The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Paul V (1605-1621)
Consistory of January 11, 1621 (X)
Celebrated in Rome


(51) 1. CENNINI DE' SALAMANDRI, Francesco (1566-1645)

Birth. November 21, 1566, Sarteano, diocese of Siena. Of the ancient and noble family of the marquises of Castiglioncello del Trinoro. Younger of the two children of Curzio Cennini and Iacoma Franceschi. The other child was Roberto (marquis of Castiglione di Chiusi). From the fifteenth century the family became known with the last name Salamandri. Uncle of Domenico Cennini, bishop of Gravina (1645-1684). Other cardinals members of his family were Girolamo Bernerio, O.P. (1586), Scipione Cobelluzzi (1616) and Desiderio Scaglia, O.P. (1621). Cousin of Domenico Cennini, bishop of Gravina. His last name is also listed as Cennini only.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure at the University of Siena.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1591. In that same year, he received from Bishop Ludovico Martelli of Chiusi the benefice of the parish church of S. Vittoria fuori le mura in Sarteano. This concession was contested by Camaldolese Anselmo Venturi, whose case was supported by the tribunal of the Sacred Holy Roman Rota. To compensate him for the lost benefit, the bishop named Father Cennini archpriest of the cathedral of Chiusi and vicar general of the diocese. After a few years, he went to Rome to work in the Curia as advocate. Entered the court of Cardinal Girolamo Bernieri, O.P., as auditor. Later, after the death of Cardinal Bernieri in 1611, he entered the service of Cardinal Scipione Caffarelli-Borghese; and in 1612, when the cardinal's auditor, Bishop Antonio Maria Franceschini of Amelia, died, Francesco became auditor and bishop of that see.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Amelia, October 1, 1612. Consecrated, October 21, 1612, church of S. Biagio in Montecitorio, by Cardinal Giovanni Garzia Millini, assisted by Alessandro Ludovisi, archbishop of Bologna, and by Lorenzo Landi, bishop of Fossombrone. In the same ceremony was consecrated Ottavio Ridolfi, bishop of Ariano, future cardinal. His motto was Laedit, non laeditur. Obtained the sigillo of the Apostolic Penitentiary. Prelate of the SS.CC. of the Sacred Consulta and of Good Government. In charge of the finances of the pope and of his nephew Cardinal Caffarelli-Borghese. Governor of Rome for eight years. Nuncio in Spain, July 17, 1618 until January 1621. Promoted to the titular patriarchate of Jerusalem, retaining the see of Amelia, December 17, 1618. He was granted the pallium on March 4, 1619.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 11, 1621. Did not participate in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV; he was traveling to Rome from Madrid for the conclave when received the news of the election of the new pope and returned to the Spanish court. Received the red hat on March 27, 1621; and the title of S. Marcello April 19, 1621. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. Transferred to the see of Faenza, October 2, 1623; he governed the diocese through vicars. Legate in Ferrara, November 12, 1623 until April 5, 1627, when he was substituted by Cardinal Giulio Sacchetti. Pope Urban VIII entrusted him with the negotiations with the Duke Francesco Maria Della Rovere of Urbino for the recognition of the rights of the Papal States on the duchy (the last private signoria inside the Papal State) in the case that the duke himself, as seemed likely, would die without heirs; the cardinal visited the duke to convince him against the pretensions of Emperor Ferdinand II and the regents of Grand Dike Ferdinando II de' Medici of Tuscany; Duke Della Rovere signed a letter dated November 4, 1623, granting all the requests from the Roman Curia. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, February 25, 1641. Resigned the government of the see of Faenza before May 4, 1643. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, September 1644 until his death; he surprised his collaborators and the other cardinals of the Congregation for his great capacity for work despite his age. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, March 6, 1645. Prefect of the Congregation of Waters.

Death. October 2, 1645, Rome. At his request, he was buried at the foot of the tomb of Pope Paul V in the Chapel Paolina, patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, in homage to his great protector.

Bibliography. Biaudet, Henry. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes jusqu'en 1648. Helsinki ; Suomalainen tiedeakatemia, 1910, p. 260; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 198-201; Del Re, Nicola. "I cardinali prefetti della sacra congregazione del concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), p. 117-118; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 14, 37, 38, 44, 81, 185 and 203; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 220; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 250 and 569.

Webgraphy. Biography by Gaspare De Caro, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 23 (1979), Treccani; his portrait and prosopography, in German, Requiem Datenbank; his tomb in the church of S. Marcello, Rome, erected by his nephew, Requiem Datenbank; his portrait by Giovanni Francesco Barbieri, called Guercino, Samuel H. Kress Collection, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., United States; his portrait, engravings, motto and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

Cool Archive

(52) 2. BENTIVOGLIO, Guido (1579-1644)

Birth. October 4, 1579, Ferrara (1). Of the Ferrarese branch of the Bentivoglio family from Bologna. Eldest of the eight children of Cornelio Bentivoglio, marquis of Gualtieri, and his second wife, Isabella Bendedei (or Bendidio), from Ferrara. The other siblings were Ginevra, Enzo (ambassador of Ferrara to Rome and marquis of Scandiano), Alessandro (killed serving Spain in the Battle of Newport, Flanders), Lucrezia, Ottavio, Scipione (died young), Giovanni (knight of Malta) and Annibale (died at 20 in Flanders). He had two half-brothers, Ippolito and Annibale, and a half-sister, Margherita, from his father's first wife, Leonarda d'Este. Grand-uncle of Cardinal Cornelio Bentivoglio (1719). He is also listed as Guidus Bentivolus; and his first name as Gui.

Education. Initial education in Ferrara; in 1594, decided to enter the ecclesiastical state; then, attended the University of Padua; he studied under Antonio Riccoboni, with whom he stayed in the first two years; and then, he had as tutor Carlo Salice (law, philosophy, theology and letters); he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, in 1600. In Padua, he met Galileo Galilei, who explained to him in private the sphere. He was interested in geography and in Rome studied under Boccalini. Historical books also exerted a significant interest in the young Bentivoglio. In Rome, he was particularly friendly with Cardinals Silvio Antoniano, Cesare Baronio, Orat., and Roberto Bellarmino, S.J.

Early life. In 1598, from Padua he had to return to Ferrara, when a crisis of succession in the city of Este occurred when Alfonso II died leaving no direct heirs, and Pope Clement VIII decided to annex the city, which was an ecclesiastical fief, to the domains of the Church against the claims and wishes of Cesare d'Este, cousin of Alfonso. His brother Ippolito was commissioned by Duke Cesare to defend Lugo against the assault of the papal troops. But Pietro Aldobrandini, cardinal nephew and commander of the papal army, was victorious. Guido, fearing that the involvement of his family in the war could in any way compromise his ecclesiastical career, which with so much effort and dedication he was cultivating, went from Ferrara to Faenza to obtain from the papal legate in Romagna, Cardinal Ottavio Bandini, that he be presented to Cardinal Aldobrandini in order to apologize on behalf of his brother Ippolito. The excuses were well received and the cardinal nephew promised him favors when he went to Rome. Named privy chamberlain of Pope Clement VIII when Guido went to Ravenna to pay his respects. He went to Rome in 1600, where he continued his formation. In his travel between Ferrara and Rome, he went to Florence, where he visited Grand Duke Ferdinand I, the former cardinal, who was generous with advice for his future life of the Roman Curia. .He was named referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, May 1, 1605. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber from 1606 until December 1620.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Rodi (also called Colosse), with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age for three months and not having yet received the sacred orders, May 14, 1607. Consecrated, Sunday May 27, 1607, Rome, by Cardinal Ludovico de Torres, assisted by Metello Bichi, bishop of Sovana, and by Alessandro Morghi, bishop of Borgo San Sepolcro. Nuncio in Flanders, June 1, 1607 until October 24, 1615. He was also in charge of the affairs of the Catholics in England, Scotland and Ireland, Denmark and Norway. He arrived in Brussels on August 9, 1607. When he arrived in Brussels, a peace agreement between Catholics and Protestants was being implemented. His activity was completely occupied with promoting peace (which was the will of Rome), while trying that no privileges were lost in the part of the country where the Catholics were still subjects of Spain. He supported the Truce of Twelve Years (or of Antwerp), accorded on April 9, 1609. Nuncio Bentivoglio urged the bishops to proceed with the application of the norms of the Catholic Reformation with a series of synods in which he took part: those of Malines, Paud and Ypres, in 1609; Antwerp, in 1610, and Herzogenburg in 1612. When he finished his mission in Flanders, he returned to Rome. Named nuncio in France, July 9 (2), 1616; he remained in the post until his promotion to the cardinalate, which he obtained through the good offices of King Louis XIII of France. He arrived in Paris on December 15, 1616. During his nunciature, he had to protect the Roman positions in respect to the strong Gallican tendencies agitating the French Church; carefully intervene in the difficult crisis of governance that had developed during the regency of Queen Marie de' Medici; he tried to obtain agreement between France and Spain; he openly encouraged the polemic against the writings and propaganda of the Huguenots and Gallicans; he attended the assembly of "notables" that took place in Rouen on December 4, 1617, in which he defeated a proposal against the relations with the papal representative; finally, in October 1620, he obtained from King Louis XIII the ancient promise of King Henri IV to unite to the crown of France that of Béarn and Navarre (thus applying the Edict of Nantes and thus getting the restitution of church property of the Huguenots).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 11, 1621. Did not participate in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Received the red hat on April 22, 1621; and the title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, May 17, 1621. Protector of French interests in Rome from 1621 until 1641. Transferred to the see of Riez, July 11, 1622. Resigned the government of the diocese before September 15, 1625. Opted for the title of S. Maria del Popolo, October 26, 1622. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. President, from 1628 to 1635, of the S.C. of the Holy Office. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 8, 1631 until January 19, 1632. One of the cardinals that signed the sentence condemning Galileo Galilei in 1633. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, May 7, 1635. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, March 28, 1639. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, July 1, 1641. Entered the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X, and died during its celebration (3). He was a protector and friend of artists.

Death. September 7, 1644, during the conclave, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Silvestro nel Quirinale, Rome, without monument or inscription.

Bibliography. Belvederi, Raffaele. Guido Bentivoglio e la politica europea del suo tempo 1607-1621. Padova : Liviana editrice, 1962; Bentivoglio, Guido. Histoire des guerres de Flandre. A Paris : chez Desaint, 1769. Note: Translation of: Della guerra di Fiandra, which was originally published at Cologne, 1632-39. Responsibility: par le cardinal Bentivoglio, traduite de l'Italien par m. Loiseau l'ainé, chanoine de l'eglise d'Orléans; Bentivoglio, Guido. Memorie del cardinal Guido Bentivoglio ; con correzioni e varianti dell' edizione d'Amsterdam del 1648, aggiuntevi cinquantotto lettere inedite tratte dall' archivio del cav. Carlo Morbio. 3 vols. Milano : G. Daelli, 1864; Bentivoglio, Guido. La nunziatura di Francia del cardinale Guido Bentivoglio. 4 vols. Edited by Luigi Steffani. Firenze : F. Le Monnier, 1863-1870. Bentivoglio, Guido and Barotti, Lorenzo. Opere storiche del cardinal Bentivoglio ... 5 vols. Milano : Società tipografica de' classici italiani, 1806-1807. (Classici italiani ; v. 184-188); Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre .... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 500-501; Biaudet, Henry. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes jusqu'en 1648. Helsinki ; Suomalainen tiedeakatemia, 1910, p. 254; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 203-206; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 163; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, p. 11, 38, 43, 46, 48 and 296; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturæ a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), p. 238; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), V, 88.

Webgraphy. Biography by Alberto Merola, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 8 (1966), Treccani; The Family of Bentivoglio by Nicholas Weber, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English, Encyclopaedia Britannica; his portrait by Anthony Van Dyck, Pitti Gallery, Florence, Italy, Olga's Gallery; and his arms, portrait and prosopography, in German, Requiem Datenbank; his engraving, arms and portrait, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to his second biography in English, the site on his family and his brief biography, all linked above. His prosopography, also linked above, indicates that he was born in 1577.
(2) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 296; his prosopography, linked above, says that he was named on September 8.
(3) Several sources indicate that if he had not died during the conclave, he would have probably been elected to the papacy.

Cool Archive

(53) 3. VALIER, Pietro (1574-1629)

Birth. 1574, Venice. Of a patrician family. Second of the six children of Giovanni Luigi Valier and Laura Bernardo. The other siblings were Bertucci (bishop of Famagusta in 1591 and of Verona in 1606), Lorenzo, Francesca, Bernardo and Agostino (abbot and canon of Padua). Grand-nephew of Cardinal Bernardo Navagero (1561). Nephew of Cardinal Agostino Valier (1583). The family gave two doges to Venice in the 17th century, Bertuccio Valier (1656-1658) and Silvestro Valier (1694-1700). His last name is also listed as Valerio; as Valiero; as Valieri; and as Valerius.

Education. He was probably educated in Venice.

Early life. Resided in the Apostolic Palace from 1605. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1607. Governor of San Severino, 1609. Governor of Todi, 1610. Governor of Orvieto, 1610-1614. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Padua.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Famagusta, May 18, 1611. Consecrated (no information found). Governor of Spoleto, February 28, 1614 until 1616. Nuncio in Tuscany from June 27, 1616 until 1621 (?). Promoted to the metropolitan see of Crete (1), May 18, 1620. He was granted the pallium on June 1, 1620.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 11, 1621. Received the red hat on January 14, 1621; and the title of S. Salvatore in Lauro, March 3, 1621. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Named member of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide in 1622. Commendatario of S. Ambrogio, diocese of Nona, Dalmatia, December 23, 1622. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. Transferred to the see of Ceneda, October 2, 1623. Commendatario of the Priory of S. Maria del Monte di Conegliano (near Treviso), March 9, 1624. Opted for the title of S. Marco, March 18, 1624. Transferred to the see of Padua, August 18, 1625. Commendatario of S. Grisogono (Crisogono?) or S. Gregorio, diocese of Zara, Dalmatia, in 1627. Very devout of the Blessed Virgin Mary, he founded three sumptuous chapels in her honor in Verona, in the church of S. Maria della Grazia (the island near Venice), and in Padua.

Death. April 9 (2), 1629, Padua. Buried in the chapel of the canons of the cathedral of S. Maria Assunta, Padua. He willed all his possessions to the cathedral chapter of Padua. A cenotaph in his memory was erected in the cathedral of Padua (3).

Bibliography. Biaudet, Henry. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes jusqu'en 1648. Helsinki ; Suomalainen tiedeakatemia, 1910, p. 291; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 206=208; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 14, 44, 49, 144, 168 and 275; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturæ a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), p. 261; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LXXXVIII, 38-39; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 958; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 321, 379, 387 and 963.

Webgraphy. His funeral monument and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his prosopography, in German, Requiem Datenbank; his bust by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Pinacoteca Patriarcale, Venice, Italy, Copia di Arte; engravings and arms, Araldica Vaticana; The Valier, Villa Valier; his portrait and arms, secolo XVII (1628), diocese of Padua, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his portrait by Giovanni Battista Bissoni, secolo XVII (1629), diocese of Padua, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his portrait, mural, secolo XVII (1625-1649), diocese of Padua, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his cenotaph, secolo XVII (1651), diocese of Padua, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his bust in the cenotaph, secolo XVII (1651), diocese of Padua, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

(1) This see is also known as Candia.
(2) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 14, 44 and 275, and the same source on the same page also says that he died on April 5.
(3) This is the text of the inscription in the cenotaph, taken from its image linked above:

PETRO S.R.E. CARD. VALERIO
EPISCOPO PATAVINO
HVIVS ECCLESIAE PRIMVM CANONICO
ET INDE AD SVBLIMIORES TITVLVS EVECTO
CANONICI HAEREDES EX ASSE
POST
CONSTRVCTVM EX PIA EIVS VOLVNTATE
B. VIRGINI SACELLVM
ARAM ERECTAM
SACERDOTES AD FACIENDVM
INSTITVTOS
GRATI P.
ANNO M.DC.LI
IVRIBVS FAMILIAE ZABARELLE
ILLESIS PERMANENTIBVS.

Cool Archive

zollern2.tif

(54) 4. HOHENZOLLERN-SIGMARINGEN, Eitel Friedrich von
(1582-1625)

Birth. September 25, 1582, Sigmaringen. Fourth of the fifteen children of Count Karl II von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and his first wife, Countess Euphrosyne von Oettingen-Wallerstein. The other siblings were Ferdinand (died in infancy), Johann (prince von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen), Karl (died at 6), Ernst Georg, Maria Renata, Isabella Polyxena (a nun), Anna Marie, Maria Magdalena (died at 8), Barbara (died at 2), Maria Jakobe, Euphrosyne (died at 2), Maria Maximiliane, Maria Eleonore, Maria Sabine (died at 3) and Maria (died young). He also had three half-brothers and seven half-sisters from his father's second marriage to Elisabeth von Palant, countess von Culemburg. He is also listed as Itelius Fridericus a Zollern; his first name as Itelio; and his last name as Zolleren; and as Zollern-Sigmaringen. He was destined to the ministry when he was a boy.

Education. When he was thirteen years old, he was sent to study at the Jesuit school in Porrentruy, diocese of Basel; further studies in Rome, 1599-1604.

Sacred orders. He received the minor orders in 1595.

Priesthood. Presumably, he was ordained a priest in Basel (no further information found). In 1599, after the resignation of Count Johann von Hohenzollern, he obtained a canonship at the metropolitan chapter in Cologne. In the same year, he began his studies in Rome. In 1600, Pope Clement VIII, at the request of his father, appointed Father Eitel privy chamberlain of honor. He stayed in Rome until 1604. In 1601, he became a canon of the cathedral chapters of Eichstätt and Strasbourg; in 1602, of the cathedral chapter of Mainz, which he resigned in 1616; and in 1603, of the cathedral chapter of Salzburg. After returning to Germany, he was considered a close confidant of the papal curia; and since 1606, he received encrypted correspondence. In Cologne, he was named chorbishop in 1604. Named high steward of Archbishop Ferdinand of Bavaria in Cologne. From 1611 to 1623, he was pastor of Sankt Andreas in Cologne. In 1612, he became provost at Magdeburg (by papal commission) and in Cologne; in 1618, at Strasbourg. He was an influential supporter of the reform efforts of the nuncios in Cologne, Attilio Amalteo and Antonio Albergati, and of its archbishop, Ferdinand of Bavaria. Provost Eitel won the confidence of the emperor and the House of Wittelsbach. In Cologne, he founded the Capuchin monastery; the Fraternity of the Cross (Kreuzbruderschaft); and the seminary. He was member of a group which, under the chairmanship of the papal nuncio, was the center of all reform efforts in Cologne. At the request of Emperor Ferdinand II, he was promoted to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 11, 1621 (1). Did not participate in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Co-protector of Germany, October 1621. Received the red hat on November 23, 1621; and the title of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna, December 15, 1621. He was appointed member of the newly established S.C. of Propaganda Fide. He stayed in Rome until 1624.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Osnabrück by its cathedral chapter, April 19, 1623; preconized, October 2, 1623. Consecrated, October 29, 1623, church of S. Apollinare, Rome, by Attilio Amaltei, titular archbishop of Atena, former nuncio in Cologne, assisted by Giulio Sansedoni, bishop of Grosseto, and by Ludovico Sarego, bishop of Adria. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. In 1623, he appointed Albert Lucenius vicar-general of the diocese. The Gregorian calendar was introduced through the cathedral chapter on November 14/24, 1624; and then by the City Council on January 6, 1625. He was enthroned on December 15, 1624. Vicar general Lucenius conducted further reforms and the the clergy was required to follow the teachings of Council of Trent. Adherents of the Augsburg Confession had to leave the country. In 1625, took place in Osnabrück a general synod, in which were announced the decisions of the Council of Trent for the second time. The cardinal received support from the Jesuits, whom he entrusted in 1625, with the consent of the cathedral chapter, with the direction of the Cathedral School "Gymnasium Carolinum". In 1625, Pope Urban VIII recommended the cardinal to the emperor as a candidate for the vacant see of Brixen, but the cardinal died unexpectedly.

Death. September 19, 1625, ex febri, quae venis lethalier incubuerat, of a fever that became a lethargy, in his residence in Schloß Iburg. Buried next to the main altar of the cathedral of Osnabrück.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 208-209; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 199-200; Feldkamp, Michael F. "Eitel Friedrich, Graf von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1582-1625)." Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1448 bis 1648 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz, unter Mitwirkung von Clemens Brodkorb. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1996, p 149-150; Forst, H. "Cardinal Eitel Friedrich von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, Bischof von Osnabrück", in Mitteilungen des Vereins für Geschichte und Altertumskunde in Hohenzollern 27 (1893/94) 116-131; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, p. 14, 44 and 267; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, CIII, 478-479.

Webgraphy. His engraving and biography, in German, Wikipedia; his prosopography, in German, Requiem Datenbank; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; his genealogy, A4, EU Genealogy.

(1) This is according to Gauchet, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi, VI, p. 14. Feldkamp,"Eitel Friedrich, Graf von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1582-1625)." Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1448 bis 1648 : ein biographisches Lexikon, p 149, says that he was created cardinal and reserved in pectore on December 15, 1620; and that he was published on January 11, 1621.

Cool Archive

(55) 5. NOGARET DE LA VALETTE, Louis de (1593-1639)

Birth. February 8, 1593, Angoulême, France. Third son of Jean-Louis de Nogaret, duke of Éspernon, and Marguerite de Foix, countess of Candale and d'Astarac. The other siblings sons were Henri de Nogaret, duke de Foix-Candale, and Bernard de Nogaret de Foix, duke d'Épernon. He entered the ecclesiastical state more because of his father's will than because of vocation. Also known as Cardinal La Valette. He is also listed as Valette, Louis de Nogaret de la; and as Louis de Nogaret d'Épernon, Cardinal de la Valette.

Education. Studied at the Jesuit Collège de La Flèche, Paris; and at La Sorbonne University, Paris (philosophy).

Early life. In 1599, when he was six years old, obtained the abbey of Grandselve. In 1612 he resigned the abbey in favor of Cardinal François de Joyeuse, who ceded him the archdiocese of Toulouse in exchange. Abbot of Saint-Victor de Marseille, Saint-Victor de Metz, Saint-Sernin, Saint-Mélaine de Rennes, de la Grasse, de Berdouesand and Gard-sur-la Somme. Prior of Saint-Martin des Champs. Received the clerical tonsure. Almoner of King Louis XIII of France. Promoted to the cardinalate at the request of the French king.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Toulouse, August 26, 1613. Never received the episcopal consecration. Commander of the order of Saint-Esprit. Abbot of Grandselve again in 1616.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of January 11, 1621. Did not participate in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Did not participate in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. Received the red hat on October 5, 1623; and the deaconry of S. Adriano, November 20, 1623. Royal counselor and first almoner ordinary of the king. Resigned the government of the archdiocese before May 17, 1627. Pursued a military career. In 1630, when Queen Maria de' Medici and Gaston d'Orléns obtained from King Louis XIII the promise to dismiss Cardinal Armand-Jean du Plessis de Richelieu, and everything seemed to be lost for the prime minister, Cardinal de Nogaret, who had an absolute loyalty for Richelieu (1), decidedly recommended him to follow the king to Versailles and make a final effort to regain his confidence. The cardinal prime minister followed the advice, changed the king's mind and kept his post. Cardinal Richelieu named him lieutenant general of the royal armies and governor of Anjou in 1631; Metz in 1634; and Messin. Commander of the French troops in Germany, 1635; then in Picardie, 1637; and finally in Italy, 1638, where he died (2). Abbot of Lérins, 1637, which was separated from the congregation of Monte Cassino and united to that of Saint-Maur.

Death. September 27, 1639, da violenta malattia che fece sospettare di veleno (3), Rivoli, a castle near Turin. Buried in the castle of Cadillac of his family.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre .... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1599-1602; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 201-203; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 14, 50 and 340;Talon, Jacques. Mémoires de Louis de Nogaret, cardinal de La Valette, général des armées du Roi... [Rédigés par Jacques Talon et publiés par Gobet. - E?claircissement sur la journée de Mont-Reuillon, en Nivernois, le 21 juin 1475.]. Paris : impr. de P.-D. Pietres, 1772.

Webgraphy. Portraits, arms and biography, in French, Wikipedia; portrait and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his portrait by Jean-Pierre Franque, Museum Châteaux de Versailles et de Trianon; his prosopography, in German, Requiem Datenbank; engravings, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana; portrait, engraving, map, genealogy and biography, in French, Histoire de l'Europe et de la Mediterranée; Famille de Nogaret de La Valette, in French, Racines & Histoire; his genealogy, Wikitree; his engraving by Balthasar Moncornet , Wikimedia; his engraving by René Lochon, Wikimedia; his engraving by Pierre Daret, Wikimedia; Le Traité d'Angoulême by Peter Paul Rubens, Wikimedia; Journal des campagnes des armées françaises en Allemagne, Pays-Bas et Italie, sous les ordres du cardinal de la Valette, pendant les années 1635 ` 1639 ; avec plans de batailles et de forteresses by Abraham Fabert, maréchal de France. Ex libris S. Genovefae Paris, 1753, University Archives; Mémoires de Louis de Nogaret,Cardinal de La Valette, général des Armées du Roi en Allemagne, en Lorraine, en Flandre, & en Italie. Années 1635, 1636, 1637. Tome Premier. Paris, de l'Imprimerie de Ph. D. Pierres, rue Saint-Jacques, M. DCC. LXXI. Avec Approbation et Privilége du Roi, Google Books, partial text; De Valette or de la Valette? by Dennis De Luca, Times of Malta, Sunday, January 13, 2013, 00:20.

(1) His father, who disliked and opposed Cardinal Richelieu, indignantly referred to him as "cardinal valet" of the "cardinal-minister".
(2) According to Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinauxcol. 1061-1062, he was a mediocre general who owed his position to the confidence and support of Cardinal Richelieu. He was arrogant and ambitious like his father and joined his lavishness to his disorderly conduct. His liaisons with Princess de Condé were the subject of an evident scandal.
(3) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 202, "of a violent illness that raised suspicion of poisoning".

Cool Archive

(56) 6. ROMA, Giulio (1584-1652)

Birth. September 16, 1584, Milan. Of a noble family. Fourth of the sixteen children of Paolo Camillo Roma and Caterina Coria. Three of the other children were Egidio (governor of Mortara), Cesare (knight of Malta) and Gregorio.

Education. Studied at the University of Pavia; and at the University of Perugia, where he obtained a doctorate.

Early life. Entered the court of Cardinal Federico Borromeo, archbishop of Milan. Went to Rome and had an audience with Pope Paul V, who asked him to move to that city and named him a consistorial lawyer in 1607 at the request of the doctors of Milan; while in this post, he worked in the process of canonization of Saint Carlo Borromeo; in 1608, he pronounced in consistory a discourse for the canonization. The pope named him advocate of the Borghese family. Governor of Iesi, 1617. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, March 15, 1617. Governor of Orvieto, 1618. Governor of Camerino, August-December 1619. Governor of the city of Perugia in the province of Umbria, December 11, 1619 until January 23, 1621 (1), the same day on which he received the news of his promotion to the cardinalate.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 11, 1621. Received the red hat on January 14, 1621. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Received the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva on March 3, 1621.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Recanati e Loreto, March 17, 1621. Consecrated, Sunday May 16, 1621, patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Giovanni Battista Leni, assisted by Giovanni Luigi Pasolini, bishop of Segni, and by Fabrizio Landriani, bishop of Pavia. In the same ceremony were consecrated Cardinal Pietro Campori, bishop of Cremona, and Cardinal Desiderio Scaglia, bishop of Melfi. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. During his episcopate, he embellished the cathedral, relieved the poor, made the divine services to be celebrated with decorum, supported the religious communities and founded educational institutions for indigent girls. Transferred to the see of Tivoli, August 21, 1634; occupied the post until his death. In his years as bishop of that diocese, he demolished the old cathedral and built a new one -which he blessed on February 1, 1641- providing it with fine liturgical ornaments, a choir and sacred music; he restored the episcopal palace and built a seminary; dedicated himself to the reform of the clergy; and regularly celebrated diocesan synods. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, March 28, 1639. President of the commission that reduced the Order of Clerics Regular of the Christian Schools (Piarists) to an ordinary congregation, 1643-1645. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati, July 13, 1644. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, October 23, 1645. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia and Velletri, proper of the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, April 29, 1652. He was a spiritual man of prayer who customarily practiced abstinence and fast; had a great devotion for the Blessed Virgin Mary; and celebrated mass every morning and then dedicated an hour to mental prayer.

Death. September 16, 1652, on the same day and time of his birth (2), Rome. Buried in the church of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome.

Bibliography. Beltrami, Giuseppe. Notizie su prefetti e referendari della Segnatura Apostolica desunte dai brevi di nomina. Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1972, p. 50, n. 112; Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre .... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1473-1474; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 209-212; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), pp. 190-191; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 14, 37, 39, 45, 48, 293 and 337; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturæ a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), p. 256; Martinelli, Raffaello. Le Lapidi di San Carlo al Corso : catechesi in immagini. Roma : Arciconfraternità dei SS. Ambrogio e Carlo, 2007. (Arciconfraternità dei SS. Ambrogio e Carlo), p. 47; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LVIII, 102-103; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 815; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 173, 275, 321, 331 and 872.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his prosopography, in German, Requiem Datenbank; his portrait, engravings and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his portrait, secolo XIX (1800-1899), diocese of Macerata-Tolentino-Recanati-Cingoli-Treia, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

(1) Bertone, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1473, erroneously indicates that he was bishop of all the cities of which he was governor.
(2) According to his epitaph in Historia ampliata di Tivoli by Francesco Martii (ed. Roma, 1665), p. 66, Gallica, Bibliothèque Nationale de France; :

Hic Iacet
Iulius Cardinalis Roma S. R. E. Cardinalis
Episcopus Ostiensis & Tiburtinus Sacri Collegij Decanus
Vixit annos 68, eadem qua natus die, & hora,
obijt 16 Septemb. 1652.
Nudam hanc inscriptionem uti testamento
praescriptam in fraternae modestiae, ac propriae obedientiae
Monumentum Gregorius Roma posuit.

This is the text, with slight variations, taken from a photograph of the epitaph, in Martinelli, Le Lapidi di San Carlo al Corso : catechesi in immagini, p. 47:
HIC IACET
IULIUS ROMA MEDIOLANEN S·R·E· CARDINALIS
EPISCOPVS OSTIEN ET TIBVRTIN SACRI COLLEGII DECANVS
VIX ANN LXVIII EADEM QVA NATVS DIE AC HORA OBIIT XVI SEPTEM MDCLII
NVDAM HANC INSCRIPTIONEM UTI TESTAMENTO PRÆCRIPTAM
IN FRATERNA MODESTIÆ AC PROPIÆOBEDIENTIÆ MONUMENTVM
GREGORIVS ROMA POSVIT

Cool Archive

(57) 7. GHERARDI, Cesare (1577-1623)

Birth. 1577, Fossato di Vico, diocese of Nocera. Of a family originally from Perugia. Eldest child of Ludovico di Gherardo, doctor in law, and Silvestra di David.

Education. Studied at the University of Perugia; and at the University of Fermo, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on June 27, 1602.

Early life. Shortly after graduation, he became lector of canon law at the University of Perugia. On June19, 1603, he obtained the chair of civil law at that university, which he occupied until 1611. Like his father, he received the honorary citizenship of Perugia. In 1612, he moved from Perugia to Fermo, where he occupied the chair of canon law at its university until 1618. He then went to Rome and submitted his name to Cardinal Scipione Caffarelli-Borghese, who needed an auditor; he obtained the post and immediately received the presbyterate.

Priesthood. 1618, Rome. Canon of the patriarchal Liberian basilica in 1618. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, April 21, 1619. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, June 12, 1619. Later, he became prelate of the Sacred Consulta.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 11, 1621. Received the red hat on January 14, 1621. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Received the title of S. Pietro in Montorio, March 3, 1621. Because his patrimony was somewhat lower than that of a cardinal, he was awarded the bishopric of Camerino.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Camerino, May 2, 1622. Consecrated, May 22, 1622, patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Scipione Caffarelli-Borghese, assisted by Raffaele Inviziati, bishop of Zante, and by Cesare Ventimilia, bishop of Terracina. He went to visit his diocese promoting the restoration of the cathedral, which he endowed with precious vestments and a pulpit. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII; on August 4, he had to leave the conclave because of having contracted malaria; the new pope was elected two days later. On September 19, 1623, he made his testament and left 1500 scudi to his nephew Giovanni Battista. He was able to support the Borghese without creating enemies among their opponents and administered sparingly his income, while maintaining the style of an academic life. He tried to expand his interest in history and archeology of his homeland.

Death. September 30, 1623, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Francesco a Ripa (1), where a modest monument was erected with his effigy painted on a canvas and his family's arms. There are inscriptions in his honor at the palace of the University of Fermo and in the house where he was born in Fossato di Vico.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 212-213; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 195; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 14, 47 and 131; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturæ a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), p. 246; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XXIX, 184.

Webgraphy. Biography by Dario Busolini, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 53 (2000), Treccani; Fossato nel Tempo, contains a brief biography in Italian, searching by his name; his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his tomb in the church of S. Francesco a Ripa, Rome, Requiem Datenbank; Saintly relics and remains within primitive Rome parish restored, church of S. Francisco a Ripa, Rome Reports, 2013-08-09 16:41:14.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D O M
CAESARI GHERARDO PERVSINO
S. R. E. S. PETRI IN MONTE AVREO
PRAESB. CARD.
QVEM
PERVSIAE FIRMIQVE XX ANN.
IVS CAN. INTERPRETANTEM
A SCIPIONE CARD. BVRGHESIO
ROMAM EVOCATVM
AVDIENDISQVE APVD SE CAVSIS
PRAEFECTVM
PAVLVS V PONT. MAX.
INTER VATICANI CANONICOS
ET VTRIVSQ. SIGNATVRAE PATRES
RETVLIT
ATQVE IN AMPLISS. COLLEGIVM
COOPTAVIT
GREG. XV
CAMERTIBVS PRAESVLEM DEDIT
MORS AN. XLVI NONDVM EXACTO
PRID. KAL. OCTOBRIS MDCXXIII
RAPVIT
DOMINICVS GHERARDVS MOESTISS.
B.M.P.

Cool Archive

(58) 8. SCAGLIA, O.P., Desiderio (1567/1568-1639)

Birth. 1567/1568, Brescia. Of a family originally from Cremona. Son of Giovanni (Gian) Paolo Scaglia and his wife, Maria, both from Cremona; the family was forced, because of a quarrel, to move to Brescia shortly before the child's birth. He was baptized in the church of S. Clemente, Brescia, on September 26, 1568, with the name Giovanni Battista. He had a sister, Innocenza. Uncle of Deodato Scaglia, O.P., bishop of Alessandria. Other cardinals members of his family were Girolamo Bernerio, O.P. (1586), Scipione Cobelluzi (1616) and Francesco Cennini de' Salamandri (1621). He was commonly known as the cardinal of Cremona.

Education. Entered the Order of Preachers (Dominicans) and took his religious vows and the name Desiderio on August 14, 1584 in the convent of S. Domenico, Cremona, before Father Domenico Bazardi di Treviato, O.P., prior and magistrum. He stayed in Brescia until at least 1592. He completed superior studies at the Studio Domenicano of Bologna from 1595 to 1596. Then, entered the rank of preachers and went on to teach theology.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Professor of theology in Dominican houses of study in Cremona and other cities of Lombardy. Regarded as one of the most distinguished theologians and famous preachers of his time (1). Named inquisitor in the dioceses of Pavia, Cremona and Milan during the pontificate of Pope Clement VIII. Called to Rome and named commissary of the Holy Inquisition, 1616; he was charged with drafting correspondence, instructing processes and controlling print publications; he occupied the post until 1621. He was the author of a famous inquisitorial manual in the vernacular entitled Prattica per procedere nelle cause del S. Offizio o Relatione copiosa di tutte le materie spettanti al tribunale del S. Officio (1616, only manuscript), in which he showed methods of interrogation practiced with the use of torture. The work also offered thesis of moderation and innovations such as the necessity of a valid corpus delicti in cases of witchcraft. During his tenure as inquisitor, he took charge of the proceedings against Tommaso Campanella, Marcantonio de Dominis, Cyril Lucaris, and Galileo Galilei.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 11, 1621. Received the red hat on January 14, 1621. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Received the title of S. Clemente, March 3, 1621.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Melfi e Rapolla, March 17, 1621. Consecrated, Sunday May 16, 1621, patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Giovanni Battista Leni, assisted by Giovanni Luigi Pasolini, bishop of Segni, and by Fabrizio Landriani, bishop of Pavia. In the same ceremony were consecrated Cardinal Pietro Campori, bishop of Cremona, and Cardinal Giulio Roma, bishop of Loreto. Transferred to the see of Como, November 14, 1622. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. Resigned the government of the diocese before January 7, 1626. Opted for the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, February 9, 1626. Opted for the title of S. Carlo al Corso, October 6, 1627. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 1632 (2) until January 10, 1633.He was an avid collector of works of art and lover of religious poetry inspired by Giambattista Marino. He wrote an "idillio spirituale" entitled Affetto estatico alle Stigmati di san Francesco, included in the anthology collected by Fray Silvesto da Poppi Sette canzoni di sette famosi autori in lode del Serafico Padre S. Francesco, e del Sacro Monte della Verna, published in Florence, by the typography of Giovanni Antonio Caneo e Raffaello Grossi, in 1606.

Death. August 21, 1639, at 9 a.m., Rome. Buried on August 23, 1639, in his title, S. Carlo al Corso.

Bibliography. Biondi, Albano. "L''inordinata devotione nella 'Prattica' del cardinale Scaglia (ca. 1635)", in Gabriella Zarri Finzione e santità tra medioevo ed età moderna, Rosenberg & Sellier : Torino, 1991, pp. 306-325; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 213-216; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), pp. 190-191; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 14-15, 40, 41, 59, 157 and 238; Rangoni Gàl, Fiorenza. Fra' Desiderio Scaglia Cardinale di Cremona. Un collezionista inquisitore nella Roma del Seicento. Gravedona (CO) : Nuova Editrice Delta, 2008; Tedeschi, John. "Scaglia, Desiderio", in Dizionario storico dell'Inquisizione, vol. 3, 1390-91; Turchini, Angelo, "Il modello ideale dell'inquisitore: la Prattica del cardinale Desiderio Scaglia" in L'Inquisizione romana: metodologia delle fonti e storia istituzionale: atti del Seminario internazionale, Montereale Valcellina, 23-24 settembre 1999, a cura di Andrea Del Col e Giovanna Paolin. Trieste : Università di Trieste ; Montereale Valcellina (Pordenone) : Circolo culturale Menocchio, 2000, (Inquisizione e società. Quaderni, 1), pp. 187-198.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian, Ereticopedia, Dizionario di eretici, dissidenti e inquisitori nel mondo mediterraneo; his prosopography, in German, Requiem Datenbank; engravings and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Commissario generale del Sant'Uffizio, Ereticopedia, Dizionario di eretici, dissidenti e inquisitori nel mondo mediterraneo.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 213.
(2) Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 59, does not indicate the day in which he was named camerlengo but says that he signed a consistorial act as occupant of the post for the first time on February 16, 1632.

Cool Archive

(59) 9. PIGNATELLI, Stefano (1578-1623)

Birth. 1578, Piegaro, diocese of Perugia. Son of Giovanni Paolo Pignatelli, a pottery maker, and Caterina Romana. He had two brothers, Marcello and Vincenzo.

Education. Initial studies in Rome; later, he studied law at the University of Perugia.

Early life. He was called to Rome by an uncle, where he did his initial studies. Returned to Perugia to study law and there he became a close friend of future Cardinal Scipione Caffarelli-Borghese, who called him to Rome when his (Caffarelli-Borghese's) uncle was elected Pope Paul V in 1605. Entered the court of Cardinal Caffarelli-Borghese (1). Named protonotary apostolic in 1605. In 1607. Nuncio Giovanni Garzia Millini obtained the Croce di Cristo of Portugal for Stefano. Named coppiere in 1609. In 1612, he obtained a benefice in the Abbey of Civita Castellana. Prior commendatario of S. Maria de Camadulo, Bologna in 1613. On April 17, 1613, he obtained a benefice in the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Lateran basilica from February 1615 until 1617. In 1616, he was named majordome of Cardinal Caffarelli-Borghese. Named protonotary apostolic on November 29, 1616. In 1617, he obtained the benefices of a monastery in Reggio. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica on July 26, 1617. Superintendent of the public and private affairs of the Borghese family in 1618.

Priesthood. Ordained in August 1619. Celebrated his first mass on August 17, 1619.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 11, 1621. Received the red hat on January 14, 1621. Participated in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV. Received the title of S. Maria in Via, March 3, 1621. Member of the S.C. of the Fabric of Saint Peter's basilica, 1621. Knowing the dislike of the new pope towards him he retired to Morlupo, a fiefdom of the Borghese family. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. He became ill during the celebration of the conclave and when it ended, he returned to Morlupo trying to recover his health.

Death. August 12, 1623, of febbre acuta, in Morlupo. His body was transported to Rome and buried in the Dominican church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, without any memorial monument. He was a protector of the arts and music.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 216-218; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 15 and 46; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LIII, 50-51; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 768.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; engravings and prosopography, in German, Requiem Datenbank; engravings and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) He exercised such an ascendency over the cardinal that produced jealousy and envy among the courtesans, who spread calumnies causing the cardinals and ambassadors to accuse Monsignor Stefano of despicable vices before the pope, who ordered him to leave the household of Cardinal Caffarelli-Borghese. The banning of Monsignor Stefano caused Cardinal Caffarelli-Borghese a great melancholy and he became ill with a long and serious malady. The cardinal asked the monsignor to assist him in his illness and the latter did it with such care and diligence that moved the pope to allow him to return to the court. After the cardinal recovered, Monsignor Stefano entered the ecclesiastical state. The cardinal obtained several benefices, a prelature and the commission of relevant affairs for the monsignor, who gained the trust of the pontiff and advised him in serious matters. Fearing his promotion to the cardinalate, the enemies of Monsignor Stefano again gratuitously accused him before the pope of great vices. Cardinal Caffarelli-Borghese defended the innocence of his friend demonstrating the probity and moderation of life of the monsignor as did numerous cardinals of great prestige after serious scrutiny, ably dispelling any doubt that the pope may have had and thus, the promotion to the cardinalate took place in 1621.

Cool Archive

(60) 10. SPÍNOLA, Agustín (1597-1649)

Birth. Probably on the eve of the Feast of Saint Augustin, August 27, 1597, Genoa. Second of the five children of Ambrogio Spinola and Giovanetta Baciadonne Doria. The other siblings were Giovanni Giacomo, Filippo (president of the Council of Flanders), Maria and Polissena (wife of Diego Felipe Guzmán, governor of Milan) (1). He was baptized shortly after his birth in the parish church of San Luca. His first name is also listed as Agostino; and his last name as Spinola Basadone. Other cardinals of the various branches of the Spinola family were Agostino Spinola (1527); Filippo Spinola (1583); Orazio Spinola (1606); Giandomenico Spinola (1626); Giulio Spinola (1666); Giambattista Spinola, seniore (1681); Giambattista Spinola, iuniore (1695); Niccolò Spinola (1715); Giorgio Spinola (1719); Giovanni Battista Spinola (1733); Girolamo Spinola (1759); Ugo Pietro Spinola (1831).

Education. Initially, he was educated by excellent private tutors; his mother took care of his religious and devotional formation; later, he studied grammar in Alcalá de Henares; and later, from October 1614, he studied at the University of Salamanca, becoming and excellent canonist and theologian; he had among his teachers Doctor Paulo Maqueda, who occupied the chair of Primas.

Early life. In 1607, as a young child, together with his older brother, by disposition of his father, he was a menino for five years in the court of the queen of Spain, Margarita de Austria, in Madrid. After finishing his studies in Salamanca, he went back to Madrid. The death of his mother made him resolve to follow his ecclesiastical vocation. He was promoted to the cardinalate at the request of King Felipe IV of Spain.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of January 11, 1621. The pope sent him the red biretta, which he received in the Monastery of San Bartolomé de Lupiana, Guadalajara. Did not participate in the conclave of 1621, which elected Pope Gregory XV, because when he arrived to Barcelona on his way to Rome, he learned the news of the election of the new pope; he returned to Madrid to receive the sacred orders. Protonotary apostolic.

Sacred orders. Received the sacred orders in the Court of Madrid, with papal dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age, from Iñigo de Brizuela (or Bricuela), bishop of Segovia, president of the Junta of Flanders. With papal dispensation also, he received in three days the subdiaconate, the diaconate and the presbyterate. He celebrated his first mass in the Jesuit Colegio Jesús del Monte, near Alcalá, in private and assisted only by Fathers of the Society of Jesus. He lived in Alcalá de Henares for sometime, practicing numerous works of charity toward the most needy. On January 6, 1623, King Felipe IV of Spain proposed him for the see of Tortosa and asked the pope to dispense him for not having yet reached thirty years of age, the canonical age to be a bishop.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tortosa, March 5, 1623. Consecrated, April 12, 1623, at the Royal Chapel, Madrid, by Andrés Pacheco, bishop of Cuenca, general inquisitor, assisted by Alonso Requeséns Fenollet, titular bishop of Rosanensis, and by Antonio Govea, O.S.A., titular bishop of Cirene. The king, the queen and the Spanish court attended the ceremony. He entered his see of July 24, 1623; four days later, he received the news of the death of Pope Gregory XV and started for Rome; arrived in Barcelona on August 2 and on that same day, he sailed for Genoa, where he learned that a new pope had been elected. Did not participate in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. Arrived in Rome in October 1623. Received the red hat on November 23, 1623; and the deaconry of Ss. Cosma e Damiano on December 18, 1623. He left Rome for Tortosa on January 18, 1624 and arrived at the beginning of April of that year. During his episcopate, he received from Pope Urban VIII the relics of S. Crescencio, Roman child martyr; realized a pastoral visit to the diocese; promoted the spiritual and intellectual formation of the clergy; and founded the church of Santiago in Tortosa. King Felipe IV of Spain nominated him for the metropolitan see of Granada on July 12, 1626. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Granada, September 7, 1626; on that same day he was granted the pallium, which he received in the cathedral of Jaen from Cardinal Baltazar de Moscoso Sandoval, bishop of that see. He was the fourteenth archbishop and the first cardinal to occupy that see. He took possession of the see on February 27, 1627, by procurator Justino Antolines, dean of the cathedral chapter; he entered the see on the following July 25. During his episcopate, he realized two pastoral visit to the archdiocese; worked to improve the intellectual and moral customs of the clergy; in 1628, he ordered special celebrations on the feast of Saint Ignacio de Loyola, founder of the Society of Jesus, order of which the cardinal was very close and supportive.

King Felipe IV proposed him for the metropolitan see of Santiago de Compostela; initially, Cardinal Spínola asked the monarch not to transferred him from Granada and went to Madrid on March 21, 1630; at the request of his father, Marquis Ambrosio, the cardinal accepted the transfer Transferred to the metropolitan see of Santiago de Compostela, October 23, 1630. Went to Rome for royal affairs (to obtain more support from the pope for the House of Austria); the king also asked Cardinal Moscoso Sandoval and other prelates to go to Rome; Cardinal Spínola expressed to the king his opinion that this trip was not advisable and could have the opposite results; arrived in Rome on June 28, 1630 and resided there until 1635; while in Rome, he appointed to visitors to his archdiocese to keep himself informed of the needs of the faithful; the king wanted the cardinal to resign the see of Santiago and remain in Rome but the cardinal did not accept. Granted the pallium on November 13, 1630. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Bartolomeo all'Isola, March 24, 1631, leaving the post of cardinal protodeacon. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 10, 1632 to January 9, 1633. Called to the court in Madrid, he arrived in October1635. Went to Santiago in March1636. He realized a pastoral visit to the archdiocese. At the end of 1638, he was named state counselor. President of the Junta for Portuguese Affairs in 1640. In June 1642, he accompanied the king to the Jornada de Aragón. The king of Spain nominated him for the see of Sevilla in February 1643. Returned to Compostela in that same year. Acting governor and captain general of Galicia for three months in 1643; during that time, he had to control the rebellion provoked by Portugal. Did not participate in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Sevilla, January 16, 1645. The cardinal left the Spanish Court in Madrid for Sevilla on May 3, 1645; arrived in that city on the following May 22 and was received by the diocesan administrator, Licentiate Gabriel de Aranda Cavallero, and the cathedral chapter. He was granted the pallium on February 6, 1646. He baptized the Infante of Spain, son of King Felipe IV. In 1647, he assisted the victims affected by the plague in Sevilla, which caused more than 150,000 deaths. He was famous for his piety, wisdom and generosity toward the neediest, distributing among them 30,000 scudi yearly.

Death. February 12, 1649, at 8 a.m., of gout and fevers, in Sevilla. He had made his confession with Father Diego del Marmol, S.J., and received the sacraments of the Church from the cathedral chapter. His body was embalmed. He was exposed in the archiepiscopal palace. The funeral mass took place of February 15 in the metropolitan cathedral of Sevilla and the sermon was delivered by Father Diego de Rivera, S.J., superior of the Professed House. In the evening, the body was taken to the Jesuit Professed House and buried in the right side of its main chapel, according to the cardinal's will (2). In his will, he left parts of a villa, which he had inherited and was in his mother's dowry, to his relatives; and the rest of his patrimony he gave to the poor. Among his beneficiaries were the Jesuit Colegio de la Concepción and the Theological Faculty, also of the Society of Jesus, which he had founded.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 218-219; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 15, 40, 51, 59, 158, 174, 196 and 204; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LVIII, 294-295; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 915.

Webgraphy. His genealogy, VII, 3, AbcGenealogia.com; his engravings and arms, Araldica Vaticana; I cardinali della Famiglia Spinola, Fondazione Spinola, Cardinal Agustín is the fifth on page; Casa de Spínola, Wikipedia; Inmortal memoria en la vida, virtudes, y hechos heroicos del Eminentissimo Señor Cardenal D. Agustin Spinola, que muriò Arçobispo de Sevilla Su autor el Padre Gabriel de Aranda, de la Compañia de Jesus, Europeana; El mecenazgo episcopal de Agustín Spínola (1597-1649) by David García Cueto, Universidad of Granada, Actas del XVIII congreso del CEHA, Mirando a Clío. El Arte español, espejo de su Historia, Santiago de Compostela, 2010 Academia.edu.

(1) This is according to Weber, Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte, II, 915. His genealogy, linked above, says that he was the youngest of three children. The other two were Filippo and Pollisena.
(2) This is according to his biography by Father Aranda, linked above; and his biographical article in Enciclopedia Universal Ilustrada Europeo-Americana, LVII, 832, which indicates that he was buried in the church of the Professed House of the Society of Jesus in Sevilla; and in 1710, following his will, his body was transferred to the church of the Seminario y Colegio de la Inmaculada Concepción, of the same order, also in Sevilla, popularly known as de las Becas. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 219, says that he was buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Santa Maria de la Sede, Sevilla.

Top Catalogs Home

©1998-2014 Salvador Miranda.