(8) 1. TORRES, Cosimo de (1584-1642)
Birth. 1584, Rome. Son of Marchis Giovanni de Torres and Giulia Mattei, princess de' Papareschi, duchess of Giove. Nephew of Cardinals Girolamo Mattei (1586) and Ludovico de Torres, iuniore (1606). His first name is also listed as Cosmo and Cosma. The family was originally from Málaga, Spain, and had settled in Rome in the first half of the 16th century.
Education. University of Perugia, Perugia (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law).
Early life. Ascribed to the college of protonotaries apostolic under the auspices of his maternal uncle Cardinal Mattei. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace from 1608.
Sacred orders. (No information found).
Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Adrianopoli, with dispensation for not having yet received the presbyterate, March 17, 1621. Consecrated, Sunday, April 25, 1621, church of S. Andrea della Valle, by Cardinal Maffeo Barberini, assisted by Diofebo Farnese, titular patriarch of Jerusalem, and by Volpiano Volpi, archbishop-bishop of Novara. In the same ceremony was also consecrated Giovanni Mascardi, bishop of Nebbio. Nuncio in Poland, May 21, 1621 until December 2, 1622.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 5, 1622; received the red hat and the title of S. Pancrazio, March 20, 1623. Prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, May 22, 1623 until 1626. Abbot of S. Maria di Perno, June 13, 1623. Abbot of S. Giovanni di Tremisto. Abbot of S. Nicola di Mamola. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. Transferred to the see of Perugia, September 16, 1624. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 9, 1634 to January 8, 1635. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Monreale, April 3, 1634. The see had been occupied by his grand-uncle Ludovico II de Torres and his uncle Cardinal Ludovico III de Torres. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, July 1, 1641.
Death. May 1, 1642, Rome, where he had gone to recover from dropsy. Buried near the main altar of the church of S. Pancrazio, Rome, next to the tomb of his uncle Cardinal Ludovico Torres, who is now buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Monreale.
Bibliography. Re, Nicola del. "I cardinali prefetti della sacra congregazione del concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), pp. 10-11; Rivera, Giuseppe. Memorie biografiche dei cardinali Abruzzesi. Aquila : Tipografia G. Mele, 1924, pp.113-118.
Links. His tomb, in the church of S. Pancrazio, Rome, Requiem Datenbank; his episcopal lineage, in English, by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church.
(9) 2. DU PLESSIS DE RICHELIEU, Armand-Jean (1585-1642)
Birth. September 5, 1585, Paris (1), France. His last name is also listed as Duplessis. Son of François du Plessis, captain of the guards of King Henri IV of France, and Suzanne de la Porte de Vezins. Of a noble family. His father died in 1590. Brother of Cardinal Alphonse-Louis du Plessis de Richelieu, O.Carth. (1629).
Education. Collège de Navarre; Collège de Lisieux. Obtained a bachelor in theology.
Early life. He was going to follow a military career but when his brother Alphonse declined the nomination to the see of Luçon to join the Carthusians, he decided to enter the religious state to keep that episcopal see in the family.
Sacred orders. Ordained to the subdiaconate in Paris. Prior of Blessed Virgin Mary de Pomoagri and of S. Paolo de Rouherio, Turin.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Luçon, with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age, December 18, 1606. Consecrated, April 17, 1607, church of S. Luigi dei Francesi, Rome, by Cardinal Anne d'Escars de Givry, O.S.B., former bishop of Lisieux; the names of the co-consecrators are not known. His episcopal motto was Semper idem. Participated in the States General of 1614, representing the clergy of Poitou; this marked the beginning of his political career; pronounced the closing address of the assembly on February 23, 1615 in the presence of the king; among other things, he asked that the decrees of the Council of Trent be promulgated throughout France and he was the first French bishop to implement them in his diocese. Grand almoner of the Queen Mother Maria de' Medici. Named secretary of state for war and the interior, with precedence over all the other ministers, on November 30, 1616. The following year, after the assassination, ordered by the King Louis XIII, of Concino Concini, favorite of the queen mother, he was forced to leave the ministry and follow her to Blois. In order to escape the political intrigues which followed him, he retired in June, 1617, to the priory of Coussay and in October, 1617, published his Les principaux points de la foi de l'église catholique, défendus contre l'éecrit addressé au Roi par les quartre ministres de Charenton. Richelieu continued to be represented to the king as an enemy to his power; Fr. Leclerc du Tremblay, O.F.M. Cap., better known as Père Joseph, never succeeded in completely clearing him in King Louis XIII's opinion. Later, in 1618, the king exiled him to Avignon for almost a year and there he composed a catechism entitled Instruction du chrétien which became very famous. After the queen mother escaped from Blois in 1619, Richelieu was charged with negotiating an accommodation between her and the king and he accomplished the delicate mission successfully. He helped conclude the treaties of Angoulême, 1620, and Angers, 1621, and as recompense, the queen mother asked Pope Gregory XV for his promotion to the cardinalate. Provisor of La Sorbonne University, Paris, from 1622, and as such, head of the Association of Doctors of the same; later, 1635 to 1642, he built the church where he is buried.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 5, 1622; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title. Did not participate in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. On April 19, 1624, after the death of the duke of Luynes, prime minister, the cardinal became a member of the royal council, in spite of the strong dislike the king felt for him, and only with consultative voice. Resigned the government of the diocese before April 29, 1624. Soon after that year, on August 12, he was named prime minister. Once in power, he set three main goals of which he never lost sight: to reduce to impotence the Calvinist party in France; to restore the royal authority and bring down the iron grip of the grands, Queen Mother Maria de' Medici, Queen Anne of Austria, Gaston d'Orléans, the king's brother, and the highest nobles of the court; and to weaken the influence of the Hapsburgs in Europe even by forging alliances with the Protestants. He fought the Huguenots who were forming a state within the state. He placed La Rochelle, their main stronghold, under siege in 1628 and eventually took it, later signing the Peace of Alais, June 28, 1629. It confirmed the freedom of worship and the civil equality given to the Protestants by the Edict of Nantes but they lost their stronghold and their military privileges. The cardinal also combatted the nascent Jansenism. He faced the frequent plots of his enemies and intimidated them with the executions of Michel de Marillac in 1632; Chalais, duke de Montmorency also in 1632; and Henri Coiffier, marquis de Cinq-Mars and de Thou in 1642; with the collaboration of Père Joseph and the espionage network they had set up against both his domestic as well as foreign enemies. To restore the royal authority, he increased centralization, reorganizing the government and limiting the powers of the Parlements and the provincial governors, and developing the institution of the royal intendents, who became the instruments of the monarchical absolutism. He aligned France with the Protestant powers in the Thirty Years' War. Coadjutor of the abbot of Cluny, 1627; abbot commendatario since 1629 or 1635. He established the Académie Française in 1634. Abbot commendatario of Citeaux, 1635 (2). In February 1638, he encouraged King Louis XIII to consecrate France to the Blessed Virgin Mary. He largely used his vast wealth for public service, support of the arts and of La Sorbonne University. The cardinal was also a playwright and musician of some talent. In his final years, the cardinal's relations with Pope Urban VIII were strained because of conflicts on temporal matters but he remained orthodox in his views on the relationship between church and state and resisted the Gallican challenge to papal authority. He employed Cardinal Louis de Nogaret de La Valette as general; Cardinal Pierre de Bérulle, Orat., as diplomat; and Fr. François de Leclerc du Tremblay, O.F.M.Cap., as chief assistant. He himself designated Cardinal Jules Raymond Mazarin his successor as prime minister.
Death. December 4, 1642, in his palace in Paris. Buried in the chapel of La Sorbonne, Paris, which he had financed (3).
Bibliography. Belloc, Hilaire. Richelieu; a study. Philadelphia : London : J.B. Lippincott, 1929; Bergin, Joseph. Cardinal Richelieu : power and the pursuit of wealth. New Haven, Conn. : Yale University Press, 1985; Bergin, Joseph. The rise of Richelieu. New Haven : Yale University Press, 1991; Blet, Pierre. Richelieu et l'Église. Versailles : Via Romana, 2007; Bluche, François. Richelieu : essai. Paris: Perrin, 2003; Bonney, Richard. Political change in France under Richelieu and Mazarin, 1624-1661. Oxford [England] ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1978; Burckhardt, Carl Jacob. Richelieu and his age. New York : Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1970; Burckhardt, Carl Jacob. Richelieu, his rise to power. New York : Oxford University Press 1940; Capefigue, Jean-Baptiste-Honoré-Raymond. Les cardinaux ministres. Le cardinal de Richelieu. Paris : Amyot, 1865; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 279-280; Church, William Farr. Richelieu and reason of state. Princeton, N.J., Princeton University Press, 1973, c1972; Dollot, Louis. Les cardinaux-ministres sous la monarchie française. Préf. de Louis Madelin. Paris : D. Wapler, 1952; Elliott, John Huxtable. Richelieu and Olivares. Cambridge [Cambridgeshire] ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1984. (Cambridge studies in early modern history); Erlanger, Philippe. Richelieu. Paris : Perrin, 1967-1970. 3 v. (Présence de l'histoire). Tome 1. L'ambitieux.--2. Le Révolutionnaire.--3. Le dictateur.; Erlanger, Philippe. The King's minion: Richelieu, Louis XIII, and the affair of Cinq-Mars. Englewood Cliffs, N.J. : Prentice-Hall, 1972, )1971 [1st American ed.] . Translation of Cinq-Mars, by Gilles and Heather Cremonesi; Federn, Karl. Richelieu. Wien ; Leipzig : K. König, 1926; Fidao-Justiniani, J.-E. Richelieu, precepteur de la nation française. La réforme morale et la réforme de l'État. Paris: Bernard Grasset, 1936; Hauser, Henri. La pensée et l'action économiques du cardinal de Richelieu. Paris : Presses universitaires de France, 1944; Hildesheimer, Françoise. Richelieu. Paris : Flammarion, 2004; Jacques, Émile. Philippe Cospeau : un ami-ennemi de Richelieu, 1571-1646. Paris : Beauchesne, 1989. (Bibliothèque Beauchesne. Religions, société, politique, 1); Knecht, Robert Jean. Richelieu. London [England] ; New York : Longman, 1991. (Profiles in power; London, England); Levi, Anthony. Cardinal Richelieu and the making of France. New York : Carroll & Graf, 2000; Lodge, Richard. Richelieu. London ; New York : Macmillan and Co., Ltd.; Macmillan & Co., 1896; Marvick, Elizabeth Wirth. The young Richelieu : a psychoanalytic approach to leadership. Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1983. (Chicago original paperbacks); Morgain, Stéphane-Marie. "Richelieu 'pasteur d'ámes'." Revue d'Historie ecclésiastique, CIV, no. 1 (Janvier-Mars 2009), p. 115-137; Parrott, David. Richelieu's army : war, government, and society in France, 1624-1642. Cambridge, U.K. ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2001. (Cambridge studies in early modern history); Perkins, James Breck. Richelieu and the growth of French power. New York : G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1900; Ranum, Orest A. Richelieu and the councillors of Louis XIII, a study of the secretaries of state and superintendents of finance in the ministry of Richelieu, 1635-1642. Oxford [England] Clarendon Press, 1963. Richelieu and his age. Edited by Joseph Bergin and Laurence Brockliss. Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1992. Contents: Richelieu as chief minister : a comparative study of the favourite in early seventeenth-century politics / A. Lloyd Moote -- 'Une bonne paix' : Richelieu's foreign policy and the peace of Christendom / Hermann Weber -- Richelieu and reform : rhetoric and political reality / Robin Briggs -- Louis XIII, Richelieu, and the royal finances / Richard Bonney -- Richelieu, the grands, and the French army / David Parrott -- Richelieu and his bishops? : ministerial power and Episcopal patronage under Louis XIII / Joseph Bergin -- Richelieu and the arts / Edric Caldicott -- Richelieu, education, and the state / Laurence Brockliss; Richelieu, Armand Jean du Plessis, duc de, 1585-1642. Political testament; the significant chapters and supporting selections. Translated by Henry Bertram Hill. Madison : University of Wisconsin Press, 1961; Tapii, Victor Lucien. La France de Louis XIII et de Richelieu. Paris : Flammarion, 1967; Treasure, Geoffrey Russell Richards. Cardinal Richelieu and the development of absolutism. London : A. and C. Black, 1972; Treasure, Geoffrey Russell Richards. Richelieu and Mazarin. London ; New York : Routledge, 1998. (Lancaster pamphlets); Wedgwood, Cicely Veronica. Richelieu and the French monarchy. London : The English Universities Press, 1949. (Teach yourself history library).
Links. Biography by Georges Goyau, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his portrait and biography, Primary Contributor: Daniel Patrick O'Connell, in English, Encyclopaedia Britannica; his portrait and biography, in English Web Gallery of Art, created by Emil Kren and Daniel Marx; his biography and extensive bibliography by Klaus-Gunther Wesseling, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon; his portrait by Ladislaus Bakalowicz, Artzym; his portrait by Philippe de Champaigne, CGFA; his triple portrait by Philippe de Champaigne and studio, probably 1642, The National Gallery, Londo; another portrait by Philippe de Champaigne, châteaux de Versailles et de Trianon, Versailles, France, Réunion des Musée Nationaux; and another portrait by Philippe de Chapaigne, musée Condé, Chantilly, France, Réunion des Musée Nationaux; his bust by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, The Web Gallery of Art; his effigy on a medal by Jean Warin, Musée du Louvre, Paris, France, Réunion des Musée Nationaux; his effigy on another medal (wearing the decoration of of the Order of Saint-Esprit) by Jean Warin, Musée du Louvre, Paris, France, Réunion des Musée Nationaux; his portrait by Simon Vouet, The J. Paul Getty Museum; engraving by Jacon van der Heyden, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; his engraving by J. B. Brühl, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; his statue in Luçon, Histoire de France; his funeral monument, by Jean-Lubin Vauzelle, Musée des Monuments Français, Paris, France, Bibliothèque Nationale de France; and additional views of his funeral monument, Requiem Datenbank.
(1) Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1447, indicates that some sources say that he was born in the château de Richelieu, in Poitou.
(2) His appointment was part of a project to unify all the Benedictine congregations of France under his authority. That same year, the congregation of Cluny was united to that of Saint-Maur.
(3) During the French Revolution, his embalmed corpse was removed from its tomb, and the mummified front of his head, having been removed and replaced during the original embalming process, was stolen. It ended up in the possession of Nicholas Armez of Brittany by 1796, and he occasionally exhibited the well-preserved face. His nephew, Louis-Philippe Armez, inherited it and also occasionally exhibited it and lent it out for study. In 1866, Emperor Napoléon III persuaded Armez to return the face to the government for re-interment with the rest of Cardinal Richelieu's body. An investigation of subsidence of the church floor enabled it to be photographed in 1895.
(10) 3. RIDOLFI, Ottavio (1582-1624)
Birth. 1582, Rome (1). Baptized on March 24, 1582, in the church of S. Giovanni de' Fiorentini, Rome. Son of Giovanfrancesco Ridolfi, Florentine senator, and Costanza Ugolini. Brother of Ludovico Ridolfi, bishop of Patti, and Niccolò Ridolfi, O.P., master of the Sacred Palace in the pontificate of Pope Gregory XV and master general of his order. His last name is also listed as Rodolfi, de Ridolfi, Rodulphus, and Rodolfo. Relative of Cardinal Nicolò Ridolfi (1517).
Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.
Early life. Governor of Cesena, June 16, 1604. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, December 18, 1604. Governor of Foligno, July 16, 1605. Governor of Rimini, November 19, 1607. Governor of Faenza, 1608. Governor of Forlì, 1610.
Priesthood. Ordained, August 14, 1612, Rome.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ariano, October 1, 1612. Consecrated (no information found). Vice-governor of Benevento, 1617. Vice-governor of Fermo, April 26, 1621.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 5, 1622; received the red hat and the title of S. Agnese in Agone, October 26, 1622. Transferred to the see of Agrigento, Sicily, March 20, 1623. Participated in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. Opted for the deaconry of S. Agata in Suburra, pro illa vice elevated to title, October 7, 1623.
Death. July 6, 1624, at 3 a.m., Agrigento. Buried next to the main altar of the cathedral of Agrigento (2). The news of his death reached Rome on July 25, 1624.
Link. His prosopography, in German.
(1) His prosopography, linked above, says that he was born in Florence; Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoirs Aevi, IV, 94, indicates that he was Florentine but that he was baptized in Rome. At that time, newborns were baptized right after birth and it seems very unlikely that the family would have traveled to Rome to have him baptized in the Florentine church if he had been born in Florence.
(2) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 236; his prosopography, linked above, indicates that he was buried in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome.
(11) 4. CUEVA-BENAVIDES Y MENDOZA-CARRILLO, Alfonso de la (1575-1655)
Birth. 1572, Bedmar, archdiocese of Granada, Spain (1). Son of Luis de la Cueva Benavides, seqor of Bedmar, and Elvira Carrillo de Mendoza y Cárdenas. His first name is also listed as Alonso and his last name as Cueva Benavides only. Another cardinal of the family was Bartolomé de la Cueva y Toledo (1544).
Education. (No information found).
Early life. Pursued a military career at a young age at his father's side, captain general of the Canary Islands; since 1590, took his father's place in his absences; named captain of arcabuceros, 1591; at the death of his father in 1599, became señor of his house and title, and commander of a cavalry company. Spanish ambassador in Venice, December 23, 1606 for eight years (2). King Felipe III of Spain granted him the habit of the Order of Alcántara, April 16, 1610 and named him marquis of Bedmar, 1614; resigned the title when promoted to the cardinalate. Charged by the king of Spain with the devolution to the duke of Savoy of the territories conquered by the Spanish forces in Piedmont, 1618. Later, ambassador extraordinary to and counselor of Infanta-gobernadora Isabel Clara Eugenia and the Junta of War in Flanders. Protonotary apostolic.
Sacred orders. (No information found).
Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of September 5, 1622. Did not participate in the conclave of 1623, which elected Pope Urban VIII. Received the red hat and the title of S. Martino ai Monti, July 18, 1633. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 8, 1635 to January 7, 1636. Opted for the order of cardinal priests an the title of S. Balbina, July 9, 1635. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X.
Episcopate. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, October 17, 1644. Consecrated, Sunday, October 23, 1644, church of the Carmelites Discalced, Rome, by Cardinal Gil Albornoz, archbishop of Taranto (3), assisted by Alfonso Gonzaga, titular archbishop of Colosse, and by Juan Pastor, O. de M., bishop of Crotone. Named bishop of Málaga, retaining the diocese of Palestrina, July 27, 1648; did not take possession of the diocese until 1651. Did not participate in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII.
Death. August 10, 1655, Málaga (4). Buried in the cathedral of Málaga. The news of his death reached Rome on August 28, 1655.
Bibliography. Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1500-1699). Españoles obispos en españa, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 34), pp. 173-174; Orive, M. "Cueva y Benavides, Alfonso o Alonso de la", Diccionario de Historia Eclesiástica de España, I, 659; Troyano Chicharro, José Manuel. "Don Alonso de Cueva-Benavides y Mendoza-Carrillo (Granada, 1574-Malaga, 1655)." Chronica Nova. Revista de Historia Moderna de la Universidad de Granada, 97, 273-314; Viñes, Cristina. Figuras granadinas. Granada : Sierra Nevada 95 : El Legado Andalusí, 1995; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), V, 339.
(1) This is according to Orive, "Cueva y Benavides, Alfonso o Alonso de la", Diccionario de Historia Eclesiástica de España, I, 659; Viñes, Figuras granadinas, indicates that he was born in the summer of 1574 in the Alhambra of Granada and that he was baptized in the church of Santa María.
(2) Dictionnaire des cardinaux, cols. 752-753, says that in 1618, with the duke of Osonne, viceroy of Naples, and the governor of the Milanese, planned a conspiracy that would ruin Venice. They were going to promote an armed action that would be helped by a naval invasion. The plan, discovered by the French, failed. The source adds that the matter is regarded as problématique and that the hatred the future cardinal had for Venice made him write in Italian a traité in which he examined the liberty of that republic. At least, the most common opinion attributed the work to him. It is entitled Squittinio della liberta Veneta. Orive, "Cueva y Benavides, Alfonso o Alonso de la", Diccionario de Historia Eclesiástica de España , I, 659, indicates that his name and diplomatic mission are inseparably linked to the so called Conjuración de Venecia and that many historians have attributed to him a libel entitled Squitinio della libertá veneta, printed in Mirandola in 1622, translated to Spanish by Antonio Herrera; others say that he was only the inspirer. Two members of the Spanish Academy of History, Aurelio Fernández Guerra and Amador de los Ríos, have demonstrated that the famous conspiracy was an invention without foundation.
(3) Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 753, erroneously indicates that he was also bishop of Oviedo.
(4) Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 17, indicates that he died at 80 while Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 237, says that he died at 83.
LOBO GUERRERO, Bartolomé (1546-1623)
Birth. 1546 (1), Ronda, diocese of Málaga, Spain. One of the three sons of Alonso Guerrero and Catalina de Góngora. His younger brother was a Dominican friar who accompanied him to México. His last name is also listed as Lobo de Guerrero.
Education. Pontificio y Real Colegio-Universidad de la Pursísima Concepción of Osuna; University of Salamanca, Salamanca (bachelor's degree); Pontificio y Real Colegio-Universidad de Santa María de Jesús of Sevilla (doctorate in theology and sacred canons).
Early life. Obtained the chairs of Vísperas, theology and sacred canons and later became rector of Colegio de Santa María de Jesús, Sevilla. In 1580 was named fiscal of the Tribunal of the Holy Office in México, and thirteen years later (2), was promoted to inquisitor. In 1595, together with Andrés de Casso, O.P., he was a candidate for the metropolitan see of Santa Fe de Bogotá but King Felipe II of Spain presented Fr. Casso for that see; but shortly after, Fr. Casso was promoted to the diocese of León, Spain, and Lobo Guerrero was then elected to the see of Santa Fe de Bogotá. On May 15, 1596 he was sent the notification and on October 31 of that year the king signed the ejecutorias.
Sacred orders. (No information found).
Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Santa Fe de Bogotá, August 12, 1596. Consecrated, August 24, 1597, México, by Diego Romano Vitoria, bishop of Tlaxcala. He arrived in Santa Fe de Bogotá on March 28, 1599. He convoked and presided over the diocesan synod of 1606 (3). Transferred to the metropolitan see of Lima, February 23, 1607. Convoked and presided over the diocesan synod of 1613 (4).
Cardinalate. According to a letter from the metropolitan chapter of the cathedral of Lima to Pope Urban VIII, in existence in Archivo de Indias, in Sevilla, that body asked the pope for the promotion of its archbishop to the cardinalate. The response from the pope is not known.
Death. January 12, 1623, Lima. Buried in the chapel of S. Bartolomé that he had built behind the main altar in the metropolitan cathedral of Lima. Later, when the cathedral was modernized, that chapel disappeared and his remains were moved to one of the lateral chapels of the right nave.
Bibliography. Constituciones synodales del Arzobispado de los Reyes en el Piru, 1613 / [hechas y ordenadas por] Bartholomi Lobo Guerrero. Cuernavaca, México : Centro Intercultural de Documentación, 1970. (CIDOC fuentes ; no. 11 : Serie segunda); Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, IV, 187 and 221; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1500-1699). Españoles obispos en españa, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 34), p. 110; Mantilla Ruiz, Luis Carlos. Don Bartolomé Lobo Guerrero : inquisidor y tercer arzobispo de Santafé de Bogota, 1599-1609. Santafé de Bogotá : Academia Colombiana de Historia, 1996. (Biblioteca de historia nacional ; vol. CXLVII); Sínodos de Lima de 1613 y 1636 /
(1) This is according to Guitarte, Episcopologio Español (1500-1699), p. 110; Arias de Ugarte, in the introduction of Sínodos de Lima de 1613 y 1636, XXII, indicates that he was born towards the year 1545.
(2) This is according to Mantilla Ruiz, Don Bartolomé Lobo Guerrero : inquisidor y tercer arzobispo de Santafé de Bogota, 1599-1609, p. 34; Arias Ugarte in Sínodos de Lima de 1613 y 1636, p. XXIII, indicates that he was promoted to inquisitor three years later.
(3) The synod began on August 21, 1606; it promulgated thirty-one constitutions that were solemnly and publicly read at the metropolitan cathedral of Bogotá on September 3, 1606.
(4) The synod began on July 10, 1613; its constitutions were sanctioned by the archbishop on October 26, 1613 and solemnly and publicly read at the metropolitan cathedral of Lima on October 27 and 28, 1613. The main objective of this synod was the evangelization of the Indians and the three points on which it based and emphasized this objective were idolatry, doctrines and defense of the Indians. Its constitutions were divided into five books which contain 25 titles and 201 chapters. The effect of these documents lasted until the 19th century.
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