. Consecrated, February 24, 1607, at the Sistine Chapel, Rome, by Pope Paul V, assisted by Cardinal Luigi de Torres and by Cardinal Marcello Lante della Rovere, bishop of Todi. Cardinal Pompeo Arrigoni, archbishop of Benevento, was consecrated at the same time.

Death. August 17, 1607, in the Capuchin convent of Frascati. Buried in his Capuchin habit in his title, S. Pietro in Montorio.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 111-113; Defrenza, Giuseppe. "Il primo cardinale cappuccino: frate A. Marzato da Monopoli", in Italia Francescana, XXXII (1957), 401-409; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 8 and 47.

Webgraphy. Biography by Miguel Gotor, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 71 (2008), Treccani; brief his engraving, arms and portrait, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) According to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 111, they called him Paolo redivivo e tromba celeste.

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(52) 17. DORIA, Giovanni (1573-1642)

Birth. March 24, 1573, Genoa. Called Giannettino. Of the princes of Melfi. Son of Giovanni Andrea I Doria, 6th Prince of Melfi, and Princess Zenobia Doria del Carretto, 5th Princess of Melfi. Great-grand-uncle of Cardinal Giorgio Doria (1743). Other cardinals of the family were Girolamo Doria (1529); Sinibaldo Doria (1731); Giuseppe Maria Doria Pamphilj (1785); Antonio Maria Doria Pamphilj (1785); and Giorgio Doria Pamphilj (1816).

Education. Studied philosophy and theology in Spain.

Early life. At the instance of King Felipe II of Spain he was promoted to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 9, 1604. Granted permission to receive the sacred orders outside the Ember days, December 9, 1604. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. Received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Adriano, December 5, 1605. Abbot commendatario of San Fruttuoso, Camogli.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tessalonica and named coadjutor, with right of succession, of Palermo, February 4, 1608. Consecrated, May 4, 1608, Rome, by Pope Paul V. Succeeded to the see of Palermo, July 5, 1608. Viceroy and lieutenant of the king of Spain in the Kingdom of Sicily, February 8, 1610 to March 1611; from July to August 1616; August 1, 1624 to 1626; and from 1639 to June 1641. Did not participate in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Pietro in Montorio, October 2, 1623. Discovered the relics of S. Rosalia and promoted her cultus.

Death. November 19, 1642, Palermo. Buried in the chapel of S. Rosalia, in the metropolitan cathedral of Palermo (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 113-115; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 8, 47, 50, 272 and 335.

(1) This is the text of the inscription in his vault, kindly provided by Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

Memoriae aeternae
et virtuti
S.R.E. Cardinalis Ioannettini Doriae genunsis
Archiepiscopis Panormitani benemerentissimi
cenotaphium
qui D. Rosaliae reliquias
crudescente peste mirum in modum inventas
idibus iulii A. MDCXXIV
consultis medicis matureque re perpensa
patriae venerandas dedit
publicae saluti praesidium
vixit annos LXX praefuit Ecclesiae Panormitanae XXXIV
obiit XIII kal. decembris
A. MDCXLII.

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(53) 18. PIO, seniore, Carlo Emmanuele (1585-1641)

Birth. January 5, 1585 (1), Ferrara. Son of Enea Pio di Carpi and Barbara Turchi di Ferrara, of the marquises of Ariano. Uncle of Cardinal Carlo Pio, iuniore (1654). He is also listed as Carolus Emmanuel Pius de Sabaudia.

Education. (No information found).

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 9, 1604; received the red hat and the deaconry of San Nicola in Carcere, June 25, 1604. Participated in the first conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Leo XI. Participated in the second conclave of 1605, which elected Pope Paul V. Returned to Ferrara and resided there during the pontificate of Pope Paul V. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Legate in the province of Marche, March 17, 1621. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. Opted for the deaconry of Santa Maria in Via Lata, October 2, 1623. Cardinal protodeacon. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, March 16, 1626. Opted for the title of San Lorenzo in Lucina and cardinal protoprete, September 16, 1626.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, April 14, 1627. Consecrated, Sunday, May 9, 1627, at Gesù Church, Rome, by Cardinal Ottavio Bandini, assisted by Giuseppe Acquaviva, titular archbishop of Tebe, and by Pietro Montorio, former bishop of Nicastro. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, July 15, 1630. Sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, proper of the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 28, 1639. He supported Ferdinando Ughelli for the writing of his Italia Sacra.

Death. June 1, 1641, of epilepsy, Rome. Buried next to the main altar in the Jesuit church of Gesù, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 115-118; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 208; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 8, 36, 37, 43, 53, 54; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7, pp. 288 and 846-847.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his prosopography, in German, Requiem Datenbank; engravings, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Andrea Argoli, Andreæ Argoli D. Marci Serenissimo Annuente Senatu Equitis, In Patavino Lyceo Mathematicas scientias proftendis. De diebus criticis et de ægrorum decubitu libri dvo. (Patauij : Apud Paulum Frambottum, 1652), p. 232; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 117, says that he died at 56, nè più nè meno (no more, no less), therefore, he must have been born in 1585; Weber, Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809, p. 846, says that he was created cardinal at 19 in 1604, therefore, he must have been born in 1585; his prosopography, linked above, says that he was born in 1567.

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