The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Urban VIII (1623-1644)
Consistory of October 2, 1623 (I)

(1) 1. BARBERINI, seniore, Francesco (1597-1679)

Birth. September 23, 1597, Florence. Son of Carlo Barberini and Costanza Magalotti. Brother of Taddeo Barberini, prince of Palestrina and prefect of Rome, and of Cardinal Antonio Barberini, iuniore, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1627). Nephew of Pope Urban VIII (1623-1644) and of Cardinals Antonio Barberini, seniore, O.F.M.Cap. (1624) and Lorenzo Magalotti (1624). Cousin of Cardinal Francesco Maria Macchiavelli (1641). Uncle of Cardinal Carlo Barberini (1653). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Francesco Barberini, iuniore (1690).

Education. University of Pisa, Pisa (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, 1623). Called to Rome by the new pope Urban VIII, his uncle. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, August 9, 1623. Governor of Fermo, August 28, 1623 until 1644.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of October 2, 1623; received the red hat and the title of S. Onofrio, pro illa vice deaconry, November 20, 1623. Legate in Avignon, October 2, 1623 until 1633. Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, 1623. Cardinal nipote, that is to say secretary of State; he had limited faculties because the pope exercised most of them himself. Prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, October 13, 1623 to March 18, 1628. Governor of Tivoli, May 9, 1624 until 1632. Opted for the deaconry of S. Agata in Suburra, November 13, 1624. Legate a latere to France, March 17 to December, 1625, to negotiate with Cardinal Armand-Jean du Plessis de Richelieu the question of the Valtellina and to achieve an arrangement in the secular contention between France and Spain; both objectives failed. Legate a latere to Spain, February to October, 1626, to negotiate with the Count-Duke of Olivares; a pact between France and Spain was achieved but with minimal consideration to the papal diplomatic effort. Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, 1625. Librarian of the Holy Roman Church, July 1, 1626 until December 13, 1633. Abbot commendatario of the abbeys Grottaferrata and Farfa, 1627. From 1628, was invested with full faculties in the charge of the foreign policy of the Papal State. He followed a policy of formal neutralism, actually with clear pro-French propensity, as dictated by the pope, in the second war for the succession of Monferrato and in the Thirty Years' War. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, 1629. Vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, November 24, 1632 until his death. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, pro illa vice deaconry, proper of the vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, November 24, 1632 until his death. Having resigned the legation of Avignon in 1633, was named legate in Urbino, February 21, 1633 until ca. December 18, 1645. In 1633 promoted a league between the Italian states which failed because of the pope's hostility towards the Republic of Venice and the interference of the European powers. Secretary of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, 1633-1679. One of ten judges in Galileo Galilei's trial; he led a faction of cardinals that sought lenient treatment for Galileo. Supported the War of Castro, conducted in fact by his brothers, which concluded in a disastrous failure. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Opted for the order of priests, November 14, 1644 and his pro illa vice deaconry was restored to title.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, retaining in commendam the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, October 23, 1645. Consecrated, Sunday November 5, 1645, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Girolamo Colonna, assisted by Giovanni Battista Scannarolli, bishop of Sidon, and by Bernardino Panicola, bishop of Ravello. Implicated in the inquiries promoted by the new Pope Innocent X on the embezzlements perpetrated by the Barberinis, in 1646 he was forced to escape to France with his brother Taddeo on January 15, 1646, after a somewhat violent consistory; their brother Cardinal Antonio had left Rome on September 28, 1645; they all were under the protection of Cardinal Jules Mazarin. In 1648 the Barberinis obtained from the pope the pardon and the restitution of their confiscated assets and returned to the Roman palace in Quattro Fontane. From this moment the cardinal limited his public activity to the functions inherent to its charges. With his younger brother, Cardinal Antonio, he promoted an intense cultural activity, practicing a princely mecenatismo whether in private ways or within the academies of which he was protector. Particularly of note is the formation of a very rich library of which the curator was Luca Holstenio. He also gave generous hospitality to many intellectuals who visited Rome or lived in the city such as Naudé, Vossius, Morin, Heinsius, Milton, Ughelli, Bouchard, Castelli, Doni, and Allacci, who succeeded Holstenio as curator of the library. Among the artists, the predilect was Gian Lorenzo Bernini. He was also a strong supporter of the activities of the theater of palazzo Barberini which set the standards for the Roman melodrama and influenced the Venetian. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, retaining in commendam the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, September 23, 1652. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, retaining in commendam the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, October 11, 1666. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI.

Death. December 10, 1679, near midnight, Rome. On December 13, 1679, his body was taken to the patriarchal Vatican basilica and buried the following day in the sepulchre of its canons.

Bibliography. I Barberini e la cultura Europea del seicento : atti del convego internazionale Palazzo Barberini alle Quattro Fontane, 7-11 dicembre 2004. Per cura di Lorenza Mochi Onori ... [et al.]. Roma : De Luca Editori D' Arte, 2007. Note: Papers from the International Conference on Barberini and the European Culture of the 17th Century, held at the Palazzo Barberini, December 7-11, 2004; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 229.

Links. His engraving by G. Valet; his bust by Lorenzo Ottoni, Museo di Roma, Rome; his portrait by Mario Nuzzi, called Mario de' Fiori, Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica, Rome; his bust; his portrait by an anonymous artist, Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica, Rome; his portrait by Andrea Sacchi, Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, Cologne, Germany; and his arms, engraving, portrait and prosopography, in German.

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LOBO GUERRERO, Bartolomé (1546-1623)

Birth. 1546 (1), Ronda, diocese of Málaga, Spain. Son of Alonso Guerrero and Catalina de Góngora. His last name is also listed as Lobo de Guerrero.

Education. Studied in Osuna, Salamnaca and Seville; obtained a doctorate in canons.

Early life. Obtained the chair of Vísperas and later became rector of Colegio de Santa María de Jesús, Seville. In 1580 was named fiscal of the Inquisition in México, and three years later, was promoted to inquisitor. In 1595, together with Andrés de Casso, O.P., he was a candidate for the metropolitan see of Santafé de Bogotá but King Felipe II of Spain presented the former. Shortly after, Archbishop Casso was transferred to the diocese of León, Spain, and Fr. Lobo Guerrero was elected his successor. On May 15, 1596 he was sent the notification and on October 31 of that year the king signed the ejecutorias.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Santa Fe de Bogotá, August 12, 1596. Consecrated, between July and November of 1597, México, by Diego Romano Vitoria, bishop of Tlaxcala. He arrived in Santafé de Bogotá on March 28, 1599. He convoked and presided over a diocesan synod that began on August 21, 1606; it promulgated thirty one constitutions that were solemnly and publicly read in the metropolitan cathedral on September 3, 1606. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Lima, February 23, 1607.

Cardinalate. According to a letter from the metropolitan chapter of the cathedral Lima to Pope Urban VIII, in existence in Archivo de Indias, in Seville, that body asked the pope for the promotion of its archbishop to the cardinalate.The response from the pope is not known.

Death. January 12, 1623, Lima. Buried in the chapel of S. Bartolomé that he had built behind the main altar in the metropolitan cathedral of Lima. Later, when the cathedral was modernized, that chapel disappeared and his remains were moved to one of the lateral chapels of the right nave.

Bibliography. Constituciones synodales del Arzobispado de los Reyes en el Piru, 1613 / [hechas y ordenadas por] Bartholomi Lobo Guerrero. Cuernavaca, México : Centro Intercultural de Documentación, 1970. (CIDOC fuentes ; no. 11 : Serie segunda); Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, IV, 187 and 221; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1500-1699). Españoles obispos en españa, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 34), p. 110; Mantilla Ruiz, Luis Carlos. Don Bartolomé Lobo Guerrero : inquisidor y tercer arzobispo de Santafé de Bogota, 1599-1609. Santafé de Bogotá : Academia Colombiana de Historia, 1996. (Biblioteca de historia nacional ; vol. CXLVII); Smnodos de Lima de 1613 y 1636 / Bartolomé Lobo Guerrero, Fernando Arias de Ugarte. Madrid : Centro de Estudios Históricos del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas ; Salamanca : Instituto de Historia de la Teología Española de la Universidad Pontificia de Salamanca, 1987. (Tierra nueva e cielo nuevo, 22. Sínodos americanos, 6); Vargas Ugarte, Rubén. Historia de la iglesia en el Perú. 4 vols. Burgos : Imprenta de Aldecoa, 1959, v. 2. 1570-1640, pp. 298-323.

(1) This is according to Guitarte, Episcopologio Español (1500-1699), p. 110; Arias de Ugarte, in the introudction of Smnodos de Lima de 1613 y 1636, XXII, indicates that he was born towards the year 1545.

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