The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Paul V (1605-1621)
Consistory of September 19, 1616 (VII)


ludovisia.tif

(42) 1. LUDOVISI, Alessandro
(1554-1623)

Birth. January 9 (1), 1554, Bologna. Son of Count Pompeo Ludovisi and Camilla Bianchini. Of a patrician family. Uncle of Cardinal Ludovico Ludovisi (1621). Cousin of Cardinal Marcantonio Gozzadini (1621).

Education. Collegio Romano, Rome (philosophy and theology); University of Bologna, Bologna (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, June 4, 1575).

Early life. Returned to Rome on June 23, 1575, and Pope Gregory XIII (1572-1585) named him judge of the Campidoglio. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and Grace, July 13, 1593. Lieutenant of Cardinal Girolamo Rusticucci, vicar of Rome, August 13, 1596. Vicegerent of Rome, April 2, 1597 until May 1598. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, August 17, 1599. Lieutenant of La Sapienza University, Rome.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Bologna, March 12, 1612. Consecrated, Tuesday May 1, 1612, church of S. Andrea al Quirinale, Rome, by Cardinal Scipione Caffarelli-Borghese, assisted by Fabio Biondi, titular patriarch of Jerusalem, and by Volpiano Volpi, archbishop of Chieti. In the same ceremony was also consecrated Profirio Feliciani, bishop of Foligno. Nuncio extraordinary to Savoy, August 13, 1616, to solve dispute between Duke Carlo Emmanuel of Savoy and King Felipe III of Spain concerning the Duchy of Monferrato.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 19, 1616; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Traspontina, December 3, 1618. Participated in the conclave of 1621 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope on February 9, 1621. Took the name Gregory XV. Crowned, February 14, 1621, patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Andrea Baroni Peretti Montalto, protodeacon of S. Maria in Via Lata. Took possession of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, May 14, 1621. On November 15, 1621, he issued the bull Æterni Patris, regulating the papal elections, which established three ways of choosing the pope: scrutiny, compromise and quasi-inspiration (2); also, the voting had to be secret and in writing. On January 6, 1622, he established the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, the missionary dicastery of the Roman Curia. Another bull, Decet Romanum Pontificem of March 12, 1622, established the ceremonial that regulated the three ways of election.

Death. July 8, 1623, Quirinale palace, Rome. Buried in the patriarchal Vatican basilica; transferred to the Annunziata chapel of Collegio Romano on June 13, 1634; and later, when its construction was finished, transferred to the church of S. Ignazio, Rome. A monument was receted to his memory in (3)

Bibliography. Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 171; Del Re, Niccolò. Il vicegerente del vicariato di Roma, Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1976, p. 50-51;Koller, Alexander. "Gregorio XV." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, 292-297; Meluzzi, Luciano. I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna. Bologna : Grafica Emiliana, 1975, (Collana storico-ecclesiastica; 3), pp. 422-429.

Links. Biography, in English; his episcopal lineage, in English; portrait, arms and biographical information, in English; and portrait with his nephew Cardinal Ludovico Ludvisi; his bust by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, private collection, Toronto; another bust by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Palazzo Venezia, Rome; his portrait by Giovanni Francesco Barbieri Guercino; his bust by Alessandro Algardi, S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome; his image on a mosaic, arms and biographical data, in German; brief biography, in German, with portrait and medal; his engraving by Matthäus Merian.

(1) Most of the sources consulted give this as the day of his birth but some also indicate that he was born on January 15 and 29.
(2)The last two forms of election were suppressed by Pope John Paul II by the apostolic constitution Universi Dominici Gregis, n. 62. The document was issued on February 21, 1996.
(3) This is the text of the inscription in his monument, kindly provided by Mr. Mark West, from London:

GREGORIO XV PONTIFICI OPT · MAX ·
SANCTISS · TOTIUS ORBIS MODERATORI
VIGILANTISS · DUM BONONIAE PRAEESSET ARCHIEPISCO QUARTO
EXACTISS PIETATIS ET OMNIGENERE VIRTUTIS CULTORI
QUI
PERPETUUS PACIS AUCTOR
SUASOR ET PROPUGNATOR
ITALIAM OB HOSTILI BARBARORUM INCURSIONE CIRCUMCLUSIT
ORTHODOXAM FIDĒ NŌ MODO SANCTAM TECTAM CURAVIT
SED LONGISSIME PROPAGAVIT ET PROPAGANDAM
SAPIENTISSIME DOCUIT
NICOLAUS S · R · ECCL · CARD · LUDOVISIUS
M · POENIT · ET · BONON · ARCHIEPUS · VII H · M · PONI VOLVIT
ANNO IUBIL MDCI

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(43) 2. AQUINO, Ladislao d' (1543-1621)

Birth. 1543 (1), Naples. Son of Francesco d'Aquino, signore of S. Nicola Manfredi, Durazzano, and Roccabascerana, and Beatrice de Guevara, of the dukes of Bovino. Brother of Antonio d'Aquino, bishop of Sarno and, later, archbishop of Taranto.

Education. Studied canon law.

Early life. Called to Rome by Pope Pius V (1566-1572) and named privy chamberlain together with some ecclesiastical benefices.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1571, Naples. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Venafro, October 20, 1581. Consecrated (no information found). Nuncio in Switzerland, 1608-1613. Nuncio in Savoy for the affairs of the Valtellina; was not received by the duke with the pretext that he was adept to the Spanish party. Named Collector of Portugal; declined because his advanced age did not allow him to navigate. Governor of Perugia, February 2, 1614.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 19, 1616; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, October 17, 1616. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV.

Death. February 12, 1621 (2), Rome. Buried in the chapel of S. Tommaso in his title.

Bibliography. Fink, Urban. Die Luzerner Nuntiatur 1586-1873 : Zur Behördengeschichte und Quellenkunde der päpstlichen Diplomatie in der Schweiz. Luzern ; Stuttgart : Rex Verlag, 1997. (Collectanea Archivi Vaticani ; Bd. 40) (Luzerner Historische Veröffentlichungen ; Bd. 32); Schreiber, H. ed., "Information des Cardinals d'Aquino für seinen Amtsnachfolger". Taschenbuch für Geschichte und Altertum in Süddeutschland, 5, (1846), pp. 223-256.

Links. Brief biography, in French; his tomb in the basilica of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome.

(1) Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 328, indicates that he was 38 years old when elected bishop in 1581; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, says that he died at 75 in 1621, and adds that Teodoro Amidenio, Vite manoscritte dei cardinali, indicates that he died at 78.
(2) Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 255, says that in the conclave of 1621, the cardinals had already agreed on his election to the pontificate when he died, after having been judged worthy of that eminent position. This is erroneous because Cardinal Alessandro Ludovisi was elected pope on February 9 and Cardinal d'Aquino died three days later on February 12.

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44) 3. BELMOSTO, Ottavio (1559-1618)

Birth. 1559, Genoa. Of a patrician family. His last name is also listed as Belmusti.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Priesthood. Ordained (no date found), Genoa.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Aleria, Corsica, July 31, 1591 (1). Vice-legate of Romagna, 1606. Resigned the government of the diocese before December 10, 1608. Prelate of the Sacred Consulta.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 19, 1616; received the red hat and the title of S. Carlo ai Catinari (2), October 17, 1616.

Death. November 16, 1618, Rome. Buried next to the main altar of his title.

Link. His tomb in S. Carlo ai Catinari, Rome.

(1) According to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 102, dispensatio super defdefectus temporis, quod non est in sacris ordinibus nisi a V mensibus, with dispensation for not having received the sacred orders even five months before.
(2) According to Cristofori, Cronotassi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, p. 178, he received the title of S. Biagio dell'Anello but in that same consistory it was suppressed and transferred to the church of S. Carlo ai Catinari.

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(45) 4. CAMPORI, Pietro (1553-1643)

Birth. 1553, Castelnovo di Garfagnana, diocese of Modena. Son of Paolo Campori and Vittoria Sandonnini. His last name is also listed as Campora, Camporus and Camporeus. Uncle of Fr. Gianmaria Campori, S.J., missionary in India.

Education. University of Pisa, Pisa (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law).

Early life Studied in Lucca; took the ecclesiastical habit and went to study in Pisa.

Priesthood. Ordained (no date found), Modena. Tried to obtain by opposition the parish of Castelnovo but failed (1). Went to Rome, where he had three brothers, and entered the court of Cesare Speciano, prelate of the Roman Curia, later bishop of Novara and Cremona, and nuncio in Spain and Austria. Accompanied Nuncio Speciano to Spain as auditor and later as secretary. Accompanied Nuncio Speciano to his nunciature in Austria, 1592-1597; participated in the Diet of Ratisbon in 1594. Canon of the cathedral church of Cremona. Returned to Rome in 1607. Pope Paul V elected him secretary of his nephew Cardinal Scipione Borghese-Caffarelli, and later, intendent of the Borghese family. Commendatore of the Archhospital S. Spirito in Sassia, Rome.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 19, 1616; received the red hat and the title of S. Tommaso in Parione, October 17, 1616. Pope Paul V called him Oracolo della Curia. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV (2).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Cremona, March 17 (3), 1621. Consecrated, May 16, 1621, Rome, by Cardinal Giovanni Battista Leni, assisted by Giovanni Luigi Pasolini, bishop of Segni, and by Fabrizio Landriani, bishop of Pavia. In the same ceremony were consecrated Cardinal Giulio Roma, bishop of Recanati e Loreto, and Cardinal Desiderio Scaglia, bishop of Melfi. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII.

Death. February 4, 1643, Cremona. Buried on the right side of the altar of S. Pietro in the cathedral of Cremona.

Bibliography. Bernabei, Nicola. Vita del Cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena e biografie dei cardinali modenesi e di Casa d'Este, dei cardinali vescovi di Modena e di quelli educati in questo Collegio di San Carlo. Modena : Tipografica Rossi, 1885, pp. 198-204; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), pp. 190-191; Sanclemente, Enrico. Series critico-chronologica episcoporvm cremonensivm svb avspiciis prætantissimi antistitis Homoboni Offredi ex authenticis monvmentis avcta et emendata svaqve integritati maxima ex parte restitvta. Cremonæ : apvd Josephvm Feraboli, MDCCCXIV, p. 169-170.

(1) Bernabei, Vita del Cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena e biografie dei cardinali modenesi e di Casa d'Este, dei cardinali vescovi di Modena e di quelli educati in questo Collegio di San Carlo, p. 200, indicates that the other applicant was Pellegrino Bertacchi, future bishop of Modena, and that although both did the examination con lode, Rome judged Bertacchi more favorably.
(2) According to the chronicle of the conclave in his Memoirs, p. 345, Marquis François-Annibal d'Estrées says that Cardinal Campori was the principal candidate of the Borghese party to succeed Pope Paul V.
(3) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 13; the same source, IV, 167, says that he was elected on May 17, which is impossible since he was consecrated the day before; Sanclemente, Series critico-chronologica episcoporvm cremonensivm, p. 169, says that he was elected on March 17, 1621.

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(46) 5. PRIULI, Matteo (1577-1624)

Birth. 1577 (1), Venice. Eldest of the five children of the future doge of Venice Antonio Priuli, who governed from 1618 to 1623, and Elena Barbarigo. The other siblings were Michele, Agostino (bishop of Bergamo), Girolamo and Adriana (wife of Venetian Doge Francesco Cornaro). His last name is also listed as Prioli. Other cardinals of the family were Lorenzo Priuli (1596); Pietro Priuli (1706); Luigi Priuli (1712); and Antonio Marino Priuli (1758).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Called to Rome by the pope, he was named chamberlain of honor.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 19, 1616; received the red hat and the title of S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni, October 17, 1616 (2). Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Opted for the title of S. Marco, June 23, 1621 (3). Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII.

Death. March 13, 1624, Rome. Buried next to the main altar in his title.

Bibliography. Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 779.

(1) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 192-193, which indicates that he died in 1624 at 47. Enciclopedia italiana di scienze, lettere ed arti, indicates that he was born in 1583.
(2) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 192-193, says that although he had a temperamento sano e robusto, creato appena Cardinale, cominciò a dare in cattiva disposizione, per cui ridottosi ad estrema debolezza, healthy and robust temperament, shortly after being created cardinal, he started to have a wicked disposition by which he reduced himself to extreme weakness.
(3) Some sources indicate that he was elected bishop of Bergamo in 1622 but never occupied the post. He is not mentioned in the episcopal catalog of Bergamo in Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi, IV, 113.

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(47) 6. COBELLUZZI, Scipione (1564-1626)

Birth. 1564, Viterbo. Other cardinals members of his family were Girolamo Bernerio, O.P. (1586), Francesco Cennini de' Salamandri (1621) and Desiderio Scaglia, O.P. (1621).

Education. Collegio Nardini, Rome; Archgymnasium of Rome, Rome.

Early life. Worked in the Roman Curia. Entered the service of Alessandro Gloriero, president of the Annona. Later, entered the service of Cardinal Girolamo Bernerio, O.P. Cardinal Pompeio Arrigoni obtained for him the post of secretary of Apostolic Briefs (1).

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 19, 1616; received the red hat and the title of S. Susanna, October 17, 1616. Librarian of the Holy Roman Church, February 17, 1618 until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII.

Death. June 29, 1626 (2), Rome. Buried in his title of S. Susanna (3).

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 690-691; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 193-195; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 13 and 50.

Link. His tomb in S. Susanna, Rome.

(1) This is according to Hiearchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 13; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 193, refers to the post as Secretary of Latin Letters.
(2) This is according to Hierarchia Catholic Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 13; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 194, says that he died in 1627 at 62. His epitaph, note 3, below, also indicates that he died in 1627 at 62.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 690:

D. O. M.
SCIPIONI. COBELLVTIO. VITERBIENSI.
SANCTÆ. SVZANNÆ CARDINALI BIBLIOTHECARIO.
ECCLESIASTICÆ. LIBERTATIS. ET. DIGNITATIS. RETINENTISSIMO.
IN QVEM. HOC. ELOGIVM. ROMA. CONSENTIT.
LITTERIS. CONCILIATRICIBVS.
PURPURAM ADEPTVM. ESSE.
PERPETVO. LITTERATORVM. PATROCINIO.
GRATIAM. LITTERIS REDDIDISSE.
FRUCTVM. POTENTIÆ.
OPPORTVNITATE. BENE. MERENDI. DE PLURIBUS.
ÆSTIMASSE.
COLLEGIVM. VITERBIENSE. SOCIET. JESV.
TESTAMENTO. HÆRES. POSVIT.
OBIIT. ANNO. DOMINI. M. DC. XXVIII.
ÆTATIS LXII.

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