The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Urban VIII (1623-1644)
Consistory of January 19, 1626 (III)

(5) 1. CAETANI, Luigi (1595-1642)

Birth. July 1595, Piedimonte (1), diocese of Caserta. Son of Filippo I Caetani, duke of Sermoneta, and Camilla Gaetani dell'Aquila d'Aragona, of the dukes of Traetto. Descendant of the family of Pope Boniface VIII. Great-grand-nephew of Cardinal Niccolò Caetani (1536). Grand-nephew of Cardinal Enrico Caetani (1585). Nephew of Cardinals Bonifazio Caetani (1606); and Antonio Caetani (1621). Another member of the family was Cardinal Antonio Caetani (1402).

Education. Studied first in Ravenna, where his uncle Bonifazio was legate, and then in Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in law.

Early life. Abbot commendatario of San Leonardo, Puglia, September 19, 1608.

Episcopate. Elected titular patriarch of Antioch, with dispensation for not having yet received the sacred orders and not having yet reached the canonical age, March 14, 1622. Consecrated, Sunday June 12, 1622, in the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Ludovico Ludovisi, archbishop of Bologna, assisted by Galeazzo Sanvitale, archbishop emeritus of Bari, and by Vulpiano Volpi, archbishop emeritus of Chieti. In the same ceremony was consecrated Pietro Volpi, titular bishop of Salona, coadjutor of Novara. Coadjutor of Cardinal Antonio Caetani, archbishop of Capua, November 14, 1622. Preceptor of S. Leonardo de la Mattina, diocese of Manfredonia. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Capua, March 17, 1624.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 19, 1626; received the red hat and the title of S. Pudenziana, February 9, 1626. Resigned the government of the archdiocese before March 1, 1627. President of the Congregation for the Reform of the Breviary since 1631. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 12, 1637 until January 15, 1638.

Death. April 15, 1642, in his Roman palace. Buried in his family's chapel in the church of S. Pudenziana.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 249-250; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 195.

Links. His portrait by an anonymous artist, Palazzo Caetani, Rome; his episcopal lineage, in English; and his genealogy, I2.

This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 86, but the same source, p. 19 indicates that he was Roman. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 249, also indicates that he was Roman.

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(6) 2. MARQUEMONT, Denis-Simon de (1572-1626)

Birth. September 30, 1572, Paris, France. Son of Denis Simon, sieur de Marquemont, collector des tailles of Paris, secretary of Queen Maria de' Medici by 1583, and Marie Rouillart. He was baptized on January 10, 1572 at Saint-Eustache, Paris. His last name is Simon but he is listed in all sources as Marquemont.

Education. University of Paris, Paris; University of Angers, Angers (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, September 1592).

Early life. Received the clerical tonsure, 1580. Taught for a short time in Paris after 1594. Went to Rome as secretary of Jacques Davy du Perron, bishop of Evreux, French ambassador before the Holy See. By order of the king of France stayed in Rome as counselor to the young duke of Luxembourg, new French ambassador.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 1603. Paris. Papal chamberlain. French auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, 1604. Acting ambassador of France before the Holy See; he was so successful that the king ordered the permanent ambassador not to conclude any business without consulting with him. Accompanied de Silléry to Florence to negotiate the marriage of King Henry IV of France with Maria de' Medici; the negotiation was concluded successfully. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monastery of Saint-Germain-Buzzeles.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Lyon, November 5, 1612. Consecrated, Sunday November 11, 1612, in the church of S. Luigi de' Francesi, Rome, by Cardinal François de la Rochefoucauld, bishop of Senlis, assisted by Volpiano Volpi, archbishop of Chieti, and by Alessandro Borghi, former bishop of Borgo San Sepolcro. Administrator, sede vacante, for several years of the diocese of Autun. Participated in the Assembly of the Clergy of 1614 and was its president. French ambassador before the Holy See in two occasions, 1617 and 1622. Friend of St. Francis de Sales, bishop of Genève.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 19, 1626; received the red hat and the title of SS.Trinità al Monte Pincio, February 9, 1626. When promoted, he was already affected by un mal cruel which he suffered with great patience and virtue.

Death. September 16, 1626, Rome. Buried in his title.

Bibliography. Bergin, Joseph. The making of the French Episcopate, 1589-1661. New Haven; London : Yale University Press, 1996, ch. IV, "Biographical dictionary," p. 665; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 240-252; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. "Le épiscopat français de Clément VIII a Paul VI." In Dictionnaire d'histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques (Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1912- ). Fascicule 104, p. 406; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 172.

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(7) 3. HARRACH, Ernest Adalbert von (1598-1667)

Birth. October 25, 1598 (1), Vienna, Austria. Son of Count Karl von Harrach and Maria Elisabeth von Schrattenbach. His name in Czech is Arnost Vojtìch hrabì z Harrachu.

Education. Educated by Nikolaus Walther; received the minor orders in Vienna on June 8, 1615; admitted to Collegio Germanico, Rome, November 8, 1616; wrote his Symbulecticon seu consultatio virtutum and dedicated it to Cardinal Scipione Borghese; he left the Collegio in 1621 and entered the papal court.

Early life. As a second son, he was destined by his family to the ecclesiastical career. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Olomouc. As it was customary, took a trip of instruction abroad, together with his educator; arrived in Rome in late 1616. Member of the Marian sodality of S. Apollinare. Privy chamberlain of Pope Gregory XV, 1621.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Provost of Soliensis, archdiocese of Salzburg. Canon and prebendary of Passau.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Prague, with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age, January 9, 1623. Consecrated, Sunday January 22, 1623, Sistine chapel, Rome, by Cardinal Marcantonio Gozzadini, assisted by Alessandro Bosco, bishop of Gerace, and by Carlo Bovi, bishop of Bagnorea. In the same ceremony were consecrated Ottaviano Garzadori, bishop of Boiano; Ovidio Lupari, bishop of Teabo; and Celemente Confetti, titular bishop of Tiberiade. Grand master of Ordo Militaris Crucigerorum cum stella rubea from 1623 until his death.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 19, 1626. Given the title of primate of the kingdom of Bohemia, 1626. Pope Urban VIII gave him and his successors the title primate of Bohemia, May 10, 1627. Crowned Empress Eleonore de Gonzaga, seniore, wife of Emperor Ferdinand II, 1627. Received the red hat and the title of S. Maria degli Angeli, June 7, 1632. Crowned Empress Marie-Anne, first wife of Emperor Ferdinand III, 1637. Privy counselor to Emperor Ferdinand III, 1637. Grand master of the order of the Cross and the Red Star in Bohemia, Silesia, and Poland. Chancellor of the University of Prague. Co-protector of the hereditary states of the emperor. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, July 13, 1644. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Arrested in his palace by Colonel Kannenberg when the Swedish took over a section of Prague; he lost in that occasion part of his wealth and owed his freedom to Cardinal Jules Mazarin, who interceded for him before Queen Christina, with fifteen thousand écus and a letter written by him promising not to take revenge. Crowned Ferdinand IV, King of the Romans, 1646. On October 29, 1648, he blessed the marriage of King Felipe IV of Spain with Amrie-Anne, daughter of Ferdinand III, and accompanied the new queen, in the name of the emperor, to the frontier with Italy. Crowned Empress Eleonore de Gonzaga, iuniore, third wife of Emperor Ferdinand III, 1651. On March 4, 1654, participated in the solemn act in which the two academies of Prague, the Clementine, of the Jesuits, and the Caroline, founded by Emperor Charles IV, were united into one sole institution with the name of University of Karel-Ferdinand, of which Jesuit Fr. Molitor was the first rector. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Crowned Leopold and Eleonore de Gonzaga, iuniore, third wife of Ferdinand II, as king and queen of Bohemia, 1655. Crowned Leopold I, King of the Romans, 1656. By apostolic brief, the cathedral chapter of Trent was given permission to nominate him and retain both sees, September 11, 1663. Preconized bishop of Trent, retaining the administration of Prague, November 11, 1666. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, July 18, 1667. Cardinal protoprete.

Death. October 25, 1667, Vienna, on his return from the conclave. The news of his death reached Rome on November 7, 1667. Buried in the family crypt in Augustinerhofkirche, Vienna.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 252-253; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 198; Catalano, Alessandro. La Boemia e la riconquista delle coscienze : Ernst Adalbert von Harrach e la Controriforma in Europa centrale (1620-1667). Premessa di Adriano Prosperi. Roma : Edizioni di storia e letteratura, 2005. (Temi e testi ; 55; Tribunali della pace); Kettner, Jiri. Dejiny prazske arcidieceze v datech. Prague : Zvon, 1993, p. 178; Krásl, Frantisek. Arnost hrabe Harrach : kardinál sv. církve rímské a kníze, arcibiskup prazsky : historickokritické vypsání nábnozenskych pomeru v Cechách od roku 1623-1667. Prague : Tiskem kn. Arcibisk. knihtiskárny za Rohlmcka a Sieversa, 1886.

Links. His engraving, arms and biography, in German; The diaries and daily notes of the cardinal Ernst Adalbert of Harrach (1598-1667). Edition and commentary, in English; the list of the archbishops of Prague; and his portrait.

(1) La Enciclopedia Cattolica; and Kettner, Dejiny prazske arcidieceze v datech, p. 178, indicate that he was born on November 4, 1598.

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(8) 4. SPADA, Bernardino (1594-1661)

Birth. April 21, 1594, Brisighella, diocese of Faenza. Son of Marchis Paolo Spada and Daria Albicini, from Forlì. This family was not related to the Spada family of Rome or Terni, of ancient nobility. Brother of Fr. Virgilio Spada, Orat. (1596-1662). Uncle of Cardinal Giambattista Spada (1654) and grand-uncle of Cardinal Fabrizio Spada (1675) and Sigismondo Spada, papal prelate (1622-1675).

Education. In Rome obtained doctorates in literature and in law.

Priesthood. Ordained (no date found). In the pontificate of Pope Paul V (1605-1621) he was named apostolic secretary. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, September 19, 1617 until 1621. Vicar of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Abbreviatore di parco maggiore, September 16, 1617. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government. Relator of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta. Named by Cardinal Scipione Borghese, archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, judge of the causes concerning that basilica. President della Grascia in the pontificate of Pope Gregory XV (1621-1623). Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber and prefect of the Annona, December 15, 1622. Prior of S. Daniele, Padua. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Padua. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Brescia.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Damietta, with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age of 30 years and not having received the presbyterate six months before, December 4, 1623. Consecrated, Friday December 8, 1623, church of S. Luigi de' Francesi, Rome, by Cardinal Guido Bentivoglio, assisted by Guillaume du Nozet, titular archbishop of Seleucia, and by François de Pericard, bishop of Evreux. Nuncio in France, December 1623 until 1627.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 19, 1626; received the red hat and the title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, August 9, 1627. Legate in Bologna, August 9, 1627 until 1631. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 15, 1638 to January 10, 1639. Prefect of the Congregation dei confini. Opted for the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, May 22, 1642. In 1642, together with his brother, Fr. Virgilio, carried out a peace mission before the Farneses of Parma in the occasion of the War of Castro, avoiding an attack against Rome. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, February 19, 1646. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Frascati, April 29, 1652. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Sabina, September 23, 1652. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, October 11, 1655. He was a humanist and mecenas and protector of the arts and artists.

Death. November 10, 1661, before dawn, Rome. Buried in the tomb of his family in the church of S. Girolamo della Carità, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 253-255; Karsten, Arne. Kardinal Bernardino Spada : eine Karriere im barocken Rom. Göttingen : Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2001.

Links. His portrait by Guido Reni, Galleria Spada, Rome; his portrait by Guertvino, Galleria Spada, Rome (found in 2007); biography, in Italian; his monument, church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, built in his memory in the chapel of S. Carlo Borromeo by his nephew Cardinal Fabrizio Spada; his portrait by Giovanni Maria Morandi, Galleria Spada, Rome; his engraving, portrait and prosopography, in German; and the Spada Chapel designed by Francesco Borromini, S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome.

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(9) 5. ZACCHIA, Laudivio (1565-1637)

Birth. 1565, Castle of Vezzano, diocese de Luni. Of a Genoese family. Son of Gaspare Zacchia and Veronica de' Nobili, of the signori of Vezzano. His first name is also listed as Luigi. Brother of Cardinal Paolo Emilio Zacchia (1599) and grandfather of Cardinal Paolo Emilio Rondinini (1643). Also, uncle of Gasparo Cecchinelli, bishop of Montefiascone e Corneto.

Education. University of Pisa, Pisa (doctorate in law).

Early life. Married Laura Biassa de' Nobili and had a son and a daughter (1). After his wife died, he left Vezzano and went to Rome to his brother the cardinal. Worked in the Roman Curia and later, entered the ecclesiastical state. Pro-treasurer of the Apostolic Chamber and later its commissary general. Consistorial lawyer, 1600. Protonotary apostolic, January 21, 1603.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Montefiascone e Corneto, August 17, 1605. Consecrated, August 28, 1605, church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Aldobrandini, achbishop of Ravenna, assisted by Paolo Alberi, former archbishop of Ragusa, and by Metellus Bichi, bishop of Sovana. Succeeded his brother the cardinal as bishop of that see. Vice-legate in Viterbo, 1614. Vice-legate of the province of the Patrimony, December 4, 1617. Nuncio in Venice, May 12, 1621 to December 16, 1623. Pro-treasurer and pro-collector general of the Apostolic Chamber, February 3, 1624. Prefect of the Apostolic Palace (2), December 27, 1624.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 19, 1626; received the red hat and the title of S. Sisto, February 9, 1626. Opted for the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, September 17, 1629. Resigned the government of the diocese before May 13, 1630 in favor of his nephew Gasparo Cecchinelli. Protector of the Republic of Genoa (in practice its representative before the Holy See), 1631-1637. Member of the cardinalitial commission in the second process of Galileo Galilei, September 23, 1632 to January 12, 1634. On June 22, 1633, when the sentence was given, he was one of the three cardinals, out of the ten that formed the commission, who did not subscribe the condemnation of Galileo. The other two were Gaspare Borgia and Francesco Barberini, seniore.

Death. August 30 (al. 31), 1637, before dawn, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, and buried in the chapel of S. Domenico in that same church. His precordi were deposited in the church of S. Nicola da Tolentino, Rome. (3).

Bibliography. Biaudet, Henry. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes jusqu'en 1648. Helsinki ; Suomalainen tiedeakatemia, 1910, pp. 203 and 292-293; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 255-257; Zacchia Rondinini, Antonio. Memorie della famiglia Zacchia Rondinini. Cenni storici e biografici. Documenti. Bologna : L. Parma, 1942, pp. 24-37.

Links. His episcopal lineage, in English; and his prosopography.

(1) They were Marcello, who died when he was 18 years old and was buried in the cathedral of Montefiascone, and Felice, who was born in 1593 and at 17 married Alessandro Rondinini. They had nine children, two daughters and seven sons, among them Paolo Emilio Rondinini, future cardinal.
(2) According to Zacchia Rondinini, Memorie della famiglia Zacchia Rondinini. Cenni storici e biografici. Documenti, p. 36, note 29, he was the last prefect because his successor, Marzio Ginetti, was given the title of maggiordomo.
(3) This is according to Hierarchia Catholic Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 20, and Zacchia Rondinini, Memorie della famiglia Zacchia Rondinini. Cenni storici e biografici. Documenti, p. 37. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 256, indicates that he was buried in the church of S. Pietro in Vincoli, his title.

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(10) 6. GESSI, Berlinghiero (1563-1639)

Birth. October 28 (1), 1563, Bologna. Son of Giulio Cesare Gessi, doctor in philosophy and medicine, and Valeria Segni, sister of Giulio Cesare Segni, bishop of Rieti. Of a patrician family. Nephew of Pierfrancesco Gessi, auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, and relative of Pope Gregory XIII. His last name is also listed as Gipsius and Gypsius. His first name is also listed as Berlingiero.

Education. University of Bologna, Bologna (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, May 4, 1583).

Early life. Called to Rome by his uncle the auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota. Practiced law in Rome. Public professor of law at the University of Bologna, 1589. Entered the ecclesiastical state. Vicar general of his uncle the bishop of Rieti. Vicar general of Benevento. Vicar general of Bologna, 1591. Provost of the cathedral chapter of Bologna, 1592. Returned to Rome and was named referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1594. Secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Religious and later civil lieutenant of the dean of the Cardinal Girolamo Rusticucci, vicar general of Rome, November 1599. Vicegerent of Rome, October 11, 1600 until May 12, 1607.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Rimini, November 13, 1606. Consecrated, Sunday November 19, 1606, Sistine chapel, Rome, by Antonio Sauli, assisted by Claudio Rangoni, bishop of Piacenza, and by Alessandro Guidiccioni, bishop pf Lucca. Nuncio in Venice, June 4, 1607 until November 14, 1618. Governor of Rome, December 12, 1618; confirmed, February 12, 1621 until April 1623. Resigned the government of the diocese because of poor health (he suffered from podagra), before November 20, 1619; retained its denomination. Prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, donec alter provideatur, August 28, 1623. Prefect of the Apostolic Palace, 1622; confirmed, August 14, 1624 to 1625. Administrator and apostolic governor of the state of Urbino, December 27, 1624 to May 1627.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 19, 1626; received the red hat and the title of S. Agostino, July 19, 1627. Prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, November 2, 1633. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 10, 1639 until his death. Prefect of the S.C. of Ecclesiastical Immunity.

Death. April 6, 1639, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Andrea della Valle, Rome, where the funeral took place, and buried in the chapel of SS. Trinità in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome.

Bibliography. Aleandri Barletta, Edvige. "Il testamento del cardinale Berlingiero Gessi e la Capella della SS. Trinità in S. Maria della Vittoria." Commentari, 21 (1970), 145-152; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 257-259; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 162; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignore governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto de Studi Romani Editore, 1972, pp. 98-99; Del Re, Niccolò. Il vicegerente del vicariato di Roma, Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1976, p. 52.

Links. His tomb, church of S. Maria della Vittoria, Rome; and his portrait by Guido Reni, in his sepulchral monument, S. Maria della Vittoria.

(1) This is according to Weber, Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809; Del Re, Monsignore governatore di Roma, p. 98, indicates that he was born on October 14, 1564.

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(11) 7. CORNARO, iuniore, Federico (1579-1653)

Birth. November 16, 1579, Venice. He belonged to the branch of S. Paolo line. Eldest of the eleven children of Doge Giovanni Cornaro, procurator of S. Marco, and Chiara Delfino. The other siblings were Francesco (doge of Venice); Marcantonio (bishop of Padua); Luigi; Giorgio (a bandit killed in Ferrara); Cornelia; and five nuns. His first name is also listed as Federico Baldissera Bartolomeo; and his last name as Corner. Nephew of Cardinal Francesco Cornaro, iuniore (1596). Grand-nephew of Cardinals Luigi Cornaro (1551) and Federico Cornaro, seniore, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1585). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Giorgio Cornaro (1697). Other cardinals of the family were Marco Cornaro (1500); Francesco Cornaro, seniore (1527); Andrea Cornaro (1544). Cardinal Giovanni Cornaro (1778) belonged to the San Maurizio branch of the family.

Education. Initial studies in Rome under the care of his uncle the cardinal; after his death in 1598, he returned to Venice; then studied at the University of Padua, where he obtained a doctorate in canon law in 1602.

Early life. Returned to Rome in 1602 and became cleric of the Apostolic Chamber in that same year, during the pontificate of Pope Clement VIII (1). Grand prior of Cyprus. Governor of Civitavecchia, September 24 to December 1607.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Bergamo, retaining the clericate of the Apostolic Chamber, February 23, 1623. Consecrated, April 7, 1623, Capella sacrarii apostolici, patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Marcantonio Gozzadini, assisted by Agostino Morosini, titular archbishop of Damas, and by Giovanni Benini, titular archbishop of Adrianopli. He entered the diocese on December 21, 1623. In the spring of 1624, he started the sacra visita of the diocese, which he completed in two years.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 19, 1626; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Traspontina, June 22, 1626. He returned to Bergamo from Rome on March 22, 1626. His promotion to the cardinalate produced a political turmoil in Venice because the republic prohibited the sons of a doge to accept papal appointments. Eventually, the senate approved the promotion but never his appointments to the sees of Vicenza and of Padua. Transferred to the see of Vicenza, September 7, 1626, without previous approval of the Venetian senate, which caused new difficulties. Opted for the title of S. Cecilia, November 15, 1627. Opted for the title of S. Marco, April 26, 1629. Transferred to the see of Padua, April 30, 1629; the nomination again produced discussion concerning its unconstitutionality; the doge, father of the cardinal, offered to resign his post; the Senate gave way in order to avoid the problems of an eventual succession. Elected by the Senate to the patriarchal see of Venice by 86 against 54 votes. Promoted to the patriarchate of Venice by the pope, June 11, 1631; he entered the see in 1632. He built the seminary, which had been demolished to construct the basilica of S. Maria della Salute; reorganized the patriarchal archive; built an oratory under the invocation of S. Ivo, patron of the poor; restored an academy for the formation of young nobles, founded by his predecessor, which because of the plague, had been abandoned; promoted the formation and the discipline of the clergy; the decorum of the sacred liturgy and the venerable celebrations. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, replacing the late Cardinal Berlingherio Gessi, April 11, 1639; appointed proprio nomine, January 9, 1640 until January 7, 1641. Resigned the government of the patriarchate before June 13, 1644, because of age and illness (podagra). Went to reside in Rome. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, November 19, 1646. In 1647, he erected the chapel of S. Teresa in the church of S. Maria della Vittoria, Rome, where he built his tomb. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, April 29, 1652.

Death. June 5, 1653, Rome. Buried in the chapel of S. Teresa, known as the Cornaro Chapel, in the church of S. Maria della Vittoria, Rome, where there is a mausoleum adorned with the busts of the six cardinals of the family. In his will, he left 30,000 scudi to the S.C. of Propaganda Fide (2). In the left side of the church of Collegio de Propaganda Fide a white marble bust in memory of the cardinal was placed. Cardinal Angelo Maria Quirini, O.S.B.Cas., in his Tiara et purpura Veneta : ab anno MCCCLXXIX ad annum MDCCLIX. serenissimae Reipublicae Venetae, a civitate Brixiae dicata, (Brixiae : Excudebat Joannes-Maria Rizzardi, 1761, wrote a long biography of the cardinal.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 259-261; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 198; Dentella, Lorenzo. I vescovi di Bergamo. (Notizie storica). Bergamo : Editrice Sant'Alessandro, 1939, p. 358-363; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 20, 36, 40, 44, 45, 46; 59, 113, 275, 362 and 368; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XVII, 145; Niero, Antonio. I patriarchi di Venezia. Da Lorenzo Giustiniani ai nostri giorni. Venice : Studium Cattolico Veneziano, 1961. (Collana Storica, 3), p. 121-126; Orsoni, Alessandro. Cronologia storica dei vescovi Olivolensi detti dapoi Castellani e sucessivi patriarchi di Venezia. Corredata di annotazioni illustranti l'ecclesiastico-civile veneta storia. Venezia : Tip. G.S. Felice, 1828, p. 389-396;Ughelli, Ferdinando. Italia sacra. 10 v. Sala Bolognese : A. Forni, 1973-1987. Note: Reprint. Originally published: Italia sacra, sive, De episcopis Italiae. Venetiis : Apud Sebastianum Coleti, 1717-1722, 5, col. 1325-1327; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 270; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 217 and 596.

Links. His portrait and biography, in English, Italian Culture and History; images of his tomb in Cornaro Chapel, church of S. Maria della Vitoria, Requiem Datenbank; and his bust, by Ercole Ferrata, second from the right in the sculptural group, Cornaro Chapel, church of S. Maria della Vittoria, Rome, Australian National University.

(1) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 259; Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, XVII, 145; Niero, I patriarchi di Venezia. Da Lorenzo Giustiniani ai nostri giorni, p. 121; Ughelli, Italia sacra, 5, 1326; and Weber, Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809, p. 596. Dentella, I vescovi di Bergamo, p. 358, says that he became cleric of the Apostolic Chamber in the pontificate of Pope Paul V (1605-1621).
(2) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Ughelli, Italia sacra, 5, 1326-1327:

Federicus S.R.E. Cardinalis Cornelius
Joannis Venetiarium Ducis filius
à Clemente VIII inter Apostolicæ Cameræ
Clericus adictus,
à Gregorio XIV. Bergomatum nsulæ,
ab Urbano VIII. Romanæ purpuræ admotus,
mox Vicentinus antistes,
tum Patriarcha Venetus creatus,
cum postremum hoc munus aliena voluntate
susceptum sua deposuisset,
deponendi quoque corporis memor D. Teresiæ
immortalem aram
sibi antem aram tumulum mortalitatis suæ
custodem posuit,
atque in partem obsequii erga Virginem
Discalceatorum matrem
vocatis cum parente sex aliis ex Cornelia gente
Cardinalibus
inducens pro exuviis corporum spirantia
vultuum simulacra,
providis vivens quomodo extinctus obsequium
æternaret
Anno salutis MDCXLVIII. ætatis suæLXVIII.

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(12) 8. SACCHETTI, Giulio Cesare (1586-1663)

Birth. 1586 (al. 1587), Rome (1). Son of Giovanni Battista Sacchetti and Francesca Altoviti, Florentine patricians. Uncle of Cardinal Urbano Sacchetti (1681)

Education. University of Perugia, Perugia; University of Pisa, Pisa (doctorate in law).

Early life. Domestic prelate of Pope Paul V (1605-1621). Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1622. Secretary of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council in the pontificate of Pope Paul V. Vice-legate in Bologna, May 23, 1623. until October 24, 1623.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Gravina, with dispensation for not having received the presbyterate six months before the promotion to the episcopate, December 4, 1623. Consecrated, Sunday December 10, 1623, church of S. Giacomo degli Spagnoli, Rome, by Cardinal Agustín Spínola, bishop of Tortosa, assisted by Ottavio Accoramboni, archbishop of Urbino, and by Diego Merino, bishop of Montepeloso. Nuncio in Spain, January 27, 1624 until 1626.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 19, 1626. Transferred to the see of Fano, March 16 (al. 17), 1626. Received the red hat and the title of S. Susanna, December 2 , 1626. Legate in Ferrara, March 8, 1627 until May 1630. Resigned the government of the diocese before September 16, 1635. Legate in Bologna, April 20, 1637 until May 30, 1640. Prefect of the S.C. of Religious Immunity. Prefect of the S.C. of Rites. Prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, June 22, 1640. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 7, 1641 until January 13, 1642 (2). Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X; Cardinal Gil Carrillo de Albornoz presented the Spanish veto against his election to the pontificate. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, April 29, 1652. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati, September 23, 1652. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII; Spain presented a veto against his election to the pontificate. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Sabina, October 11, 1655. Legate in Ferrara, 1655 (3). Head of the special sanitary congregation to combat the plague affecting the Papal States, 1656. Prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, July 28, 1661 until his death.

Death. June 28, 1663, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Giovanni dei Fiorentini, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 261-263; Ceccarelli, G. I Sacchetti. Rome : 1946, pp. 11-19; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 200-201; Re, Nicola del. "I cardinali prefetti della sacra congregazione del concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), pp. 119-120; Sacchetti, Giulio, 1587-1663 ; Barberini, Francesco, 1597-1679 ; Polverini Fosi, Irene; Gardi, Andrea. La legazione di Ferrara del cardinale Giulio Sacchetti (1627-1631). Città del Vaticano : Archivio segreto vaticano, 2006. (Collectanea Archivi Vaticani ; 58).

Links. Biography, in Italian; and his engraving by Giuseppe Testana.

(1) Some sources indicate that he was born in Florence.
(2) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 59. The same source, IV, 20, says that he replaced Cardinal Federico Cornaro as camerlengo on November 1, 1640 and then was appointed to a full term on January 7, 1641. Nothing is mentioned about this in the biographical data of Cardinal Cornaro in the same source.
(3) This is according to Re, "I cardinali prefetti della sacra congregazione del concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)", p. 120; none of the other sources consulted mention this appointment.

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(13) 9. SPINOLA, Giandomenico (1580-1646)

Birth. 1580, Genoa. Of a patrician family. Second of the nine children of Giovanni Maria Spinola and Pelina Lercari, daughter of Doge Giovanni Battista Lercari of Genoa. The other siblings were Giovanni Battista, Giovanni Luca, Violante, Maddalena and four more children who died issueless, Uncle of Cardinal Giambattista Spinola, seniore (1681). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Niccolò Spinola (1715). Other cardinals of the various branches of the Spinola family were Agostino Spinola (1527); Filippo Spinola (1583); Orazio Spinola (1606); Agustín Spínola (1621); Giulio Spinola (1666); Giambattista Spinola, iuniore (1695); Giorgio Spinola (1719); Giovanni Battista Spinola (1733); Girolamo Spinola (1759); and Ugo Pietro Spinola (1831).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Questore of the pontifical treasury in Genoa during the pontificate of Pope Paul V (1605-1621). Protonotary Apostolic. Went to Rome and placed himself under the direction of Cardinal Antonmaria Sauli, who helped him to be named cleric of the Apostolic Chamber in May 1604. Vice-legate in Viterbo, 1607. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. General auditor of causes of the Apostolic Chamber, 1610. Judge of the Roman Curia, 1617. Administrator of the archdiocese of Messina, 1625-1626. Abbot commendatario of S. Maria di Taglieto.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 19, 1626; received the red hat and the title of S. Clemente, February 9, 1626. Protector of the Republic of Genoa (in practice its representative before the Holy See), 1626-1630. Opted for the title of S. Cecilia, retaining the denomination of cardinal of S. Clemente from April 30, 1629 until August 17, 1637.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Acerenza e Matera, November 13, 1630. Consecrated, December 15, 1630, by Domenico Marini, archbishop of Genoa, assisted by Angelo Mascardo, bishop of Noli, by Pietro Francesco Costa, bishop of Albenga, and by Vincenzo Giovanni Spinola, bishop of Brugnato. Transferred to the see of Luni-Sarzana, April 26, 1632, retaining the rank of archbishop. Transferred to the see of Mazara, Sicily, December 1, 1636, retaining the rank of archbishop. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 13, 1642 until January 1643. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X.

Death. August 11, 1646, Mazara. Buried in the chapel of S. Gaetano in the cathedral of Mazara.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 263-264; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 917.

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(14) 10. CAVALIERI, Giacomo (1565-1629)

Birth. 1565, Rome. His first name is also listed as Jacopo. Of an ancient and noble family. Son of Giacomo Cavalieri and Diana Santori, related to the Borghese and Paluzzi Albertoni families. His last name is also listed as de Cavalerijs and de Cavaliero.

Education. Studied law.

Priesthood. (No information found). Referendary of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature. Governor of Faenza, February 13, 1592. Governor of Città di Castello, March 4, 1593. Auditor of causes of the Sacred Palace, October 6, 1606. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, March 26, 1607. Datary of His Holiness, September 15, 1623.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 19, 1626; received the red hat and the title of S. Eusebio, February 9, 1626.

Death. January 28, 1629, Tivoli, where he was recuperating from a long and serious illness. His body was transferred to Rome by his brother; and buried in the chapel of S. Gregorio, in the church of S. Maria in Aracoeli, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 264-265.

Links. His tomb, S. Maria in Aracoeli, Rome;.

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(15) 11. BISCIA, Lelio (1575-1638)

Birth. June 15, 1575, Rome. Second of the five children of Bernardino Biscia, consistorial lawyer, and Vittoria Scapucci. Of a Roman family that accessed the nobility in the 16th century and obtained the title of marquis in the second half of the 17th century. His last name is also listed as Piscia.

Education. Studied law.

Early life. Consistorial lawyer, July 5, 1595. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Purchased, as it was then the custom, a clericate in the Apostolic Chamber, February 28, 1600. Governor of Civitaveccha, January 7, 1605 until 1606; and January 7, 1609 until 1610. Prefect of the Annona, July 9, 1614. Dean of the Apostolic Chamber.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of January 19, 1626; received the red hat and the deaconry of Ss. Vito e Modesto, February 9, 1626. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin, December 19, 1633. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Maria del Popolo, February 9, 1637. Mecenas of literature and great book collector.

Death. November 19, 1638, after suffering from erysipelas for seven days, Rome. Buried on the left side of the main altar of the church of S. Francesco a Ripa, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 265-266; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 20, 46, 52, 54; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturæ a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), p. 277; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 106; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 216, 217 and 501.

Link. His portrait by Andrea Sacchi, National Gallery of Canada.

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(16) 12. GUZMÁN DE HAROS, Enrique (1605-1626)

Birth. 1605, Madrid, Spain. Son of Diego López de Haro, 5th marquis of Carpio, and Francisca de Guzmán, sister of Gaspar de Guzmán, count-duke of Olivares, prime minister of Spain. Brother of Luis Méndez de Haro, later successor of the count-duke. His second last name is also listed as Aros, Aro, and Haro.

Education. Studied ecclesiastical sciences and theology.

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Sevilla. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Toledo.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 19, 1626; never received the red hat and the title.

Death. June 21, 1626, of an infection with postules and acute fever, Madrid. Buried in the church of Colegio Santo Tomás, Madrid.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 266.

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(17) 13. LORRAINE-VAUDÉMONT, Nicolas François de (1609-1670)

Birth. December 6, 1609 (1), France. Son of Duke François de Lorraine. Nephew of Cardinal Charles III de Lorraine-Vaudémont (1589).

Education. University of Pont-à-Mousson, Pont-à-Mousson, 1622-1629 (doctorate in philosophy; doctorate in theology; prepared but did not defend a thesis on the sacrament of penance printed in Holland in 1627 and dedicated to Pope Urban VIII). After his promotion to the cardinalate, received private lessons from two Jesuit priests. Returned to Nancy in June 1629.

Episcopate. Named coadjutor bishop of Toul, with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age, August 31, 1619. The appointment also stipulated that he would not exercise the spiritual and temporal administration until reaching the legitimate age. Never received any sacred order. Succeeded to the see on September 14, 1624 and on December 17, 1625 was named administrator of temporal matters On July 24, 1626, administrator cum participatione in spiritualibus, assisted by Charles-Christian de Gournay, titular bishop of Sitien and coadjutor of Tulle, and Nicolas Viardin, canon of the cathedral chapter of Nancy. Abbot commendatario of Sammolin; of Saint-Mansuy, Toul; and of Saint-Pierre in Vauge. Named to several embassies by Charles, duke of Lorraine, and by King Louis XIII of France.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of January 19, 1626; published in the consistory of August 30, 1627; never received the red hat and the deaconry. Abbot commendatario of Sainte Croix de Bouzonville, 1626. In 1634 his brother Charles, resigned his estates in his favor and he became duke of Lorraine. In a letter to the Pope dated March 4, 1634, resigned the cardinalate for having married his cousin Claude Françoise de Lorraine, second daughter of Henri duke of Lorraine and Bar, on February 17-18, 1634 (2). On March 8, 1634, the pope declared him in nullo e sacris ordinis constitutum, depriving him of the cardinalate and the administration of the diocese of Toul (3). In the consistory of March 22, 1634, the pope communicated the news to the cardinals.

Death. January 27, 1670, Nancy. Buried in the ducal chapel of the church of the Friars Minor (Cordeliers), Nancy (4).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 266-267; Favier, M.J. "Notes sur l'education d'un jeune Cardinal de Lorraine." Memoires de la Societé d'Archéologie lorraine, 3d series, vol. XVI (1888), pp. 101-122.

Link. His genealogy, VIII.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 267, indicates that he died in 1670 at 71 years of age.
(2) They had two sons, Ferdinand Philippe Joseph François Ignace Dominique Gaspard de Lorraine (1639-1659); and Charles Léopold Nicolas Sixte de Lorraine (1643-1690).
(3) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 267, indicates that after the death of his wife, he reentered the ecclesiastical state and was promoted to the metropolitan see of Sens, but that he considers this to be una favola, a fable, because neither Sammartani, author of Gallia Christiana (1770), nor the continuators of Chacón mentioned this promotion.
(4) It is not clear if his mortal remains were returned to that chapel after the vicissitudes the tomb suffered during the French Revolution.

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(18) 14. VIDONI, Girolamo (1581-1632)

Birth. 1581, Cremona. Uncle of Cardinal Pietro Vidoni, seniore (1660). Relative of Cardinal Pietro Vidoni, iuniore (1816).

Education. Studied at the University of Pavia; and at the University of Perugia, where he obtained a obtained a doctorate.

Early life. Went to Rome during the pontificate of Pope Clement VIII. Abbreviatore di parco maggiore, 1604. Chamberlain of honor of His Holiness. Vice-legate in the Marche, 1606. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, 1609. Governor of Civitavecchia, January 10, 1612; January 10, 1613; February 17, 1616 to 1618; January 10, 1623. President of the Annona Janaury 13, 1623. President of Romagna, November 5, 1623 to March 1625. Treasurer general of the Apostolic Chamber. Commissary general of the papal army, 1625.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of January 19, 1626; published in the consistory of August 30, 1627; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Quattro Coronatti, pro illa vice deaconry, October 6, 1627.

Death. October 30, 1632, Rome. Buried in the chapel della Assunta in the church of S. Maria della Vitoria, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 267-269.

Links. His tomb, church of S. Maria della Vittoria, Rome.

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(19) 15. GINETTI, Marzio (1586-1671)

Birth. February 7 (1), 1586, Velletri. Of a patrician family. Uncle of Cardinal Gianfrancesco Ginetti (1681).

Education. Went to Rome very young and completed his studies.

Early life. Chamberlain of honor of Pope Paul V (1605-1621). Abbreviatore di parco maggiore, February 8, 1607. Became well acquainted with Cardinal Maffeo Barberini, future pope Urban VIII (1621-1644). Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1609. Voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature. President of the diocese of Sabina. Vicar of Cardinal Odoardo Farnese in his deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata and later in the diocese of Sabina. Auditor of the camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church. Secretary of the Sacred Consulta.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of January 19, 1626. Prefect of the Apostolic Palace and pontifical household, February 5, 1626. Published in the consistory of August 30, 1627; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria Nuova, October 6, 1627. Vicar of Rome for spiritual affairs, October 2, 1629 until his death. Opted for the deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria, February 6, 1634. Legate a latere in Austria, September 17, 1635. Legate in Bologna, 1635-1640?. Legate in Ferrara, November 19, 1640 until November 30, 1643. Opted for the deaconry of S. Eustachio, March 14, 1644. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Opted for the order of priests and the title of S. Maria degli Angeli, October 17, 1644. Opted for the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, February 19, 1646. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, September 23, 1652. Legate a latere in Cologne, 1636 to 1640, to promote the peace between the warring European princes, who eventually signed the Peace of Westphalia. Prefect of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars. Prefect of the S.C. of Rites. Prefect of the S.C. of Religious Immunity.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, June 9, 1653. Consecrated (no information found). Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Sabina, July 2, 1663. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, October 11, 1666. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X; he had to leave the conclave on March 30, 1670.

Death. March 1, 1671, near 4 p.m., Rome. Buried in the chapel that he had built in the church of S. Andrea della Valle, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 269-271.

Links. His prosopography, in German; his tomb, church of S. Andrea della Valle, Rome.

(1) Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 21, says that he died at 86 years, minus one month, and six days.

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