The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Paul V (1605-1621)
Consistory of August 17, 1611 (V)
Celebrated in Rome


(20) 1. CARAFA, Decio (1556-1626)

Birth. 1556, Naples. Of the Stadera branch of the family. Eldest fo the five children of Ottavio Carafa, signore of Cerza Piccola, and Marzia Mormile, of the counts of Cerreto. The other siblings were Eligio (duke of Jelzi) and three other children whose names are not known. His first name is also listed as Dezio; and his last name as Caraffa. Other cardinals of the family were Filippo Carafa (1378); Oliviero Carafa (1467); Gianvincenzo Carafa (1527); Carlo Carafa (1555); Diomede Carafa (1555); Alfonso Carafa (1557); Antonio Carafa (1568); Pier Luigi Carafa, seniore (1645); Carlo Carafa della Spina (1664); Fortunato Ilario Carafa della Spina (1686); Pierluigi Carafa, iuniore (1728); Francesco Carafa della Spina (1773); Marino Carafa di Belvedere (1801); and Domenico Carafa della Spina (1844).

Education. Educated by his uncle, Mario Carafa, archbishop of Naples.

Early life. After the death of his uncle in 1576, he went to Rome. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature. Notary and magister. Domestic prelate. Collector general in the Kingdom of Portugal, March 16, 1598 until December 22, 1604 (1).

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Damasco, May 17, 1606. Consecrated (no information found). Nuncio in Flanders, June 12, 1606 until May 12, 1607. Nuncio in Spain, May 22, 1607 until October 27, 1611.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of August 17, 1611; received the red hat on April 7, 1612; and the title of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna on May 7, 1612. Opted for the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, June 18, 1612. Transferred to the see of Naples, January 7, 1613. He celebrated diocesan synods in 1619, 1622 and 1623. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII.

Death. January 23, 1626 (2), Naples. Buried in the tomb that he had built in the middle of the old choir of the metropolitan cathedral of Naples. He had moved the ashes of Archbishop Mario Carafa to that tomb.

Bibliography. Biaudet, Henry. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes jusqu'en 1648. Helsinki ; Suomalainen tiedeakatemia, 1910, p. 259; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 152-155; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 16, 41, 51, 52, 184 and 254; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturæ a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), p. 239; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), III, 208; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 244, 331 and 509; Zigarelli, Daniello Maria. Biografie dei vescovi e arcivescovi della chiesa di Napoli con una descrizione del clero, della cattedrale, della basilica di s. Restituta e della cappella del tesoro di s. Gennaro. Napoli: Tipografico di G. Gioja, 1861, pp.162-166.

Links. Biography by Georg Lutz, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 19 (1976), Treccani; his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, pp. 152-153, says that after Cardinal Alfonso Gesualdo, archbishop of Naples, died in 1603, Pope Clement VIII, after a few years of vacancy, conferred on Decio Carafa that metropolitan see. The pope died before the process was completed and the new pope, Leo XI, granted the request of several cardinals and named Cardinal Ottavio Acquaviva d'Aragona to the Neapolitan see in 1605. Cardinal Acquaviva died in 1612 and Pope Paul V named Cardinal Carafa as his successor a few weeks later, disregarding the cardinal's opposition to the appointment.
(2) This is according to Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 16 and 51; Biaudet, Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes jusqu'en 1648, p. 259, says that he died on January 24, 1626.

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(21) 2. RIVAROLA, Domenico (1575-1627)

Birth. 1575, Genoa. Second of the six children of Ottavio Rivarola and Nicoletta Lomellini. Nephew, possibly, of Giulio Rivarola, nuncio in Portugal, and Domenico, bishop-elect of Fermo. Relative of Agostino Rivarola (1817)

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Canon of of the cathedral chapter of S. Lorenzo, Genoa.

Priesthood. Ordained (no date found), Genoa. Went to Rome and entered the court of Cardinal Scipione Caffarelli-Borghese with the help of the French ambassador; was his auditor and familiarissimus.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Aleria, Corsica, December 10, 1608. Consecrated, Sunday December 28, 1608, Sistine chapel, by Cardinal Michelangelo Tonti, assisted by Metello Bichi, bishop of Savona, and by Valeriano Muti, bishop of Città di Castello. In the same ceremony was consecrated Filippo Battista Filonardi, bishop of Aquino, future cardinal. The new bishop remained in Rome in the court of Cardinal Caffarelli-Borghese but, in Holy Week 1608, a papal decree had been issued ordering all bishops residing in Rome to go to their dioceses; the cardinal named the bishop his auditor, thus freeing him from the obligation to go to reside in his diocese; shortly afterwards, he resigned the government of the see of Aleria. Promoted to the titular see of Nazareth March 30, 1609. Legate extraordinary to King Henri IV of France; his mission was to ask the king, in the name of the pope, to abandon his plan to invade Italy; before the legate could reach Paris, the king was assassinated; in that city he assisted the nuncio, Roberto Ubaldini, who was very ill; and then returned to Rome. When a violent discord occurred between the city of Rieti and the castle of Cantalice, Archbishop Rivarola was sent to mediate a peaceful soultion to the conflict; he was able to reestablish the peace, and returned to Rome.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of August 17, 1611; received the red hat on August 20, 1611; and the title of S. Martino ai Morti on September 12, 1611. Legate in Romagna, June 4, 1612 until May 1621; arrived in his legation, July 2, 1612; the pope confirmed him in his legation three times; he was able to free the territory from the bandits and assassins that threatened its citizens. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Named protector of the Order of Camaldolese by Pope Gregory XV. He dedicated himself with great fervor to the study of jurisprudence; and the explanation of his votes in the congregations of the Roman Curia became famous (1). Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. After visiting Genoa for a while, he returned to Rome.

Death. January 3, 1627, Rome (2). Buried in the church of S. Maria della Scala, and later, transferred to the church of S. Maria della Vittoria, Rome; no funeral monument was erected in his memory.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 155-159; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 164; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 11, 47, 76 and 254; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 814; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. and 869-870.

Links. His portrait by Anthony Van Dyck, The Portland Art Museum's Online Collections; his portrait by Anthony Van Dyck, YouTube; his tomb in the church of S. Maria della Vittoria, Rome, together with Cardinal Achille d'Estampes de Valençay, Requiem Datenbank; engravings, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) According to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 159, says that his explanations were so just and polished that many believed they were not by the cardinal but by his auditor, Teodoro Amidenio. Cardella adds that in one occasion, after the cardinal had delivered his vote in the Congregation for Bishops and Regulars, Cardinal Cosimo de Torre expressed: Questa volta Teodoro certamente ha studiato (this time, Teodoro has certainly studied); in reality, it had been prepared by Cardinal Rivarola.
(2) His biography, linked above, indicates that he died in Genoa and was transferred to Rome and buried in the church of S. Maria della Vittoria in Quirinale.

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(22) 3. BICHI, Metello (1541-1619)

Birth. 1541, Siena. Of a noble family. Son of Alessandro Bichi and Porzia Ghini Bandinelli. Uncle of Cardinal Alessandro Bichi (1633). Other cardinals of the family were Antonio Bichi (1657); Carlo Bichi (1690); and Vincenzo Bichi (1731).

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law at the University of Siena.

Early life. Lector of istruzione, Siena, 1580-1582. Went to Rome and was received by Orazio Borghese, auditor of the Apostolic Chamber. Camillo Borghese, future Pope Paul V, recommended him for the episcopate.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Sovana, with dispensation for not having yet received the sacred orders, January 15, 1596. Consecrated, Sunday February 18, 1596, Rome, by Cardinal Alessandro de' Medici, assisted by Matteo Sanminiato, archbishop of Chieti, and by Cristóbal Sentmanat y Robustiero, bishop of Orihuela. In the same ceremony was consecrated Alessandro Marzo de' Medici, bishop of Fiesole. Uditore Santissimi, 1605-1612. Cubiculario, 1605-1619. Resigned the government of the diocese before June 12, 1606, and went to Rome called by the new Pope Paul V. Abbot of S. Maria de Crespino, diocese of Faenza, 1611. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Relator of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of August 17, 1611; received the red hat on August 20, 1611; and the title of S. Alessio on September 12, 1611. Abbot of S. Fortunato, 1612. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Siena, December 17, 1612. Resigned the government of the archdiocese before March 23, 1615.

Death. June 14, 1619, Rome. Buried in his title, S. Alessio (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 159-160; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 154; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. 6 v. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 104.

Links. Biography by Gaspare De Caro, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 10 (1968), Treccani; his tomb, church of S. Alessio, Rome; engravings and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D         O         M
METELLO · BICHO · PATRITIO · SENENSI
TIT · S · ALEXII · CARD · AMPLISSIMO
CVIVS · PAR · NOBILITATI · VIRTVS
PAVLI · IV · PONT · MAX · BENEFICIO
ESVANENSI · EPISCOPATV · AD · ROMANAE · PVRPVRAE · LVCEM
AD · SENENSIS · ARCHIEPISCOPATVS · EVECTA · FASTIGIVM
ILLVSTRISSIMA · SED · BREVISSIMA · EFFVLSIT
VINCENTIVS · ET · BERNARDINVS · PRAEREPTO · FRATRI
MOESTISSIMI · POSVERVNT
TAMEN · VNO · TRISTE · MITIGANT · DESSIDERIVM
QVOD · VIRTVTIS · ILLVSTRISSIMAE · EXTINCTAE
CINIS · ETIAM · PVRPVRAT
OBIT · ANNOS · NATVM · LX · XVIII · KAL · IVLII
CIƆ · IƆC · XIX

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(23) 4. BONSI, Jean de (1554-1621)

Birth. 1554, Florence. Son of Senator Domenico Bonsi, prime minister of the duke of Tuscany, and Costanza Vettori. His first name is also listed as Jean-Baptiste; and as Giovanni Battista; and his last name as Bonzi; as Bonsy; and as Bonzy. Nephew of Bishop Tommaso Bonsi, his predecessor in the see of Béziers. Uncle of Bishop Domenico Bonsi, his coadjutor in that see. Grand-uncle of Cardinal Pierre de Bonzi (1672).

Education. Studied at the University of Padua, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Sacred orders. Received the minor orders. Ferdinando I de' Medici, grand duke of Tuscany, named him to be the arbiter on the differences he had with Pope Clement VIII concerning territorial limits; he accomplished his charge with the satisfaction of both sides; the duke named him senator although he was not yet of the required age. Lawyer in Rome. Presented for the see of Béziers by King Henri IV of France; the see had been ceded by his uncle, Bishop Thomas Bonsi.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Béziers, with dispensation for not having yet received the sacred orders, February 11, 1598 (1). Consecrated, September 30, 1598 (?), Rome, by (no information found). Participated in the negotiations for the marriage of King Henri IV of France with Maria de' Medici; later accompanied the new queen to France. Grand almoner of the queen of France, post created for him by the king. Became a French citizen and was named to the Royal Council. Delegate of the province of Narbonne to the Assembly of the Clergy, 1610.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of August 17, 1611. Abbot of Saint-Guilhem-du-Désert, diocese of Lodève, 1611. Deputy of Toulouse in the États-Generaux, Paris, October 13, 1614. Abbot of Aniane, diocese of Montpellier, 1615. Went to live in Rome in 1615. Received the red hat on June 30, 1615; and the title of S. Clemente on July 20, 1615. After the exile of Queen Maria de' Medici in 1617, his relations with the French court were greatly impaired. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Opted for the title of S. Eusebio, March 3, 1621.

Death. July 4, 1621, Rome. Transferred to Florence and buried in his family's magnificent chapel in the church of S. Antonio, of the Theatine Fathers.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 160-162; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 11, 41, 42 and 116.

Links. His portrait and brief biography, in French, Wikipedia; his portrait and prosopography, in German Requiem Datenbank; his portrait by Domenico Zampieri, called Domenichino, Musée Fabre, Montpellier, France; his portrait, engravings and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Bonsi, in Italian, Enciclopedia Italiana (1930), Treccani.

(1) Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 116, says that he was 33 years old when promoted to the episcopate in 1598 which means that he was born in 1565, but Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 162, says that he died in 1621 at 67 and, therefore, he must have been born in 1554.

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(24) 5. FILONARDI, Filippo (1582-1622)

Birth. 1582, Bauco (1), small castle in the diocese of Veroli. Son of Scipione Filonardi and Brigida Ambrosi di Angani. His baptismal name was Filippo Battista. Nephew of Marcello Filonardi, assessor of the Holy Office, and of Flaminio Filonardi, his predecessor in the see of Aquino (1579-1608). Brother of Alessandro Filonardi, bishop of Aquino (1615-1645) and of Mario Filonardi, archbishop of Avignon, 1622-1644. Great-grand-nephew of Cardinal Ennio Filonardi (1536). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Giovanni Battista Busi (1712).

Education. Studied at Collegio Romano; and at the University of Pisa, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Went to Rome at a very young age.

Sacred orders. Ordained (no date found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Aquino, November 24, 1608 (2). Consecrated, Sunday, December 28, 1608, Sistine Chapel, by Cardinal Michelangelo Tonti assisted by Metello Bichi, bishop of Sovana, and by Valeriano Muti, bishop of Città di Castello. In the same ceremony was consecrated Domenico Rivarola, bishop of Aleria, future cardinal. Vice-governor in Fermo, February 2, 1609. Vice-legate in Avignon, 1610 to June 14, 1614 (3).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of August 17, 1611; received the red hat on June 14, 1614; and the title of S. Maria del Popolo on July 9, 1614. Resigned the government of the diocese before May 18, 1615. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. He was a generous patron of artists and letterati.

Death. September 29, 1622, Rome. Buried in his family's tomb in Bauco.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 162-163; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1934; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 164; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 12, 46 and 91; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. 6 v. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 421; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 133, 244 and 669-670.

Link. Biography, in Italian, Menteantica; his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) In 1907 its name was changed to Boville Ernica. Hierarchia Catholic Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 12, as well as the continuators of Chacón and Notizie di Avignone, XX, indicate that he was born in Rome.
(2) Both, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 91, and Weber, Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809, p. 670, say that he was 32 when he was elected bishop of Aquino in 1608, therefore, he would have been born in 1576 but his biography, linked above, twice says that he was born in 1582; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 163, citing the continuators of Chacón, says that he had not yet turned 45 when he died in 1622. Likewise, Cardella adds that Chacón's continuators also indicate that he was born in 1582 and died in 1622, therefore at 40 years of age, and that that source says the cardinal finì di vivere (finished living) cum quintum supra quadregesimum tantum annum attigisset with almost five over forty years. Moreover, Cardella also cites Teodoro Amidenio, Vite manoscritte dei cardinali, who states that the cardinal died at 49.
(3) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 162, says that he was the only cardinal to have presided over the legation of Avignon with the title of vice-legate.

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(25) 6. CRESCENZI, Pier Paolo (1572-1645)

Birth. 1572, Rome. Of an ancient and illustrious family (1). Son of Virgilio Crescenzi, baron of Montorio, and Costanza, of the marquises of Drago. He had three brothers, Giacomo, Vincenzo and Giovanni Battista. Relative of Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi (1542). Uncle of Cardinal Alessandro Crescenzi, C.R.S. (1675). His first name is also listed as Pietro Paolo.

Education. Studied at Collegio Romano; then, at the University of Perugia, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law. After finishing his legal formation, he entered the ecclesiastical career as did his brother Giacomo. He was educated by the Oratorian Fathers and established a profound friendship with Filippo Neri, future saint. He was twice a witness in the process of canonization of Filippo, on April 18, 1596 and on June 16, 1609.

Early life. Abbreviatore di parco maggiore, 1596. Governor of Orvieto, February 2, 1601. Protonotary apostolic. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, May 23, 1608. Auditor of the Apostolic Chamber, September 10, 1609.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of August 17, 1611; received the red hat on August 20, 1611; and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achille on September 12, 1611.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Rieti, July 4, 1612. Consecrated, Sunday July 15, 1612, church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, by Cardinal Bonifazio Caetani, assisted by Fabio Blondus de Montealto, titular patriarch of Jerusalem, and by Galeazzo Sanvitale, former archbishop of Bari. During the Thirty Years War, he supported, along with several other cardinals, the position of King Felipe IV of Spain. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Transferred to the see of Orvieto, March 17, 1621. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. In 1624, he celebrated a diocesan synod; and during his episcopate, he received the Jesuits in his diocese, giving them the Church of Ss. Apostoli; and promoted the Marian devotion, following the example and the teaching of S. Filippo Neri. Together with his brother Giacomo, he was part of a commission created under Pope Gregory XV to regulate, with stricter criteria, the cult of the alleged martyrs, because, in this matter, had been recorded abuses justified only by fanaticism. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, October 8, 1629. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, July 1, 1641. Sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Resigned the government of the see of Orvieto before May 23, 1644. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. He was a passionate collector of antiquities, both sacred and profane, and had almost transformed his Roman palace in a museum.

Death. February 19, 1645, near midnight, Rome. Buried, February 22, 1645, in the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 163-164; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 171; Forcella, Vincenzo. Iscrizioni delle chiese e d'altri edificii di Roma dal secolo XI fino ai giorni nostri. 14 v. in 7. Roma : Tip. delle scienze matematiche e fisiche, 1869-1884, IV, 159; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 12, 37, 38, 47, 293 and 353; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturæ a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), p. 215; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. 6 v. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 283.

Links. Biography by Irene Polverini Fosi, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 30 (1984), Treccani; his tomb in S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, The Australian National University; his tomb, Requiem Datenbank; engravings, portraits and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 163, indicates that Giangiustino Ciampini, De abbreviatorvm de parco maiori : sive, Assistentivm S.R.E. vicecancellario in literatum apostolicarum expedictionibus antiquo statu, illorumue in collegium erectione, munere, dignitate, praerogatiuis, ac priuilegijs, dissertatio historica (Romae : Ex Typographia Reuerendae Camerae Apostolicae, 1691), p. 32, says that the family potersi meritamente chiamare un Seminario di Cardinali (could truly be called a Seminary of Cardinals because of the number of them it gave the church).
(2) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D        .        O        .        M
PETRO PAVLO CRESCENTIO ROMANO S . R . E . CARDINALI EPISCOPO PORTVENSI
SANTI PHILPI NERII VT IPSE PIE PROFITEBATVR IN SPIRITV DISCIPVLO
QVI NE MORTVVS AB ILLIVS TVTELA RECEDERET CVI VIVVS SE REGENDVM TRADIDERAT
AVITO SVORVM RELICTO PRISCAE NOBILITATIS MONVMENTO
COMMVNEM PATRIBVS CONGREGATIONIS ORATORI SEPVLTVRAE LOCVM ELEGIT
VIXIT ANNOS LXXXIV . MENSES II . DIES III . OBIIT XIX . FEBRVARII ANNO SAL . MDCXLV
ALEXANDER CRESCENTIVS EPISCOPVS BITUNTINVS PATRVO MERITISSIMO P . C.

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(26) 7. SERRA, Giacomo (1570-1623)

Birth. 1570, Genoa. Third of the six children of Antonio Maria Serra, deputy of the Nobile Vecchio Portico di Genova, and Claudia Lomenelli, of a patrician family. The other siblings were Francesco (senator), Maria, Giovanni Battista *ambassador to Spain), Scipione and Paolo Maria (senator). He also had a half-sister, Antonia (illegitimate). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Niccolò Serra (1766). Great-great-grand-uncle of Cardinal Francesco Serra (1831).

Education. (No information found) (1).

Early life. Went to Rome. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, ca. January 13, 1601. President delle Armi. Governor of Borgo, during the second vacant see of 1605. Nuncio extraordinary and commissary of the papal troops in Hungary, 1608. Treasurer general of the Apostolic Chamber, December 17, 1608. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1609.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of August 17, 1611; received the red hat on August 20, 1611; and the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, September 12, 1611. Legate in Ferrara, September 16, 1615, for a triennium; legation prorogated in 1618; remained as legate until his death. Opted for the order of priests and the title of S. Maria della Pace, September 28, 1615. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII.

Death. August 19, 1623, Rome. Buried in his title, S. Maria della Pace.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 164-165; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 13, 45 and 52; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 871; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 164, 250 and 910.

Links. His arms and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his prosopography, in German, Requiem Datenbank; his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Serra by Vito Antonio Vitale, Enciclopedia Italiana (1936), Treccani.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 164, says that he was a man of poche lettere, or little education.

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(27) 8. LANCELLOTTI, Orazio (1571-1620)

Birth. December 8, 1571, Rome. From a family ascribed to the Roman nobility in 1589. Eldest of the seven children of Paolo Lancellotti, conservatore of Rome, and Giulia Delfini Mancinelli. The other siblings were Francesco, Giovanni Battista (bishop of Nola and nuncio in Poland), Tiberio (conservatore of Rome), Ottavio (knight of Santiago), Purenzia and Cecilia (nun of Tor de' Specchi). Nephew of Cardinal Scipione Lancellotti (1583). Uncle of Cardinal Giulio Gabrielli (1641), on his mother's side. Another cardinal of the family was Filippo Lancellotti (1794).

Education. Studied law at the University of Perugia, together with his brother Giovanni Battista. He was member of the literary Academy degli Insensati.

Early life. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, May 31, 1596. Named by Pope Clement VIII referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota from June 26, 1596 (or 1597) until 1611, succeeding Lorenzo Bianchetti, who had been promoted to the cardinalate; he obtained the post due to the good offices of his uncle Cardinal Scipione, who had occupied that position in 1585. Auditor of the Apostolic Penitentiary, March 24, 1597. Auditor of the Apostolic Palace. Auditor of the Apostolic Chamber. Regent of the Apostolic Penitentiary, October 14, 1609. In 1610, he restored the ancient church of S. Simeone Profeta, which had been a cardinalitial title until 1587, when it was transferred to the church of S. Salvatore in Lauro. He became a close friend of Michalengelo Tonti, future cardinal.

Sacred orders. Received the diaconate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of August 17, 1611; received the red hat on August 20, 1611; and the title of S. Salvatore in Lauro, September 12, 1611. Prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council from 1616 until his death. He completed the construction of the Lancellotti place, started by Cardinal Scipione, entrusting the work to Carlo Madero. He is often remembered for a very real concern for new foundations and religious orders and was in very good terms with the Jesuits; also, he was vice-protector of the Order of Friars Minor, founded by Francesco di Paola; future saint.

Death. December 9, 1620, Rome. Immediately after his death, the body was taken to the church of S. Maria Nuova; and then to patriarchal Lateran basilica, where he was buried in his family's chapel, which had been founded by Cardinal Scipione Lancellotti at the end of the previous century. His only heir was his brother Tiberio. He left 6000 scudi to the new Order of the Pious Schools (Scoloppini).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 169-170; Cerchiari, Emmanuele. Capellani papae et apostolicae sedis auditores causarum sacri palatii apostolici : seu sacra Romana Rota ab origine ad diem usque 20 septembris 1870. Relatio historica - iuridica. Syntaxis capellanorum auditorum.. Romae : Typis Polyglotis Vaticanis, 1920, p. 127-128; Del Re, Nicola. "I cardinali prefetti della sacra congregazione del concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), p. 113; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 13 and 49; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 547.

Links. Biography by Raissa Teodori, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 63 (2004), Treccani; his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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(28) 9. GALAMINI, O.P., Agostino (1553-1639)

Birth. 1553 (1), Brisighella, diocese of Faenza. Of an obscure family. His parents were Magolino Galamina and Antonia Recuperati, a noblewoman, related to Agostino Recuperati, master general of the Order of Preachers (Dominicans). His last name is also listed as Galamina and Galamino.

Education. Entered the Order of Preachers (Dominicans); changed his baptismal name Simone to Agostino in honor of Master General Recuperati; did the novitiate in Faenza; professed in the convent of Meldola.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Lector in Bologna; and later in Naples. Lector maggiorein several convents of the order. Inquisitor in Brescia in 1592. and then, in Piacenza; in Genoa; and in Milan in the pontificates of Popes Gregory XIII; and Sixtus V. Commissary of the Holy Office by Pope Clement VIII in 1604; and then, master of the Sacred Palace also in the pontificate of Pope Clement VIII. Elected master general of his Order in the general chapter celebrated in Rome in 1608. He immediately began to reorganize the different Dominican provinces, starting from the Kingdom of Naples, then the province of Abruzzo; of Apulia; and finally, of Calabria; and of Sicily. He used to arrive incognito to verify the situation of the convents. His interventions were always energetic, so that the pope himself had to intervene several times to invite him to be more cautious; he replaced immediately priors considered unfit, and appointed new provincials. In June 1610, he began to reorganize the provinces of Bologna, Milan and Piedmont; then, at the invitation of the queen regent of France, Marie de' Medici, he went to visit the French provinces of the Order. While he was in France, he was promoted to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of August 17, 1611; received the red hat on October 29, 1611, after returning from France; and the title of S. Maria in Aracoeli, November 14, 1612. Retained the post of master general of his Order until the celebration of the general chapter to elect his successor.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Recanati e Loreto, February 11, 1613. Consecrated, March 12, 1613, church of San Silvestro di Quirinale, Rome, by Pope Paul V, assisted by Cardinal Giovanni Garzia Millini and by Cardinal Fabrizio Veralli. Transferred to the see of Osimo, April 29, 1620. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. He maintained correspondence with the principal European sovereigns such as Emperor Ferdinand II, and Kings Louis XIII of France and Felipe IV of Spain. He was a simple man, proud to be a friar, concerned as a pastor for the most simple souls, who loved to go personally to preach to the peasants who worked until late at night in the fields.

Death. September 6, 1639, Osimo. Buried in the Chapel of the Rosary of the Dominican church of S. Marco, Osimo, under a simple tombstone with an inscription that he had composed, dressed only with his religious habit. In his will, he left 1000 scudi to the convent of S. Marco for the daily celebration of a mass at sunrise for the convenience of those who had to labor in the field.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 165-169; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 13, 45, 104 and 293.

Links. Biography by Sergio Rivabene, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 51 (1998), Treccani; his bust by an anonymous artist, Collegio di Propaganda Fide, Rome; engravings and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 12, that says he died at 86 in 1639; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 168, says that he died in that year but at 83; his prosopography, linked above, indicates that he was born in 1551 and died on September 6, 1623; Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, says that he was born in 1552 and died in 1639 im 90 Jähre seines Alter which means that he would have been born in 1550 at the latest; his biography by Rivabene, linked above, says that he was born in Brisighella in 1552 but that some sources report that he was born in Fognano in 1551.

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(29) 10. BORJA Y DE VELASCO, Gaspar de (1580-1645)

Birth. June 26, 1580 (1), Villalpando, diocese of Zamora, Spain. Son of Francisco II Tomás de Borja y Centellas, sixth duke of Gandía, and Juana Enríquez de Velasco y de Aragón. He was baptized the same day of his birth in the parish church of San Miguel de Villapando. His last name is also listed as Borgia. Great-grand-son of Saint Francisco de Borja, S.J., third superior general of the Society of Jesus Relative of Popes Calixtus III (1455-1458) and Alexander VI (1492-1503). Relative of Cardinals Francisco Antonio de Borja-Centelles y Ponce de León (1700), and Carlos de Borja-Centelles y Ponce de León (1720). His first name is also listed as Gaspare; and as Gasparo; and his last name as Borgia.

Education. Studied theology at Colegio Mayor de San Ildefonso, University of Alcalá de Henares.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Celebrated his first mass in the church of the Jesuit novitiate in Madrid.

Early life. Professor and public lector, University of Alcalá de Henares. Archdeacon and canon of the cathedral chapter of Cuenca. Archdeacon of the cathedral chapter of Toledo until he was promoted to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of August 17, 1611; received the red hat on November 27, 1612; and the title of S. Susanna, December 10, 1612. Spanish ambassador before the Holy See, 1616 to 1619; and later, from April 1631; he had to leave Rome in 1635 but kept the post of ambassador until his death. Opted for the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, October 17, 1616. Viceroy and captain-general of Naples, June 6 to December 14, 1620. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. Counselor of State, 1623. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 27, 1627 to January 10, 1628.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, July 15, 1630. Consecrated, September 15, 1630, patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Antonio Barberini, seniore, O.F.M.Cap., bishop of Senigaglia, assisted by Benedetto Baaz, bishop of Umbriatico, and by Martín de León Cárdenas, O.E.S.A., bishop of Trivento. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Sevilla, retaining the suburbicarian see of Albano, January 19, 1632. Left Rome on April 29, 1635 (2). President of the Council of Aragon, April 1636; and later, of the Council of Italy. During the war of Spain with France in 1642 and 1643, he was co-governor of the Kingdom together with Queen Isabel during the absence of the king. On January 3, 1643, King Felipe IV of Spain nominated him to the primatial see of Toledo but Pope Urban VIII rejected it; the translation was not possible until the next pontificate. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent IX. Transferred to the metropolitan and primatial see of Toledo, retaining the suburbicarian see of Albano, January 16, 1645.

Death. December 28, 1645 (3), Madrid. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Toledo.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 170-172; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1500-1699). Españoles obispos en españa, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 34), p. 152-153; Serrano de Entrambasaguas, Guillermo. El misterio del último retrato del Cardenal Borja. Madrid : Sistemas de Creación y Conocimiento (SCYC), 2004.

Links. His portrait and biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; his portrait by Diego Veláquez, Städelsches Kunstinstitut, Frankfurt, Artothek; his prosopography, in German. Requiem Datenbank; and his genealogy, B1 C3; engravings, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to his genealogy, linked above; his biographical entry in Gran Enciclopedia Española; Aldea, "Borja y Velasco, Gaspar", Diccionario de Historia Eclesiástica de España, I, 279;; and Guitarte, Espiscopologio español (1500-1699), p. 153. His prosopography, linked above, says that he was born on April 13, 1582; Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 563, indicates that he was born in 1584; and Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 171, states that he died in 1645 at 61 and, therefore, according to this source, he would have been born in 1584. The latter source adds that Louis Moréri in his Le grand dictionaire historique, vol 2, pt., p. 87, says that the cardinal was born in 1584; that Giangiustino Amidenio, Vite manoscritte dei cardinali, states that the cardinal was 22 when promoted to the cardinalate and, therefore, that he must have been born in 1589; and that the continuator of Chacón does not mention the year of his birth but says that he was juvenis sacro Collegio adscribitur, young when ascribed to the Sacred College.
(2) According to Q. Aldea, "Borja y Velasco, Gaspar", Diccionario de Historia Eclesiástica de España, I, 279-280, The reason for the prolonged embassy of Cardinal Borja was due to his famous protest to Pope Urban VIII, clearly francophile, in the secret consistory of March 8, 1632. With the diplomatic immunity, the politicians in Madrid thought that they could defend the cardinal against the censures in which the curialists in Rome believed he had incurred because his disrespectful conduct toward the pope in that protest. The theatrical gesture of the protest, certainly inopportune and counterproductive for the international policy of Spain, was motivated by the apathy of the pope with respect to the Habsburgs and his lack of financial collaboration to the Catholic cause before the Protestant danger.The Swedish victory in Breitenfeld, September 17, 1631, in which the Catholic army was undone, aggravated the courts of Madrid and Vienna, and their anguish translated into an urgent search for money everywhere.When the pope refused to open the treasure of Sant'Angelo, and to concede other subsidies in a moment of urgent need for Christendom, Cardinal Borja could not contain himself and accused the pope, before the cardinals in consistory, of grave omission in the performance of his office. This was fatal for the cardinal, and together with his harsh and undiplomatic character, started an irreconcilable enmity between him and the Barberinis, and definitively ended his diplomatic career. In view of the tension, the court of Madrid decided to get the cardinal out of Rome under an acceptable pretext and named him governor and captain-general of the State of Milan, but the pope refused to grant him the faculty to exercise the criminal jurisdiction, something he had never done before in similar cases. In reality, the post itself did not please the Barberinis at all, and they continued pressuring for the cardinal to leave Italy. To that effect, a bull was issued on December 18, 1634, urging the residence of the bishops in their dioceses. The document, although general, since it was in reality directed against the cardinal, was called "borgiana". The extraordinary ambassadors from Spain, Pimentel and Chumacero, tried to obtain a dispensation for Cardinal Borja but failed. Then the cardinal submitted his resignation from the see of Sevilla but the pope did not accept it. He had no option but to return to Spain. He left Naples on September 24, 1635, accosted by the papal citations and waited in Nocita until two galleys of the Duke of Tuscany translated him to Spain where he arrived on December 25 and to Madrid on January 28, 1636. There, he lived in the convent of Santa Bárbara, of the Discalced Mercedarians, until February 2, when he made his public entrance with great ostentation and was received by the king in his palace. He left Madrid on October 12 and entered Sevilla privately.
(3) This is according to Guitarte, Espiscopologio español (1500-1699), p. 153; Hierarchia Catholic Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 12, and Aldea, "Borja y Velasco, Gaspar", Diccionario de Historia Eclesiástica de España, I, 280; and also Gran Enciclopedia Española. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 563, says that he died in November 1645, and his prospography linked above, indicates that he died on November 1, 1645.

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(30) 11. CENTINI, O.F.M.Conv., Felice (1562-1641)

Birth. 1562, Ascoli Piceno. Of a modest condition. He was called the Cardinal of Ascoli.

Education. Entered the Order of the Friars Minor Conventuals.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Regent of Collegio S. Bonaventura. Consultor of the S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, August 1609. Elected procurator general of his order, December 1609.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of August 17, 1611; received the red hat August 20, 1611; and the title of S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni on September 12, 1612.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Mileto, August 31, 1611. Consecrated October 2, 1611, Sistine Chapel, Rome, by Pope Paul V, assisted by Cardinal Giovanni Garzia Millini, and by Cardinal Michelangelo Tonti. In the same ceremony was consecrated Cardinal Gregorio Petrocchini, O.S.A., bishop of Palestrina. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna, August 12, 1613. Transferred to the see of Macerata e Tolentino, September 23, 1613. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Opted for the title of S. Anastasia, March 3, 1621. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. In 1629, he was named protector of Collegio Montalto, Bologna, established by Pope Sixtus V in 1588. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, November 28, 1633.

Death. January 24, 1641, suddenly, in his palace in Macerata. Buried in the cathedral of Macerata (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 172-173; Chapeau, O.S.B., André and Charles N. Bransom. "Franciscan bishops." Franciscan Studies, XLVIII (1988), 328; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 12, 38, 39, 42, 44, 227 and 242.

Links. Biography by Gino Benzoni, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 23 (1979), Treccani; engravings and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 12. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 173 and his biography by Benzoni, linked above, indicate that he was buried in the Conventual church of S. Francesco in Macerata.

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