The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Paul V (1605-1621)
Consistory of December 2, 1615 (VI)
Celebrated in Rome


(31) 1. VENDRAMINO, Francesco (1555-1618)

Birth. October 10, 1555, Venice. Second of the three children of Marco Vendramino and Maria Contarini. The other siblings were Luca and a girl whose name is not known and who married Pietro Loredan. His last name is also listed as Vendramin; as Vendramini; and as Vendraminus.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. He was chosen by the Senate to accompany the duke of Guise during the latter's visit to the Republic of Venice in 1583. Venetian ambassador in Savoy, from 1585 to 1589. Venetian ambassador in Spain, from 1592 to 1595. Venetian ambassador in Austria, in 1597. Venetian ambassador extraordinary in France, in 1598, and later, ambassador ordinary until 1600. Venetian ambassador in the Holy See, 1600-1604. Member of the reformers of the Studio di Padova in 1604. Venetian ambassador extraordinary in 1605 to congratulate the new Pope Paul V for his election. A layman when he presented to the Venetian Senate his candidacy to the patriarchate of Venice, he was elected on July 26, 1605, with 132 votes in favor and 73 against (1). The election was not confirmed by the pope until three years later because of disagreements between the Holy See and Venice concerning the examination of the candidate by the Roman Curia and a subsequent papal interdict, due to the forced vacant see, in May 1606, which lasted until April 21, 1607.

Episcopate. Elected patriarch of Venice, with dispensation for not having yet received a degree and the sacred orders, May 12, 1608 (2). Consecrated, May 26, 1608, private chapel of the pope, at the Vatican, Rome, by Pope Paul V, assisted by Fabio Biondi, titular patriarch of Jerusalem, and by Metello Bichi, former bishop of Sovana. He was granted the pallium on May 28, 1608.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 2, 1615; received the red hat n November 12, 1616; and the title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina on November 28, 1616. Consecrated the church of the Benedictine nuns or parish of S. Zaccaria, on January 18, 1617. He restored the patriarchal palace; and was known for his liberality toward the poor as well as for his devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary.

Death. October 7, 1618, Venice (3). Buried in the chapel S. Maria del Carmine, which he had built, in the patriarchal cathedral of Venice. There was no inscription on his tomb but only an epigram on a lateral wall of the chapel. His granduncle, Doge Andrea Vendramino, had built a mausoleum in the church of S. Maria de' Servi (now demolished) commemorating the late cardinal.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 174; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesif vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1935; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, p. 12, 43 and 362; Niero, Antonio. I patriarchi di Venezia. Da Lorenzo Giustiniani ai nostri giorni. Venice : Studium Cattolico Veneziano, 1961. (Collana Storica, 3), pp. 109-117; Orsoni, Alessandro. Cronologia storica dei vescovi Olivolensi detti dapoi Castellani e sucessivi patriarchi di Venezia. Corredata di annotazioni illustranti l'ecclesiastico-civile veneta storia. Venezia : Tip. G.S. Felice, 1828, p. 377-383; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 961.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; engravings and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his portrait by Lorenzo Ceregato, secolo XXI (2004), patriarchate of Venice, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); high relief of his cardinalitial creation, by Michele Fabris, l'Ungaro, and assistants, secolo XVII (1650-1699), cathedral of S. Pietro di Castello, patriarcate of Venice, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his tombstone by Venetian masters, secolo XVII (1650-1699), cathedral of S. Pietro di Castello, patriarcate of Venice, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

(1) Fourteen candidates presented themselves for the post: eleven laymen and 3 appena clerics. According to Niero, I patriarchi di Venezia. Da Lorenzo Giustiniani ai nostri giorni, pp. 14-15, the election of the patriarch of Venice was made by the Senate of the republic gathered in Pregadi. The candidates to the patriarchal see, laymen and clerics, presented their request to the senate and once the election took place, it needed papal approval to take effect. During the 17th century the presence of laymen among the candidates gradually diminished and almost totally disappeared in the following century. With the passage of Venice to the Austrian Empire after the Congress of Vienna of 1815, the presentation of the new patriarch was made by the imperial court and followed by the papal concession. After the union of the Veneto to the Kingdom of Italy, 1866, there were no relevant incidents in the process until 1893 with the translation of Bishop Giuseppe Sarto of Mantua to the patriarchal see, when the Italian government interfered concerning the right of giurispatronato regio and the concession of the exquatur to ecclesiastical appointment.
(2) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 174, says that the Venetian senate did not grant the possesso until 1619 and that the cardinal died in that same year. All the other sources consulted give 1618 as the year of his death.
(3) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 12. Niero, I patriarchi di Venezia. Da Lorenzo Giustiniani ai nostri giorni, p. 117; and Orsoni, Cronologia storica dei vescovi Olivolensi detti dapoi Castellani e sucessivi patriarchi di Venezia, p. 381, indicate that he died on October 8, 1619. Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, col. 1935, says that he died on October 7, 1619.

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(32) 2. GUISE, Louis III de (1575-1621)

Birth. January 22, 1575 (1), Lorraine. Third of the fourteen children of Henri I, duke of Guise, killed in Blois, and Catherine de Nevers (or de Clèves). The other children were Charles (duke of Guise and of Joyeuse), Henri (died at 2), Charles, Claude (duke of Chevreuse), François, François Alexander (knight of Malta), Catherine (+1573), Marie, Catherine (died young), Christine, Renée (abbess of St.Pierre, Reims), Jeanne (abbess of Jouarre) and Louise Marguerite (married Duke François de Conti). He is also listed as Louis III de Lorraine, cardinal de Guise. Nephew of Cardinal Louis II de Guise (1578). Great-grand-nephew of Cardinal Jean de Lorraine (1518). Grand-nephew of Cardinals Charles I de Lorraine de Guise (1547); and Louis I de Guise de Lorraine (1553).

Education. Destined from infancy to the ecclesiastical state, for which he had no vocation. Studied at the University of Paris, where he took no degree.

Early life. Because of a dispute with the duke of Nevers, he proposed a duel to solve the difference. While waiting for the duke, he was arrested by order of the king, who had been alerted about the encounter; later, he was freed.

Sacred orders. He only received the subdiaconate.

Episcopate. Nominated by the king of France archbishop coadjutor of Reims, with right of succession, 1601-1602. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Reims, January 1605. Never received the episcopal consecration (2). Married Charlotte de Romorantin, countess of Essarts, mademoiselle de La Haye, in 1611, by a dispensation from Pope Paul V (3). Abbot comendatario of Cluny from 1612 until his death. Participated in the Etat-Generaux of 1614. Abbot of Saint-Denis; Cluny; Saint Remi, archdiocese of Reims; Corbie; Orcamp; and Saint-Hilaire de Poitiers. Peer of France. Protector of France.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 2, 1615; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title. Named ambassador of France before the Holy See, but never went to Rome. Imprisoned in Bastille in 1620 (4). Did not participate in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Took part with King Louis XIII of France in his expedition to Poitou in 1621, and distinguished himself in the attack on the suburbs of Saint Jean d'Angély; fell ill and was taken to Saintes, where he died (5). He was the third and last Cardinal of Guise.

Death. June 18 (or 21) (6), 1621, Saintes. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Reims. The news of his death reached Rome on July 11, 1621.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre .... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1068; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 174-176; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 12 and 295.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English, Encyclopaedia Britannica; arms and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his genealogy, III, J-L Vial; another genealogy, B1 C3, Genealogy EU; his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to the second genealogy linked above; the first one indicates that he was born in 1585.
(2) Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 295, states that his promotion does not appear in the actis consistorialis but that in the apostolic brief of his elevation to the cardinalate and in the one of the election of his successor, he is called archiepiscopus Remensis.
(3) The former mistress of King Henri IV, she died in 1651. They had five children: Charles Louis de Lorraine, abbot of Chaalis, bishop of Condom; Achille de Lorraine, prince of Guise, count of Romorantin, killed in 1648 by the Turks in Candie (Iraklion) heading the Venetian troops that he commanded; Henri Hector de Lorraine; Charlotte, abbess of Saint-Pierre, Lyon; and Louise. He also had an illegitimate son from Charlotte de Harlay, dame de Champvallon. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 175, states that the conjecture about his marriage is assolutamente falsa because Chacón says that he had been ordained to the diaconate; and Sammatani, Gallia Christiana, p. 158, indicates that he had received the subdiaconate. Bergin, The making of the French episcopate, p. 662, says that he probably married her secretly; and "Les Cardinaux Français", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique, 1905, 166, indicates that he obtained a dispensation, resigned the cardinalate, and married Charlotte des Essarts. This source also says the he never wore a soutane.
(4) Bergin, The making of the French episcopate, p. 662, who also indicates that he was restless and rebellious in the 1610s and had tried to resign the archdiocese of Reims in 1617.
(5) Both Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1068, and Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 176, say that he repented of his scandalous life and asked for God's forgiveness before dying.
(6) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 12, but on p. 295, citing Gallia Christiana, IX, cols. 156-161, it indicates that he died on June 21, 1621; the second genealogy linked above, says that he died on June 21, 1621; and Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1068 also gives June 21, 1621 as the date of his death.

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(33) 3. UBALDINI, Roberto (1581-1635)

Birth. 1581, Florence (1). Of an ancient and feudal family of the Tuscan Apennines. From the Gagliano branch of the family. Son of Marco Antonio Ubaldini, of the counts of Gagliano, and Lucrezia della Gherardesca. Relative of Cardinal Ottaviano Ubaldini (1244). Grand-nephew of Pope Leo XI, on his mother's side. Distant nephew (lontano nipote) (2) of Cardinal Ottavio Ridolfi (1622). He is also listed as Roberto degli Ubaldini.

Education. Studied law at the University of Perugia; and at the University of Pisa, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Canon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Florence, 1595-1605. Member of the court of his grand-uncle the cardinal, 1598. Master of chamber of Pope Paul V at the end of May 1605. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, July 9, 1606 to October 1607; resigned in favor of his brother Ugone. Nuncio in France, September 20, 1607. Canon of the cathedral of Geneva, post which he retained after his promotion to the episcopate. Nominated for the see of Montepulciano by King Henri IV of France.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Montepulciano October 1, 1607. Consecrated, February 3, 1608, Paris, by Cardinal Jacques Davy du Perron, assisted by Henri de Gondi, bishop of Paris, and by Jean de Bonzi, bishop of Béziers.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 2, 1615; received the red hat on February 28, 1617; and the title of S. Matteo in Merulana on April 3, 1617. Opted for the title of S. Pudenziana, July 3, 1617. Prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, January 1621 until May 22, 1623. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Opted for the title of S. Alessio, May 17, 1621. Legate in Bologna, May 22, 1623; confirmed by Pope Urban VIII, 1624; remained in the post until October 1627, when he fell into disgrace with the pope because of his support of the protest of Cardinal Gaspar Borja against the pro-French and anti-Spanish policy of the pope. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. Resigned the government of the diocese before October 2, 1623. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 10, 1628 to January 8, 1629. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, August 20, 1629. Friend and mecenas of the men of letters of his time.

Death. April 22, 1635, in the rione Leonina, Rome, ex dolore calculi. The funeral was celebrated on April 24, 1635, in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, where he was buried.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 176-179; Del Re, Nicola. "I cardinali prefetti della sacra congregazione del concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), p. 113-114; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 12, 39, 47 48, 49 and 248; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 154 and 957.

Webgraphy. His portrait by Guido Reni (1575-1642), Los Angeles County Museum of Art; engravings, portraits and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to his biography linked above that says he was born um, around, 1581, and Cardella, Memorie storiche de' Cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 178, which indicates that he was 54 when he died in 1635. Del Re, "I cardinali prefetti della sacra congregazione del concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)", p. 113, indicates that he was born in 1580.
(2) This is according to Christoph, Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809, p. 957. None of the other sources consulted mentions this relation.

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(34) 4. MUTI, Tiberio (1574-1636)

Birth. 1574, Rome. Of a patrician family. Of the dukes of Vallemuzia. Third of the nine children of Carlo Muti, duke of Valle Mutia and ambassador of the duke of Savoia before Pope Sixtus V, and Faustina Muti. The other siblings were Olimpia, Girolamo (canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica), Mutio (commendatore of Ss. Maurizio and Lazaro), Jacomo (duke of Valle Mutia) Camillo, Emilia, Lorenza (nun) and Drusilla (nun). Relative of Pope Paul V. His first name is also listed as Liberio; and his last name as de Mutis.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, 1609-1611. Coppiere of the pope.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Viterbo, December 19, 1611. Consecrated, Sunday January 15, 1612, Sistine chapel, by Cardinal Scipione Caffarelli-Borghese, assisted by Fabio Blondus de Montealto, titular patriarch of Jerusalem, and by Antonio Ricci, bishop of Arezzo.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 2, 1615; received the red hat on December 5, 1615; and the title of S. Prisca on on January 11, 1616. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 8, 1629 to January 7, 1630.

Death. April 14, 1636 (1), near 11 p.m., Viterbo. Buried in the cathedral of Viterbo.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 179-180; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 170; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 12, 49, 59 and 371; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 643.

Webgraphy. His portrait, Italian shop, secolo XVII (1600-1624), diocese of Viterbo, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

(1) Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 12, says that he died at 62, while Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 180, indicates that he died at 72.

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(35) 5. TREJO Y PANIAGUA, Gabriel (1562-1630)

Birth. 1562, Casas de Millán, diocese of Coria, Spain. Youngest of the four sons of Antonio de Trejo de Monroy, privy chamberlain of Pope Julius II, and Francisca de Sande y Paniagua, of the señores of Santa Cruz de Paniagua. The other siblings were Francisco de Trejo y Monroy (infantry captain in the Spanish Galleys, knight of Calatrava, señor of Chamartin de la Rosa, first marquis de la Rosa, first marquis de la Mota Trejo, baron of Baluf and governor of Málaga), Pedro Trejo y Paniagua (canon of the cathedral chapter of Badajoz, member of the Royal Council of Navarra, chaplain of the Royal Discalced nuns, and abbot of the basilica of San Isidoro de León) and Juan Antonio Trejo y Paniagua (a Franciscan friar, bishop of Cartagena). At that time, very often the names did not match the last names of their parents. In this case, except the oldest, the Trejos brothers took the last name of their mother, something very common in those days. His last name is also listed as Tressius Panicqua.

Education. Studied at Colegio Mayor de Santiago Apóstol (also known as Colegio del Arzobispo), University of Salamanca, where he obtained a licentiate in laws on May 22, 1597; and shortly after, a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Professor of civil law at the University of Salamanca for several years, teaching Instituta, 1602; and Código, 1603. Entered Colegio del Arzobispo, Salamanca and taught vísperas de Leyes, 1606; rector, 1606-1607. In 1607 left the teaching career to dedicate himself to the judicature. Prosecutor and oidor of the chancery of Valladolid, 1607; later, auditor of the same. In the royal court, prosecutor of the Council de Órdenes with the habit of Calatrava; inquisitor of the same. Archdeacon of Talavera de la Reina, metropolitan cathedral of Toledo. Counselor of the Inquisition. Dignity of the cathedral chapter of Avila. Honorary royal chaplain. Major chaplain of the Royal Discalced nuns of Madrid. Archdeacon of Calatrava, archdiocese of Toledo. Member of the Third Order of St. Francis. Auditor of the Royal Council. Commissary general of the Crusade. He was promoted to the cardinalate at the request of King Felipe IV of Spain.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 2, 1615; received the red on June 10, 1617; hat and the title of S. Pancrazio on June 12, 1617. Member of the SS. CC. of Regulars, Index, Council and the Holy Office. Abbot of Burgohondo from 1617 until 1630. Did not participate in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Opted for the title of S. Bartolomeo all'Isola, November 29, 1621. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Salerno, retaining the archdeaconate of Calatrava for five years, June 9, 1625; he was granted the pallium on that same day. Consecrated, 1625 (no further information found) . Member of the Council of State, 1626. President of Castilla (1), March 23, 1627 until 1629. Nominated by King Felipe IV of Spain to the see of Málaga. Transferred to the see of Málaga, retaining the denomination of archbishop of Salerno, April 28, 1627. Entered his see on January 16, 1630. Abbot commendatario of the monasteries of S.Maria de Hohara and S. Michele de Trayna, both in the kingdom of Sicily. He decidedly strove before the Holy See in favor of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

Death. February 2 (2), 1630, Málaga. Buried in the cathedral of Málaga.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 180; Goñi, José. "Trejo Paniagua, Gabriel." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, Suppl., 692-695; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1500-1699). Españoles obispos en España, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 34), p. 147-148, no. 938; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 12, 40, 47, 229 and 301.

Webgraphy. Brief biographical data, in English, Casas de Millán (Cáceres); same brief biographical data, in Spanish, in fourth section", Casas de Millán (Cáceres); Familia Trejo-Paniagua, La Voz de Mayorga; Respuesta del Cardenal Trejo a una carta de Tomás Campanella by José Lóprz de Toro, Dialnet; Tres cardenales en el monasterio de Santa María del Burgo, Real Monasterio de Santa María del Burgo 2014; Cardenales españoles en la Historia, Revista Ecclesia (7 de marzo de 1998); engravings, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This post was the equivalent of first magistrate of the nation after the king himself.
(2) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 12; and to Tres cardenales en el monasterio de Santa María del Burgo, linked above. Goñi, "Trejo Paniagua, Gabriel", Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, Suppl., 692, indicates that he died on February 12. Familia Trejo-Paniagua, La Voz de Mayorga, linked above, says that he died on February 11,

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(36) 6. MOSCOSO Y SANDOVAL, Baltasar (1589-1665)

Birth. March 9, 1589, Altamira, archdiocese of Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Second of the ten children of Lope Moscoso Ossorio, count of Altamira and majordome of Margarethe of Austria, queen of Spain, and Leonor de Sandoval y Rojas, of the marquises of Denia. The other siblings were Gaspar (count of Altamira), Melchor (archdeacon of Alarcón and bishop of Segovia), Rodrigo (dean of Santiago, prior of Soriano and archdeacon of Castro in Córdoba), Antonio (canon of Toledo and marquis of Villanueva del Fresno) Isabel, María and three more children. He was baptized on March 17, 1589 by José de Cuña, archdeacon of Trastamara; and his godfather was Francisco de Avellaneda. He received the sacrament of Confirmation from Archbishop Juan de San Clemente, archbishop of Santiago. Great-grandson of Saint Francisco de Borja, third superior general of the Society of Jesus. Distant relative of Cardinal Bernardo de Rojas y Sandoval (1599). Nephew, on his mother's side, of Cardinal Francisco Gómez Rojas de Sandoval, duke of Lerma (1618). His last name is also listed as de Sandoval y Moscoso.

Education. Attended Colegio Mayor de San Salvador de Oviedo, Salamanca; in Sigüenza obtained a bachelor's degree in 1610, and a doctorate in canon law on January 21, 1615.

Early life. With the protection of his uncles, his career had a fast and brilliant beginning. Received the ecclesiastical tonsure and the minor orders at the competent age from Archbishop San Clemente. Rector of Colegio Mayor de San Salvador de Oviedo, 1608. Canon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Toledo, 1613; later, his dean. Archdeacon of Guadalajara. Major chaplain. He was promoted to the cardinalate at the request of King Felipe III of Spain.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 2, 1615. The pope sent him the red biretta to Madrid with Juan de Zúñiga, privy chamberlain of His Holiness and canon and schoolmaster of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Sevilla. He received the biretta from Cardinal Bernardo de Rojas y Sandoval in the Convent of the Royal Discalced nuns.

Priesthood. Ordained, Saturday February 27, 1616, in Colegio Imperial of the Society of Jesus, Madrid, by Francisco Suárez, O.Ss.T., bishop of Medauro. Celebrated his first mass on May 29, 1616, in the chapel of the Convent of the Discalced nuns of Valdemoro. An illness left his right arm paralyzed.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Jaén, April 29, 1619. Consecrated, July 25, 1619, convent of the Most Blessed Sacrament, of the Bernardas, Madrid, by Fernando Acevedo, archbishop of Burgos and president of Castilla, assisted by Juan Avellaneda Marique, titular bishop of Sidonia, auxiliary of Toledo, and by the bishop of Nueva España. Did not participate in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Did not participate in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. Received the red hat, July 6, 1630; and the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, August 12, 1630. Charged by King Felipe III with an important diplomatic mission in Rome, 1630-1633: to urge the Holy See to intervene against the Protestants in the Thirty Years War. Did not participate in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Nomiated by King Felipe IV of Spain to the metropolitan and primatial see of Toledo on March 24, 1646. Promoted to the see of Toledo on May 28, 1646. He was granted the pallium on February 18, 1647. Supreme chancellor of Castilla. Counselor of State. Did not participate in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Ex officio member of the Council of Regency instituted in the testament of King Felipe IV.

Death. September 17 (1), 1665, at 3 a.m., Madrid (2). Buried in the chapel of the Descensión of Our Lady, in the metropolitan cathedral of Santa María, Toledo (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 180-181; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, p. 13, 42, 194 and 339; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), VI, 756.

Webgraphy. D. Baltasar de Moscoso, i Sandoval, Presbytero Cardenal de la S.I.R. del Titvlo de Santa Cruz en Iervsalem. Arzobispo de Toledo. Primado de las Españas. Canciller Maior de Castilla. Del Consejo de Estado, i Ivnta del Govierno Vniversal de la Monarquia by Antonio de Jesús María, O.C.D., en Madrid, Por Bernardo de Villa-Diego, Impressor del Rei N.S., Año de M.DC.LXXX, Google Books; his engraving and biography, in Spanish, Wikiepdia; his tomb, metropolitan cathedral of Toledo, Spain, Requiem Datenbank; his engraving and prosopography, in German, Requiem Datenbank; engravings and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his arms, Wikimedia; Cardenales españoles en la Historia, Revista Ecclesia (7 de marzo de 1998).

(1) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 13; R. Gonzálvez, "Moscoso y Sandoval, Baltasar", Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, Suppl., 1746, indicates that he died on September 18. Several Spanish sources indicate that he died the day after King Felipe IV's death, which occurred on September 17, 1665.
(2) Gonzálvez, "Moscoso y Sandoval, Baltasar", Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, Suppl., 1746, and Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 181, indicate that he died in Madrid; Guitarte, Espiscopologio español (1500-1699), p. 138, says that he died in Madrid.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from D. Baltasar de Moscoso, i Sandoval, Presbytero Cardenal de la S.I.R. del Titvlo de Santa Cruz en Iervsalem, Libro VIII, Cap. VIII, margin note, no. 180, linked above:

D· O· M.
D. Balthasar de Mosco
so, & Sandoval, Stirpe
Regia, Altamira Com-
mitum Inclyta Proles.
B. Francisci de Borgia
Pronepos S.R.E. P.C.
Toletam. Praesul. Hoc
munus ter renuit Pöti-
ficio Decreto cesit. Vir-
turum exemplar. Adver-
sis, & Prosperis semper
Idem, Iustitiæ Cultor.
Immunitatis Ecclesiæ
Propugnator. Extincta
Lite. Dignitatum Resi-
dentiam Choro firma-
vit. Sibi Pauper, Egenis
Dives Infantes Exposi-
tos Testamento ditavit
Hic jacet Corpus. Spiri-
tus beatur in Cælo.
Obiit 18, Septembris,
Anni 1665. Ætatis suæ
77.

On the same page is the Spanish translation of the epitaph:

DIOS.         OPTIMO.         MAXIMO.
Don Baltasar de Moscoso, i Sandoval, Descendiente de Reyes.
Inclyto Hijo de los Condes de Altamira, Bis-Nieto de San
Francisco de Borja, Presbitero Cardenal de la Santa Iglesia
Romana, Arzobispo de la de Toledo. Tres veces rehvsó esta
Dignidad. Rindiòse al Precepto Pontificio. Fve exemplar de
Virtvdes. En las Adversidades, i Prosperidades Vno mismo. Se-
gvidor de la Ivsticia. Defensor de la Immvnidad Eclesiastica.
Compvesto vn Pleito, assegvrò al Coro la Residencia de las
Dignidades. Pobre para Si, Rico para los Pobres. Enriqveciò,
por sv Testamento los Niños Expositos.
Aqvi yace el Cverpo: el Espiritv es Beatificado en el Cielo.
Mvriò a 18. de Setiembre, Año de 1665. Setenta i siete de
sv Hedad.

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(37) 7. MEDICI, Carlo de' (1595-1666)

Birth. March 19, 1595 (1), Florence. Fifth of the eight children of Cardinal Ferdinando de' Medici (1563), who resigned the cardinalate in 1588 to secure the succession of the family to the grand duchy of Tuscany, and Grand Duchess Chrétienne de Lorraine (Cristina di Lorena). The other siblings were Cosimo II (grand duke of Tuscany), Leonora, Caterina (sixth duchess of Mantua), Francesco (prince of Capistrano), Filippo, Maria Maddalena and Claudia. Uncle of Cardinals Giancarlo de' Medici (1644) and Leopoldo de' Medici (1667). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Francesco Maria de' Medici (1686).

Education. Educato in ogni più sublime disciplina (2). At 19, when he had just started studying Hebrew, he was promoted to the cardinalate.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 2, 1615; received the red hat on April 19, 1616; and the deaconry of S. Maria in Domnica, May 18, 1616. He continued to reside in Florence after his promotion to the cardinalate. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. Together with other cardinals 'princes' of Italian noble houses, such as Farnese, Este and Savoie, he formed a group able to disrupt the rigid opposition of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Opted for the deaconry of S. Nicola in Carcere, October 2, 1623. Jealous of his prerogatives, in the summer of 1630 he protested against the decree of Pope Urban VIII, De titulis S.R.E. cardinalium, which intended to impose the use of the title "eminence" for all the cardinals, of whatever rank they were. Abbot commendatario of S. Stefano di Carrara from 1634. Protector of Spain (4), December 1635; he moved to Rome to occupy his protectorship only after ensuring that he would be treated with the ceremonial title of "highness". Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. As cardinal protodeacon of S. Nicola in Carcere, crowned Pope Innocent X on October 4, 1644 (3). Opted for the deaconry of S. Eustachio, October 17, 1644. Together with Cardinal Egidio Albornoz Carillo, head of the Spanish faction in the Sacred College, Cardinal de' Medici was instrumental in getting elected Cardinal Giovanni Battista Pamphili to the papacy. The new pope rewarded the efforts of Cardinal de' Medici with the granting of the cardinal's hat to Giancarlo de' Medici, brother of Grand Duke Ferdinand II of Tuscany. Opted for the order of priests and the title of S. Sisto, December 12, 1644. Abbot commendatario of several rich abbeys.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, March 6, 1645. Consecrated (no information found). Opted for the suburbicarian see of Frascati, October 23, 1645. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, April 29, 1652. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, proper of the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, September 23, 1652. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. The new pope charged him with receiving Queen Christina of Sweden on her arrival in Rome on December 20, 1655. He was protector of the Florentine Accademia degli Immobili et degli Infuocati of theater and music.

Death. June 17, 1666, in the villa of Marquis Carlo Gerini, near Montughi, a hill of the city of Florence. Buried in the tomb of his ancestors in the church of S. Lorenzo, Florence.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 182; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, p. 13, 37, 38, 50, 52, 53 and 54.

Webgraphy. Biography by Giampiero Brunelli, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 73 (2009), Treccani; biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; and his genealogy, D2 G9 H5, Genealogy EU; his engravings, portraits and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to his genealogy linked above; his biography from the site of the bishops of Frascati, also linked above, indicates that he was born in 1596 and erroneously adds that he opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata and that at the death of the grand duke of Tuscany he resigned the cardinalate.
(2) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 182. When the first rumors about the promotion of Carlo to the cardinalate became known, Relatione della corte di Roma by Girolamo Lunadoro was redacted at the beginning of 1611 on behalf of the Grand Duchess Chrétienne de Lorraine, to help prepare her son for the promotion.
(3) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 182, erroneously indicates that he had opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata, dismissing the one of S. Maria in Domnica. The former deaconry was occupied by Cardinal Antonio Barberini, iuniore, from 1642 until 1653. Although by custom the cardinal protodeacon usually occupied the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata, in this case Cardinal Carlo de' Medici did not.
(4) As such, represented the interests of Spain and substituted for the ambassador in case of a vacancy.

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(38) 8. GONZAGA, Vincenzo (1594-1627)

Birth. February 8, 1594, Mantua. Fifth of the six children of Vincenzo I, fourth duke of Mantua, and his second wife, Eleonora of Medici, princess of Tuscany. The other children were Francesco IV, duke Mantova and Monferrato; Ferdinando I, cardinal (1607), resigned cardinalate, duke of Mantua and Monferrato; Guglielmo Dominico Lungaspada; Margherita; and Eleonora, who married Emperor Ferdinand II of Habsburg. He also had two illegitimate half brothers and one illegitimate half sister: Francesco, bishop of Nola; Silvio; and Francesca. He was the seventh duke of Mantua. Other cardinals of the family were: Francesco Gonzaga (1461); Sigismondo Gonzaga (1505); Ercole Gonzaga (1527); Pirro Gonzaga (1527); Francesco Gonzaga (1561); and Giovanni Vincenzo Gonzaga, O.S.Io.Hier. (1578).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. When his brother Ferdinando Gonzaga resigned the cardinalate on November 16, 1615 to secure his family's succession to the duchy of Mantua, Ferdinando obtained from the pope the power to transfer that dignity as well as all the benefices to his younger brother Vincenzo.

Sacred orders. Did not receive any of the sacred orders.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 2, 1615; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the deaconry. He soon tired of his ecclesiastical duties and retired to his castle of Gazzuolo, where he lived a dissolute life. In the secret consistory of September 5, 1616, the pope notified the cardinals that Cardinal Vincenzo Gonzaga, in nullo ex sacris ordinibus constitutum (who had not receivd the sacred orders), had, before a parish pastor and witnesses, according to the Council of Trent's dispositions, contraxisse (contracted) and later consumasse (consummated) matrimony with Isabella Gonzaga, widow of Ferrante Gonzaga, marquis of Gazzuolo (1). Then, the pope, with the unanimous vote of the cardinals, deprived Vincenzo of the cardinalitial dignity and all ecclesiastical benefices. In 1626, he became Vincenzo II, seventh duke of Mantua and duke of Monferrato, at the death of his brother Ferdinando.

Death. December 26, 1627, Mantua. Buried in the Ducal Church of S. Barbara, Mantua. With him, "the direct line of Gonzaga, which for three centuries had ruled with magnificence, became extinct" (2). After his death with no direct heir, the War of the Mantuan Succession occurred.

Bibliography. Bellonci, Maria. A prince of Mantua: the life and times of Vincenzo Gonzaga. Translated from the Italian by Stuart Hood. London : Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1956; Brinton, Selwyn. The Gonzaga--Lords of Mantua. London : Methuen, 1927, pp. 193, 204-214, 216, and 219; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 182-183; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, p. 13.

Webgraphy. Biographical entry, in Italian, Enciclopedia on line, Treccani; his portrait and biography, in English, Wikipedia; Diocese of Mantua (Mantuana), in Lombardy by Umberto Benigni, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his genealogy, A1 B2 D5, Genealogy EU; his genealogy, Geneall; his engraving, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his portrait as a young boy, by Peter Paul Rubens date painted: 16051615, National Trust, Saltram, Plympton, Plymouth, Devon, England, In funere ser.mi d. d. Vincentii Gonzagæ, Mantuæ ac Montisferrati ducis oratio Habita ab Ill.mo D. Com: Lvdovico Chieppio eiusdem elsitudinus intimus Cubiculario. Mantvæ, Apud Osannas fratres, Ducales, Impressores. 1628, The Getty Research Institute, Internet Archive; Breve raguaglio del funerale fatto al sereniss. Vincenzo, che fù duca di Mantoua e di Monferrato, dal sereniss. signor duca Carlo I. suo zio e successore : nella ducal chiesa di Santa Barbara di Mantoua, il dl 18. di febraro 1628, In Mantoua : Per Aurelio & Lodouico Osanna fatelli, Stampatore Ducali. Con licenza de' superiori, The Getty Research Institute, Internet Archive.

(1) She was the daughter of Ferdinando Gonzaga, signore of San Martino, and Isabella Gonzaga, of the counts of Novellara. Isabella, who had been born in 1576, died in 1627 also. She was eighteen years his senior and never had children. Vincenzo tried to divorce her twice but after long processes in Rome, the marriage was declared valid. He had even appealed to the pope on the ground that he had been the victim of a sorceress; how else, he explained, could he, a Cardinal of the Holy Church, have forgotten the duties of his office and plunged into such a union?", Brinton, The Gonzaga--Lords of Mantua, p. 207.
(2) Brinton, The Gonzaga--Lords of Mantua, p. 214.

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(39) 9. SAVELLI, Giulio (1574-1644)

Birth. 1574 (1), Rome. Son of Bernardino Savelli, Roman noble, first duke of Castel Gandolfo and marquis of Roccapriora, and his second wife, Lucrezia dei Conti dell'Anguillara. Of an ancient and aristocratic family (2), which included Pope Honorius IV (1285-1287); and Cardinals Bertrando Savelli (1216); Giovanni Battista Savelli (1480); and Silvio Savelli (1596). Nephew of Cardinal Giacomo Savelli (1539). Uncle of Cardinal Fabrizio Savelli (1647) and grand-uncle of Cardinal Paolo Savelli (1664). His last name is also listed as Sabellus.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Governor of Orvieto, 1605. Governor of Spoleto, February 21, 1607. Governor of Ancona, 1608-1610. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1609. Nuncio extraordinary in Piedmont, 1614, to solve the dispute between King Felipe III of Spain and Carlo, duke of Savoy.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 2, 1615; received the red hat on December 5, 1615; and the title of S. Sabina on January 11, 1616.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ancona, January 11, 1616. Consecrated (no information found). Named legate in Bologna, December 2, 1619, for a triennium; remained in the post until October 1621. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Abbot commendatario of Ripalta. Resigned the government of the diocese before May 2, 1622. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 7, 1630 to January 8, 1631. Nominated to the metropolitan see of Salerno by King Felipe IV of Spain. Transferred to the see of Salerno, January 28, 1630. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, November 10, 1636. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati, in administrationem, March 28, 1639; retained the archdiocese of Salerno, in titulum. Resigned the title of the archdiocese before September 15, 1642.

Death. July 9, 1644, Rome. Buried in the tomb of his family in the church of S. Maria in Aracoeli, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 183; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, p. 13, 39, 46, 49, 59, 82 and 301; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturæ a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), p. 226; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 456; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 115, 153, 321, 387 and 900.

Webgraphy. The Savelli family by Norbert M. Borengässer, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon; biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; his prosopography, in German, Requiem Datenbank; his tomb, Requiem Datenbank; engravings and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) Some sources say that it seems that the nine children of Bernardino Savelli are from his second wife, Lucrezia dei Conti dell'Anguillara; the only date of birth given is that of the second child, 1575; the cardinal would be the 7th child if the order in which they are listed is chronological. This would indicate that he would have been born at least in 1580 and probably, three or four years later, which seems more in accordance to the usual age, 24 or 25 years old, in which he would have occupied his first posts. But all of this is contradicted by the information given by Baldasarre Bonifacio's third book of the Peregrinazione, about a visit to Rome in 1623, in which he described the cardinals of the time placing Cardinal Savelli among the cardinals who were between 50 and 60 years old in 1624, thus indicating that he would have been born in 1574 at the latest.
(2) One of the four Roman families traditionally most noble. The other three are Colonna, Orsini, and Conti.

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(40) 10. ORSINI, Alessandro (1592-1626)

Birth. 1592, Castle of Bracciano, near Rome. Of an ancient and noble family. Of the Bracciano branch of the family. Youngest of the eleven children of Virginio Orsini, duke of Bracciano, grande of Spain, toisón de oro, and Flavia Damasceni-Peretti, grand-niece of Pope Sixtus V. The other siblings were Paolo Giordano (duke of Bracciano), Camila (founder and prioress of the monastery of Turchine, next to S. Maria Maggiore), Isabella, Francesco (a Jesuit, director of the Novitiate of S. Andrea, Rome), Raimondo (died in infancy), Ferdinando (duke of Bracciano), Carlo (died at 16), Virginio (knight of Malta, Carmelite Discalced), Felicita and Cosimo (died in Vienna in 1619). Cousin of Cardinal Federico Sforza (1645). The family gave the church several popes and cardinals: Celestine III (1191-1198); Nicholas III (1277-1280); Benedict XIII (1724-1730); Matteo Orsini (1262); Latino Malabranca Orsini, O.P. (1278); Giordano Orsini (1278); Napoleone Orsini (1288); Francesco Napoleone Orsini (1295); Giovanni Gaetano Orsini (1316); Matteo Orsini, O.P. (1327); Rinaldo Orsini (1350); Giacomo Orsini (1371); Poncello Orsini (1378); Tommaso Orsini (1383?); Giordano Orsini, iuniore (1405); Latino Orsini (1448); Cosma Orsini, O.S.B. (1480); Giovanni Battista Orsini (1483); Franciotto Orsini (1517); Flavio Orsini (1565); Virginio Orsini, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1641); and Domenico Orsini d'Aragona (1743).

Education. Studied at the University of Siena; and at the University of Pisa.

Early life. Brought up at the court of Ferdinand I, grand duke of Tuscany, his great-uncle.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 2, 1615; received the red hat on December 5, 1615; and the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin on January 11, 1616. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Legate in Romagna, May 17, 1621. Did not participate in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII, because he was traveling in Germany. Pope Urban VIII did not grant him permission to resign the cardinalate and enter the Society of Jesus. Patron of Galileo Galilei.

Death. August 22, 1626, Bracciano. His body was transferred to Rome and buried in the church of Santissimo Nome di Gesù, next to the tomb of Cardinal St. Roberto Bellarmino, S.J.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 184-186; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, p. 13 and 53; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), VI, 706; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), VI, 707; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 366 and 809.

Webgraphy. His engraving and prosopography, in German, Requiem Datenbank; Cardinals of the Orsini Family, in English; engravings and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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(44) 11. KLESL, Melchior (1552-1630)

Birth. February 19, 1552, Vienna, Austria. Son of Melchior Klesl, a baker, and Margaretha. His parents were Lutherans. His last name is also listed as Cleselius; as Klesselio; as Khlesl; and as Klesel.

Education. Studied at the University of Vienna from 1570 to 1574; at the Jesuitenkolleg, Vienna, 1573 (philosophy and theology); and at the University of Ingolstadt, in Bavaria (doctorate in philosophy, May 29, 1579; and licentiate in theology, June 6, 1579).

Early life. Converted to Catholicism in 1573, along with his parents, by Fr. Georg Scherer, S.J., chaplain of the imperial court. Received the clerical tonsure in 1576

Sacred orders. Received the minor orders on September 7, 1577. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Breslau, February 5, 1578.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 30, 1579, Vienna, by Johann Kaspar Neuböck, bishop of Vienna. Provost of the cathedral of Vienna and chancellor of the University of Vienna. In the diocese of Passau, official and vicar general, 1580-1600; ecclesiastical judge for the Low Austrian section of the diocese, 1580. Named by Emperor Rudolf II administrator of the diocese of Wiener Neustadt, October 4, 1588 until 1630; installed, October 9, 1588. Named by the emperor and the pope general reformer for the duchy of Austria, 1590. Privy counselor of Emperor Rudolf II, 1590-1601, Prague. Named by the emperor administrator of the diocese of Vienna, February 5, 1595; because of political difficulties did not occupy the post until 1602. From 1598 to 1599 he was also in the service of Duke Matthias, the emperor's brother and imperial since 1593; became the most important advisor of the duke in 1600. Emperor Matthias I named him head of the privy council in 1612.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Vienna (1), retaining the administration of Wiener Neustadt, July 15, 1613. Consecrated, March 30, 1614, Benedictine abbey of Kremsmünster, by Placido de Marra, bishop of Melfi, nuncio in Austria, assisted by Anton Wolhath, OSB, abbot of Kremsmünster, and by Father Georg Falb, OSB.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of December 2, 1615; published in the consistory of April 9, 1616. The question of the succession to the imperial throne was the cause of his fall from power; fearing that his influence was to decrease if Archduke Ferdinand were declared heir apparent, he delayed the settlement of this question. When the Bohemians openly rebelled after the second defenestration of Prague, and he did not take effective action against them, Archdukes Max of Tyrol and Ferdinand of Steiermark had him seized on July 20, 1618, and taken to the fortress of Ambra. A few days later he was brought to the castle of Innsbruck, and a year later moved to the monastery of Georgenberg. He did not participate in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Promoted to archbishop when the see of Vienna was elevated to the rank of archdiocese on June 1, 1622. In November, 1622, Pope Gregory XV obtained his transfer to Rome, where he was confined to the Castle of Sant' Angelo for a year. The cardinal was granted freedom by the emperor in June of 1623, but he was to remain in Rome. On June 18, 1623, Cardinal Ludovico Ludovisi, vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church and nephew of His Holiness, went to the Castle of Sant'Angelo and by order of the pope, freed the cardinal, who had been detained pro controversiis cum sacra maiestate caesarea habitis (2). Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. Received the red hat and the title of S. Silvestro in Capite, November 20, 1623. Opted for the title of S. Maria della Pace, July 1, 1624. He solemnly returned to Vienna on January 25, 1628. He ordered the feast of the Immaculate Conception, December 8, to be celebrated in his dioceses as a holy day.

Death. September 18, 1630, Neustadt, Austria. Buried in the cathedral of Sankt Stefan, Vienna (3); his heart was deposited before the main altar of the cathedral of Wiener Neustadt.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 186-188; Gatz, Erwin and Brodkorb, Clemens. Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1448 bis 1648 : ein biographisches Lexicon. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1996, pp. 367-370; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, p. 368; Kerschbaumer, Anton. Cardinal Klesel, Minister-Präsident unter Kaiser Matthias. Wien : W. Braumüller, 1865; Kerschbaumer, Anton. Kardinal Klesl; eine Monographie. Wein : H. Kirsch, 1905; Kohn, Renate: "Die Grabmäler Kardinal Melchior Khlesels" in Jahrbuch des Vereins zur Geschichte der Stadt, 54 (1998), 105-125; Schleich, Rudolf John. Melchior Khlesl and the Habsburg Bruderzwist, 1605-1612. [Bronx] N.Y. : Fordham University, 1969. Microform. Thesis/dissertation/manuscript, 1968.

Webgraphy. Biography by Cölestin Wolfsgrüber, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his portrait, Annotierbares Elektronisches Interaktives Oesterreichisches Universal-Informationssystem (aeiou); his engraving by an anonymous artist, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; his engraving by Wolffgang Philipp Kilian, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; his engraving by Matthäus Merian, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; his tomb, Requiem Datenbank; his bust in the cathedral of Wiener Neustadt, Benutzung; his bust in his tomb in the cathedral of Sankt Stefan, Vienna, Annotierbares Elektronisches Interaktives Oesterreichisches Universal-Informationssystem (aeiou); engravings, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) With dispensation because his parents were heretics and he had been educated in heresy, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 368.
(2) Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 13.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

EMMINENTISVMVS. AC. REVERN.
DISS PRINCEPS. D.D. MELCHIOR. S.R.E.
TIT. S. MARIÆ. DE. PACE. CARDINALIS.
KLESELIUS.
QVONDAM.
E. S. D. N. ALVMNO. CATHEDRALIS.
ECCLÆ. S. STEPHANI. VIEN. PRÆPOSITVS.
PASSAVIENSIVM. ANTISTITIS PER AVS.
TRIAM. INFERVICARIVS GEN. INDEFES.
SVS. RELIGIONIS ORTHODOXÆ. AC
DISCIPLINÆ VNDIQVE. FERE COLLAPSÆ RES
TAVRATOR ZELOSSIS. NEO STADIEN: PRIVS. AC
PAVILO POST VIENNEN: EPVS. TANDEM PVR.
PVRATVS CELEBERRIMVS: AVGVSTISS IMPP.
RVDOLPHI II: ET MATTHIAE I: CONSIL. MAG.
NVM. ECCLÆ. LVMEN: PATER PATRIÆ SVÆ
OPTIMVS. DE REP: CHRIST: MERITISS: ÆTER
NVM NOMINIS. ET LABORVM SVORVM MONV
MENTVM PONI. ET COR SVVM HIC CONDI
VOVLIT PERAMANTER
OBDORMIVIT NEOST: IN DNO. PIE
ANNO DOM. M DC. XXX. XIII KAL.
OCYOB. ÆTATIS LXXVII: SACERDOTI
SVI. LI. EPISCOPATVVM. NEOSTAD.
XLII. VIENN: XXXVI. DIGNITATIS.
PVRPVRÆ. XIV.
BONVM CERTAMEN CERTAVIT.

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