The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Paul V (1605-1621)
Consistory of January 11, 1621 (X)
Celebrated in Rome


(51) 1. CENNINI DE' SALAMANDRI, Francesco (1566-1645)

Birth. November 21, 1566, Sarteano, diocese of Siena. Of the ancient and noble family of the marquises of Castiglioncello del Trinoro. Second of the two children of Curzio Cennini and Iacoma Franceschi. The other child was Roberto. From the fifteenth century the family became known with the last name Salamandri. Uncle of Domenico Cennini, bishop of Gravina (1645-1684). Other cardinals members of his family were Girolamo Bernerio, O.P. (1586), Scipione Cobelluzzi (1616) and Desiderio Scaglia, O.P. (1621).

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iureat the University of Siena.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1591. Parish priest in Sarteano. Archpriest and vicar general of the diocese of Chiusi. Went to Rome to work in the Curia as advocate. Entered the court of Cardinal Girolamo Bernieri, O.P., as auditor. Later, he became auditor of Cardinal Scipione Caffarelli-Borghese.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Amelia, October 1, 1612. Consecrated (no information found). His motto was Laedit, non laeditur. Obtained the sigillo of the Apostolic Penitentiary. Prelate of the SS.CC. of the Sacred Consulta and of Good Government. In charge of the finances of the pope and of his nephew Cardinal Caffarelli-Borghese. Governor of Rome for eight years. Nuncio in Spain, July 17, 1618 until January 1621. Promoted to the titular patriarchate of Jerusalem, retaining the see of Amelia, December 17, 1618. He was granted the pallium on March 4, 1619.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 11, 1621. Did not participate in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Received the red hat on March 27, 1621; and the title of S. Marcello April 19, 1621. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. Transferred to the see of Faenza, October 2, 1623. Legate in Ferrara, November 12, 1623 until April 5, 1627. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, February 25, 1641. Resigned the government of the see of Faenza before May 4, 1643. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, September 1644 until his death. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, March 6, 1645. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Prefect of the S.C. of Waters.

Death. October 2, 1645, Rome. Buried at the foot of the tomb of Pope Paul V in the Chapel Paolina, patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 198-201; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 14, 37, 38, 44, 81, 185 and 203; Re, Nicola del. "I cardinali prefetti della sacra congregazione del concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), p. 117-118; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 220.

Links. Biography by Gaspare De Caro, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 23 (1979), Treccani; his tomb in the church of S. Marcello, Rome, erected by his nephew, Requiem Datenbank; his portrait by Giovanni Francesco Barbieri, called Guercino, Samuel H. Kress Collection, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., United States; his portrait, engravings, motto and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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(52) 2. BENTIVOGLIO, Guido (1579-1644)

Birth. October 4, 1579, Ferrara (1). Of the Ferrarese branch of the Bentivoglio family from Bologna. Son of Cornelio Bentivoglio, marquis of Gualtieri, and his second wife, Isabella Bendedei, from Ferrara. Grand-uncle of Cardinal Cornelio Bentivoglio (1719). He is also listed as Guidus Bentivolus.

Education. Studied at the University of Ferrara; and at the University of Padua, from 1594-1598, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, in 1598.

Early life. Named privy chamberlain of Pope Clement VIII during a visit of the pope to Ferrara. Went to Rome in 1600. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, May 1, 1605. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, 1606 until December 1620.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Rodi (also called Colosse), with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age for three months and not having yet received the sacred orders, May 14, 1607. Consecrated, Sunday May 27, 1607, Rome, by Cardinal Ludovico de Torres, assisted by Metello Bichi, bishop of Sovana, and by Alessandro Morghi, bishop of Borgo San Sepolcro. Nuncio in Flanders, June 1, 1607 until October 24, 1615. Nuncio in France, July 9 (2), 1616 until his promotion to the cardinalate, which he obtained through the good offices of King Louis XIII of France.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 11, 1621. Did not participate in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Received the red hat on April 22, 1621; and the title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, May 17, 1621. Protector of French interests in Rome until 1641. Transferred to the see of Riez, July 11, 1622. Resigned the government of the diocese before September 15, 1625. Opted for the title of S. Maria del Popolo, October 26, 1622. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 8, 1631 until January 19, 1632. One of the cardinals that signed the sentence condemning Galileo Galilei in 1633. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, May 7, 1635. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, March 28, 1639. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, July 1, 1641. Entered the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X, and died during its celebration (3).

Death. September 7, 1644, during the conclave, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Silvestro nel Quirinale, Rome, without monument or inscription.

Bibliography. Belvederi, Raffaele. Guido Bentivoglio e la politica europea del suo tempo 1607-1621. Padova : Liviana editrice, 1962; Bentivoglio, Guido. Histoire des guerres de Flandre. A Paris : chez Desaint, 1769. Note: Translation of: Della guerra di Fiandra, which was originally published at Cologne, 1632-39. Responsibility: par le cardinal Bentivoglio, traduite de l'Italien par m. Loiseau l'ainé, chanoine de l'eglise d'Orléans; Bentivoglio, Guido. Memorie del cardinal Guido Bentivoglio ; con correzioni e varianti dell' edizione d'Amsterdam del 1648, aggiuntevi cinquantotto lettere inedite tratte dall' archivio del cav. Carlo Morbio. 3 vols. Milano : G. Daelli, 1864; Bentivoglio, Guido. La nunziatura di Francia del cardinale Guido Bentivoglio. 4 vols. Edited by Luigi Steffani. Firenze : F. Le Monnier, 1863-1870. Bentivoglio, Guido and Barotti, Lorenzo. Opere storiche del cardinal Bentivoglio ... 5 vols. Milano : Società tipografica de' classici italiani, 1806-1807. (Classici italiani ; v. 184-188). Contents: v. 1. Relazioni.--v. 2-4. Della guerra di Fiandra.--v. 5. Memorie; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 203-206; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 163; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, p. 11, 38, 43, 46, 48 and 296; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), V, 88.

Links. The Bentivoglio family by Nicholas Weber, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English, Encyclopaedia Britannica; biography by Alberto Merola, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 8 (1966), Treccani; his portrait by Anthony Van Dyck, Pitti Gallery, Florence, Italy, Olga's Gallery; and his prosopography, in German, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is according to his second biography in English, the site on his family and his brief biography, all linked above. His prosopography, also linked above, indicates that he was born in 1577.
(2) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 296; his prosopography, linked above, says that he was named on September 8.
(3) Several sources indicate that if he had not died during the conclave, he would have probably been elected to the papacy.

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(53) 3. VALIER, Pietro (1574-1629)

Birth. 1574, Venice. Of a patrician family. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Bernardo Navagero (1561). Nephew of Cardinal Agostino Valier (1583). His last name is also listed as Valerio, Valiero, Valieri and Valerius.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Governor of San Severino, 1609. Governor of Todi, 1610. Governor of Orvieto, 1610-1614.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Famagusta, May 18, 1611. Consecrated (no information found). Governor of Spoleto, February 28, 1614 until 1616. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Creta (1), May 18, 1620.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 11, 1621. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Received the red hat on January 14, 1621; and the title of S. Salvatore in Lauro, March 3, 1621. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. Transferred to the see of Ceneda, October 2, 1623. Opted for the title of S. Marco, March 18, 1624. Transferred to the see of Padua, August 18, 1625.

Death. April 9 (2), 1629, Padua. Buried in the chapel of the canons of the cathedral of S. Maria Assunta, Padua.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 206=208; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 14, 44, 49, 144, 168 and 275;

Link. His bust by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Pinacoteca Patriarcale, Venice, Italy, The Bridgeman Art Library; engravings and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This see is also known as Candia.
(2) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 14, 44 and 275, and the same source on the same page also says that he died on April 5.

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zollern2.tif

(54) 4. HOHENZOLLERN-SIGMARINGEN, Eitel Friedrich von
(1582-1625)

Birth. September 25, 1582, Sigmaringen. Third son of Count Karl II von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and his first wife, Countess Euphrosyne von Oettingen-Wallerstein. He is also listed as Itelius Fridericus a Zollern; and his last name as Zollern-Sigmaringen. He was destined to the ministry when he was a boy.

Education. When he was thirteen years old, he was sent to study at the Jesuit school in Porrentruy, diocese of Basel.

Sacred orders. He received the minor orders in 1595.

Priesthood. Presumably, in Basel, he was ordained a priest (no further information found). In 1599, after the resignation of Count Johann von Hohenzollern, he obtained a canonship at the metropolitan chapter in Cologne. In the same year, he began his studies in Rome. In 1600, Pope Clement VIII, at the request of his father, appointed Fr. Eitel privy chamberlain of honor. He stayed in Rome until 1604. In 1601, he became a canon of the cathedral chapters of Eichstätt and Strasbourg; in 1602, of the cathedral chapter of Mainz, which he resigned in 1616; and in 1603, of the cathedral chapter of Salzburg. After returning to Germany, he was considered a close confidant of the papal curia; and since 1606, he received encrypted correspondence. In Cologne, he was named chorbishop in 1604. From 1611 to 1623, he was pastor of St. Andreas in Cologne. In 1612, he became provost at Magdeburg (by papal commission) and in Cologne; in 1618, at Strasbourg. He was an influential supporter of the reform efforts of the nuncios in Cologne, Attilio Amalteo and Antonio Albergati, and of its archbishop, Ferdinand of Bavaria. Provost Eitel won the confidence of the emperor and the House of Wittelsbach. In Cologne, he founded the Capuchin monastery; the Fraternity of the Cross (Kreuzbruderschaft); and the seminary. He was member of a group which, under the chairmanship of the papal nuncio, was the center of all reform efforts in Cologne. At the request of Emperor Ferdinand II, he was promoted to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 11, 1621 (1). Did not participate in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Received the red hat on November 23, 1621; and the title of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna, December 15, 1621. He was appointed member of the newly established S.C. of Propaganda Fide.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Osnabrück by its cathedral chapter, April 19, 1623; preconized, October 2, 1623. Consecrated, October 29, 1623, church of S. Apollinare, Rome, by Attilio Amaltei, titular archbishop of Atena, former nuncio in Cologne, assisted by Giulio Sansedoni, bishop of Grosseto, and by Ludovico Sarego, bishop of Adria. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. In 1623, he appointed Albert Lucenius vicar-general of the diocese. The Gregorian calendar was introduced through the cathedral chapter on November 14/24, 1624; and then by the City Council on January 6, 1625. He was enthroned on December 15, 1624. Vicar general Lucenius conducted further reforms and the the clergy was required to follow the teachings of Council of Trent. Adherents of the Augsburg Confession had to leave the country. In 1625, took place in Osnabrück, a general synod, in which were announced the decisions of the Council of Trent for the second time. The cardinal received support from the Jesuits, whom he entrusted in 1625, with the consent of the cathedral chapter, with the direction of the Cathedral School "Gymnasium Carolinum". In 1625, Pope Urban VIII recommended the cardinal to the emperor as a candidate for the vacant see of Brixen, but the cardinal died unexpectedly.

Death. September 19, 1625, ex febri, quae venis lethalier incubuerat, of a fever that became a lethargy, in his residence in Schloß Iburg. Buried next to the main altar of the cathedral of Osnabrück.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 208-209; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 199-200; Feldkamp, Michael F. "Eitel Friedrich, Graf von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1582-1625)." Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1448 bis 1648 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz, unter Mitwirkung von Clemens Brodkorb. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1996, p 149-150; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, p. 14, 44 and 267.

Links. His engraving and biography, in German, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; his genealogy, A4, EU Genealogy.

(1) This is according to Gauchet, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris AeviVI, p. 14. Feldkamp,"Eitel Friedrich, Graf von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1582-1625)." Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1448 bis 1648 : ein biographisches Lexikon, p 149, says that he was created cardinal and reserved in pectore on December 15, 1620; and that he was published on January 11, 1621.

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(55) 5. NOGARET DE LA VALETTE, Louis de (1593-1639)

Birth. February 8, 1593, Angoulême, France. Third son of Jean-Louis de Nogaret, duke of Éspernon, and Marguerite de Foix, countess of Candale and d'Astarac. Also known as Cardinal La Valette. He entered the ecclesiastical state more because of his father's will than because of vocation.

Education. Studied at the Jesuit Collège de La Flèche, Paris; and at La Sorbonne University, Paris (philosophy).

Early life. In 1599, when he was six years old, obtained the abbey of Grandselve. In 1612 he resigned the abbey in favor of Cardinal François de Joyeuse, who ceded him the archdiocese of Toulouse in exchange. Abbot of Saint-Victor de Marseille, Saint-Victor de Metz, Saint-Sernin, Saint-Mélaine de Rennes, de la Grasse, de Berdouesand and Gard-sur-la Somme. Prior of Saint-Martin des Champs. Received the clerical tonsure. Almoner of King Louis XIII of France. Promoted to the cardinalate at the request of the French king.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Toulouse, August 26, 1613. Never received the episcopal consecration. Commander of the order of Saint-Esprit. Abbot of Grandselve again in 1616.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of January 11, 1621. Did not participate in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Did not participate in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. Received the red hat on October 5, 1623; and the deaconry of S. Adriano, November 20, 1623. Royal counselor and first almoner ordinary of the king. Resigned the government of the archdiocese before May 17, 1627. Pursued a military career. In 1630, when Queen Maria de' Medici and Gaston d'Orléns obtained from King Louis XIII the promise to dismiss Cardinal Armand-Jean du Plessis de Richelieu, and everything seemed to be lost for the prime minister, Cardinal de Nogaret, who had an absolute loyalty for Richelieu (1), decidedly recommended him to follow the king to Versailles and make a final effort to regain his confidence. The cardinal prime minister followed the advice, changed the king's mind and kept his post. Cardinal Richelieu named him lieutenant general of the royal armies and governor of Anjou in 1631; Metz in 1634; and Messin. Commander of the French troops in Germany, 1635; then in Picardie, 1637; and finally in Italy, 1638, where he died (2). Abbot of Lérins, 1637, which was separated from the congregation of Monte Cassino and united to that of Saint-Maur.

Death. September 27, 1639, da violenta malattia che fece sospettare di veleno (3), Rivoli, a castle near Turin. Buried in the castle of Cadillac of his family.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 201-203; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 14, 50 and 340.

Links. His portrait by Jean-Pierre Franque, Museum Châteaux de Versailles et de Trianon; engravings, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) His father, who disliked and opposed Cardinal Richelieu, indignantly referred to him as "cardinal valet" of the "cardinal-minister".
(2) According to Dictionnaire des cardinaux, cols. 1061-1062, he was a mediocre general who owed his position to the confidence and support of Cardinal Richelieu. He was arrogant and ambitious like his father and joined his lavishness to his disorderly conduct. His liaisons with Princess de Condé were the subject of an evident scandal.
(3) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 202, "of a violent illness that raised suspicion of poisoning".

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(56) 6. ROMA, Giulio (1584-1652)

Birth. September 16, 1584, Milan. Of a noble family. Fourth of the sixteen children of Paolo Camillo Roma and Caterina Coria. Some of the other children were Egidio (governor of Mortara), Cesare (knight of Malta) and Gregorio.

Education. Studied at the University of Pavia; and at the University of Perugia.

Early life. Entered the court of Cardinal Federico Borromeo, archbishop of Milan. Went to Rome and had an audience with Pope Paul V, who asked him to move to that city and named him a consistorial lawyer in 1607; while in this post, he worked in the process of canonization of St. Carlo Borromeo. Governor of Iesi, 1617. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, March 15, 1617. Governor of Orvieto, 1618. Governor of Camerino, August-December 1619. Governor of the city of Perugia in the province of Umbria, December 11, 1619 until January 23, 1621.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 11, 1621. Received the red hat on January 14, 1621. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Received the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva on March 3, 1621.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Recanati e Loreto, March 17, 1621. Consecrated, Sunday May 16, 1621, patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Giovanni Battista Leni, assisted by Giovanni Luigi Pasolini, bishop of Segni, and by Fabrizio Landriani, bishop of Pavia. In the same ceremony were consecrated Cardinal Pietro Campori, bishop of Cremona, and Cardinal Desiderio Scaglia, bishop of Melfi. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. Transferred to the see of Tivoli, August 21, 1634. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, March 28, 1639. President of the commission that reduced the Order of Clerics Regular of the Christian Schools (Piarists) to an ordinary congregation, 1643-1645. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati, July 13, 1644. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, October 23, 1645. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia and Velletri, proper of the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, April 29, 1652.

Death. September 16, 1652, on the same day and time of his birth (1), Rome. Buried in the church of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 209-212; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), pp. 190-191; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 14, 37, 39, 45, 48, 293 and 337; Martinelli, Raffaello. Le Lapidi di San Carlo al Corso : catechesi in immagini. Roma : Arciconfraternità dei SS. Ambrogio e Carlo, 2007. (Arciconfraternità dei SS. Ambrogio e Carlo), p. 47; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 815.

Links. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; his portrait, engravings and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) According to his epitaph in Historia ampliata di Tivoli by Francesco Martii (ed. Roma, 1665), p. 66:

Hic Iacet
Iulius Cardinalis Roma S. R. E. Cardinalis
Episcopus Ostiensis & Tiburtinus Sacri Collegij Decanus
Vixit annos 68, eadem qua natus die, & hora,
obijt 16 Septemb. 1652.
Nudam hanc inscriptionem uti testamento
praescriptam in fraternae modestiae, ac propriae obedientiae
Monumentum Gregorius Roma posuit.

This is the text, with slight variations, taken from a photograph of the epitaph, in Martinelli, Le Lapidi di San Carlo al Corso : catechesi in immagini, p. 47:

HIC IACET
IULIUS ROMA MEDIOLANEN S·R·E· CARDINALIS
EPISCOPVS OSTIEN ET TIBVRTIN SACRI COLLEGII DECANVS
VIX ANN LXVIII EADEM QVA NATVS DIE AC HORA OBIIT XVI SEPTEM MDCLII
NVDAM HANC INSCRIPTIONEM UTI TESTAMENTO PRÆCRIPTAM
IN FRATERNA MODESTIÆ AC PROPIÆOBEDIENTIÆ MONUMENTVM
GREGORIVS ROMA POSVIT

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(57) 7. GHERARDI, Cesare (1577-1623)

Birth. 1577, Fossato di Vico, diocese of Nocera. Of a family originally from Perugia. Eldest child of Ludovico di Gherardo, doctor in law, and Silvestra di David.

Education. Studied at the University of Perugia; and at the University of Fermo, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on June 27, 1602.

Early life. Shortly after graduation, he became lector of canon law at the University of Perugia; on June19, 1603, he obtained the chair of civil law at that university, which he occupied until 1611. Like his father, he received the honorary citizenship of Perugia. In 1612, from where he moved to Fermo, where he occupied the chair of canon law at its university until 1618. Went to Rome and submitted his name to Cardinal Scipione Caffarelli-Borghese, who needed an auditor; he obtained the post and immediately received the presbyterate.

Priesthood. 1618, Rome. Canon of the patriarchal Liberian basilica in 1618. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, April 21, 1619. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, June 12, 1619. Prelate of the Sacred Consulta.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 11, 1621. Received the red hat on January 14, 1621. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Received the title of S. Pietro in Montorio, March 3, 1621. Because his patrimony was somewhat lower than that of a cardinal, he was awarded the bishopric of Camerino.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Camerino, May 2, 1622. Consecrated, May 22, 1622, patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Scipione Caffarelli-Borghese, assisted by Raffaele Inviziati, bishop of Zante, and by Cesare Ventimilia, bishop of Terracina. He went to visit his diocese, promoting the restoration of the cathedral, which he endowed with precious vestments and a pulpit. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII; on August 4, he had to leave the conclave because of having contracted malaria; the new pope was elected two days later. On September 19, 1623, he made his testament and left 1500 scudi to his nephew Giovanni Battista. He was able to support the Borghese without creating enemies among their opponents and administered sparingly his income, while maintaining the style of an academic life. He tried to expand his interest in history and archeology of his homeland.

Death. September 30, 1623, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Francesco a Ripa (1), where a modest monument was erected with his effigy painted on a canvas and his family's arms. There are inscriptions in his honor at the palace of the University of Fermo and in the house where he was born in Fossato di Vico.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 212-213; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 195; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 14, 47 and 131; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XXIX, 184.

Links. Biography by Dario Busolini, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 53 (2000), Treccani; Fossato nel Tempo, contains a brief biography in Italian, searching by his name; his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his tomb in the church of S. Francesco a Ripa, Rome, Requiem Datenbank; Saintly relics and remains within primitive Rome parish restored, church of S. Francisco a Ripa, Rome Reports, 2013-08-09 16:41:14.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D O M
CAESARI GHERARDO PERVSINO
S. R. E. S. PETRI IN MONTE AVREO
PRAESB. CARD.
QVEM
PERVSIAE FIRMIQVE XX ANN.
IVS CAN. INTERPRETANTEM
A SCIPIONE CARD. BVRGHESIO
ROMAM EVOCATVM
AVDIENDISQVE APVD SE CAVSIS
PRAEFECTVM
PAVLVS V PONT. MAX.
INTER VATICANI CANONICOS
ET VTRIVSQ. SIGNATVRAE PATRES
RETVLIT
ATQVE IN AMPLISS. COLLEGIVM
COOPTAVIT
GREG. XV
CAMERTIBVS PRAESVLEM DEDIT
MORS AN. XLVI NONDVM EXACTO
PRID. KAL. OCTOBRIS MDCXXIII
RAPVIT
DOMINICVS GHERARDVS MOESTISS.
B.M.P.

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(58) 8. SCAGLIA, O.P., Desiderio (1567-1639)

Birth. 1567, Cremona. Of a family originally from Brescia (1). Uncle of Deodato Scaglia, bishop of Alessandria. Other cardinals members of his family were Girolamo Bernerio, O.P. (1586), Scipione Cobelluzi (1616) and Francesco Cennini de' Salamandri (1621). He was commonly known as the cardinal of Cremona.

Education. Entered the Order of Preachers (Dominicans) at a young age. (No further educational information found).

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Professor in Dominican houses of study in Cremona and other cities of Lombardy. Regarded as one of the most distinguished theologians and famous preachers of his time (2). Named inquisitor in the dioceses of Pavia, Cremona and Milan during the pontificate of Pope Clement VIII. Called to Rome and named commissary of the Holy Inquisition, 1616.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 11, 1621. Received the red hat on January 14, 1621. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Received the title of S. Clemente, March 3, 1621.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Melfi e Rapolla, March 17, 1621. Consecrated, Sunday May 16, 1621, patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Giovanni Battista Leni, assisted by Giovanni Luigi Pasolini, bishop of Segni, and by Fabrizio Landriani, bishop of Pavia. In the same ceremony were consecrated Cardinal Pietro Campori, bishop of Cremona, and Cardinal Giulio Roma, bishop of Loreto. Transferred to the see of Como, November 14, 1622. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. Resigned the government of the diocese before January 7, 1626. Opted for the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, February 9, 1626. Opted for the title of S. Carlo al Corso, October 6, 1627. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 1632 (3) until January 10, 1633.

Death. August 21, 1639, at 9 a.m., Rome. Buried on August 23, 1639, in his title, S. Carlo al Corso.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 213-216; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), pp. 190-191; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 14-15, 40, 41, 59, 157 and 238; Rangoni Gàl, Fiorenza. Fra' Desiderio Scaglia Cardinale di Cremona. Un collezionista inquisitore nella Roma del Seicento. Gravedona (CO) : Nuova Editrice Delta, 2008.

(1) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 213; the site of the Museo Civico di Cremona, at the end of p. 5, indicates the opposite, that he was born in Brescia of a family originally from Cremona.
(2) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 213.
(3) Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 59, does not indicate the day in which he was named camerlengo but says that he signed a consistorial act as occupant of the post for the first time on February 16, 1632.

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(59) 9. PIGNATELLI, Stefano (1578-1623)

Birth. 1578, Piegaro, diocese of Perugia. His father was a pottery maker.

Education. Initial studies in Rome; later, he studied law at the University of Perugia.

Early life. He was called to Rome by an uncle, where he did his initial studies. Returned to Perugia to study law and there he became a close friend of future Cardinal Scipione Caffarelli-Borghese, who called him to Rome when his (Caffarelli-Borghese's) uncle was elected Pope Paul V in 1605. Entered the court of Cardinal Caffarelli-Borghese. Named protonotary apostolic in 1605. He exercised such an ascendency over the cardinal that produced jealousy and envy among the courtesans, who spread calumnies causing the cardinals and ambassadors to accuse Monsignor Stefano of despicable vices before the pope, who ordered him to leave the household of Cardinal Caffarelli-Borghese. The banning of Monsignor Stefano caused Cardinal Caffarelli-Borghese a great melancholy and he became ill with a long and serious malady. The cardinal asked the monsignor to assist him in his illness and the latter did it with such care and diligence that moved the pope to allow him to return to the court. After the cardinal recovered, Monsignor Stefano entered the ecclesiastical state. The cardinal obtained several benefices, a prelature and the commission of relevant affairs for the monsignor, who gained the trust of the pontiff and advised him in serious matters. Fearing his promotion to the cardinalate, the enemies of Monsignor Stefano again gratuitously accused him before the pope of great vices. Cardinal Caffarelli-Borghese defended the innocence of his friend demonstrating the probity and moderation of life of the monsignor as did numerous cardinals of great prestige after serious scrutiny, ably dispelling any doubt that the pope may have had and thus, the promotion to the cardinalate took place.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 11, 1621. Received the red hat on January 14, 1621. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Received the title of S. Maria in Via, March 3, 1621. Knowing the dislike of the new pope towards him he retired to Morlupo, a fiefdom of the Borghese family. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. He became ill during the celebration of the conclave and when it ended, he returned to Morlupo trying to recover his health.

Death. August 12, 1623, of febbre acuta, in Morlupo. His body was transported to Rome and buried in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, without any memorial monument. He was a protector of the arts and music.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 216-218; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 15 and 46; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LIII, 50-51.

Links. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; engravings and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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(60) 10. SPÍNOLA, Agustín (1597-1649)

Birth. 1597, Genoa. Second of the five children of Ambrogio Spinola and Giovanetta Baciadonne Doria. The other siblings were Giovanni Giacomo, Filippo (president of the Council of Flanders), Maria and Polissena (wife of Diego Felipe Guzmán, governor of Milan) (1). His first name is also listed as Agostino; and his last name as Spinola Basadone. Other cardinals of the various branches of the Spinola family were Agostino Spinola (1527); Filippo Spinola (1583); Orazio Spinola (1606); Giandomenico Spinola (1626); Giulio Spinola (1666); Giambattista Spinola, seniore (1681); Giambattista Spinola, iuniore (1695); Niccolò Spinola (1715); Giorgio Spinola (1719); Giovanni Battista Spinola (1733); Girolamo Spinola (1759); Ugo Pietro Spinola (1831).

Education. Studied grammar in Alcalá de Henares; and later studied at the University of Salamanca, becoming and excellent canonist and theologian.

Early life. As a very young child was a menino for five years in the court of Queen Margarita in Madrid. After finishing his studies, went back to Madrid. The death of his mother made him resolve to follow his ecclesiastical vocation.

Sacred orders. Received the sacred orders from Iñigo de Brizuela, bishop of Segovia. He lived in Alcalá de Henares for sometime. Protonotary apostolic. He was promoted to the cardinalate at the request of King Felipe III of Spain.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of January 11, 1621. Did not participate in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tortosa, March 5, 1623. Consecrated, June 30, 1623, at the Royal Chapel, Madrid, by Andrés Pacheco, bishop of Cuenca, general inquisitor, assisted by Alonso Requeséns Fenollet, titular bishop of Rosanensis, and by Antonio Govea, O.S.A., titular bishop of Cirene. Did not participate in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. Received the red hat on November 23, 1623; and the deaconry of Ss. Cosma e Damiano on December 18, 1623. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Granada, September 7, 1626; on that same day he was granted the pallium. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Santiago de Compostela, October 23, 1630. Went to Rome in November 1630 and resided there until 1635. Granted the pallium on November 13, 1630. Opted for the order of priests and the title of S. Bartolomeo all'Isola, March 24, 1631. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 10, 1632 to January 9, 1633. Called to the court in Madrid in 1637, he was named state counselor. In June 1642, he accompanied the king to the Jornada de Aragón. Returned to Compostela in 1643. Acting governor and captain general of Galicia for three months in 1643. Did not participate in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Sevilla, January 16, 1645. He was granted the pallium on February 6, 1646. He baptized the Infante of Spain, son of King Felipe IV. He was famous for his piety, wisdom and generosity toward the neediest, distributing among them 30,000 scudi yearly.

Death. February 12, 1649, Seville. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Santa Maria de la Sede, Sevilla (2). In his will, he left parts of a villa, which he had inherited and was in his mother's dowry, to his relatives; and the rest of his patrimony he gave to the poor.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 218-219; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 15, 40, 51, 59, 158, 174, 196 and 204; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LVIII, 294-295; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 915.

Links. His genealogy, VII, 3, AbcGenealogia.com; and his his engravings and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Weber, Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte, II, 915. His genealogy, linked above, says that he was the youngest of three children. The other two werew Filippo and Pollisena.
(2) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 219. His biographical article in Enciclopedia Universal Ilustrada Europeo-Americana, LVII, 832, indicates that he was buried in the church of the Professed House of the Society of Jesus in Seville; and in 1710, following his will, his body was transferred to the church of the Seminario y Colegio de la Inmaculada Concepción, of the same order, also in Seville, popularly known as de las Becas.

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