(20) 1. VEROSPI, Fabrizio (1571-1639)
Birth. 1571, Rome. Son of Girolamo Verospi and Penelope Gabrielli. Of a noble family originally from Spain. Uncle of Cardinal Girolamo Verospi (1641).
Education. University of Bologna, Bologna (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law).
Early life. Domestic prelate. Auditor of the city of Fermo. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace; later auditor contradictarum. Governor of Cesena, April 21, 1597. Governor of Fermo, December 29, 1597. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, December 12, 1611. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, December 12, 1611. Charged by Pope Paul V with solving the controversy delle Chian between the Papal States and Tuscany, which he successfully resolved. Nuncio extraordinary to Vienna, March 13, 1619, for the matter of the arrest of the Austrian Cardinal Melchior Klesl, bishop of Vienna, whom he consigned to himself and took to the monastery of Sankt Georgenberg, near Schwaz, Tyrol. Named nuncio extraordinary to Vienna, June 16, 1622, to witness the marriage of Emperor Ferdinand II with Princess Eleonora di Mantova, and also with the specific charge of obtaining from the emperor and the Archduke Leopold the custody of Cardinal Klesl, now prisoner of the latter, and the authorization for his transfer to Rome, where he finally was able to take him the following November 20. The cardinal was confined in the Castle of Sant' Angelo until the emperor granted him freedom in June 1623. Governor of Perugia and Umbria, October 27, 1623 until 1627 when he was promoted to the cardinalate.
Sacred orders. (No information found).
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of August 30, 1627; received the red hat and the title of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna, October 20, 1627. Opted for the title of S. Maria della Pace, September 5, 1633. Prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, 1627 until his death.
Death. January 27, 1639. Exposed in the basilica of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, Rome, where the funeral took place on January 29, 1639, and buried in the tomb of his ancestors in the church of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, Rome.
Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 271-273; Re, Nicola del. "I cardinali prefetti della sacra congregazione del concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), p. 116.
(21) 2. CARRILLO DE ALBORNOZ, Gil (1579-1649)
Birth. 1579, Talavera de la Reina, archdiocese of Toledo, Spain. Son of Francisco de Albornoz, knight of Calatrava, and Felipa de Espinosa. Grand-nephew, on his mother's side, of Cardinal Diego Espinosa y Arévalo (1568). He is also listed as Egidio Carillo Albornozio and as Gil de Albornoz.
Education. Colegio Mayor de Oviedo, University of Salamanca (civil law).
Early life. Auditor of the chanceries of Valladolid and Granada. Viceroy of the Royal Council and captain general of Navarre. Member of the General Council of the Inquisition. Archdeacon of Valpuesta, Burgos from 1617 to 1627. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Seville. At the instances of King Felipe IV of Spain, he was promoted to the cardinalate.
Sacred orders. (No information found).
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of August 30, 1627; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Via, August 12, 1630. The Spanish king granted him the archdiaconate of Écija and a canonship in Sevilla on February 22, 1628.
Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Taranto, September 23, 1630. Consecrated, October 6, 1630, patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Gaspar Borja Velasco, bishop of Albano, assisted by Benedetto Baaz, bishop of Umbriatico, and by Martí de León Cátdenas, O.E.S.A., bishop of Trivento. Representative of Spain in the Sacred College of Cardinals from 1632. Governor of Milanesado, July 1634 to November 1635. Resigned the government of the archdiocese before March 30, 1637. Counselor of state from 1638. Opted for the title of S. Pietro in Montorio, August 2, 1643. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 14, 1644, replacing Cardinal Giambattista Pamphilj; confirmed, occupied the post from January 16, 1645 until January 8, 1646. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X; presented the Spanish veto against the election of Cardinal Giulio Cesare Sacchetti. Although he was urged to return to Spain, he continued residing in Rome until his death.
Death. December 19, 1649, near 3 p.m., Rome. Buried in the church of S. Anna nel Quirinale, Rome.
Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 273-274; Goñi Gaztambide, José. Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; Suplemento (1987), suppl., 113-115; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1500-1699). Españoles obispos en españa, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 34), p. 153.
Link. His genealogy, X 3.
(22) 3. BÉRULLE, Orat., Pierre (1575-1629)
Birth. February 4, 1575, Castle of Sérilly, diocese of Troyes, France. Of a distinguished family of magistrates. Son of Claude de Bérulle and Louise Séguier. He is also listed as Pietro Berulli.
Education. Educated by the Jesuits in the Collège de Clermont, Clermont; La Sorbonne University, Paris.
Priesthood. Ordained, June 5, 1599. Royal almoner of King Henri IV of France. Declined several times the promotion to the episcopate. He brought to Paris the first community of Carmelite nuns of the Reform of St. Teresa, October 15, 1604. In 1611 he founded in Paris the Congregation of the Oratory following the model of the one established by St. Philip Neri in Rome sometime before. The congregation, named the Oratory of Our Lord Jesus Christ, was canonically instituted by Pope Paul V (1605-1621) by the bull Sacrosanctae romanae Ecclesiae of May 10, 1613. He was elected superior general of the congregation in France. He participated in the arrangements for the marriage of King Charles I of England with Princess Henrietta-Marie of France, sister of King Louis XIII of France. He enjoyed the favor of Queen Regent Maria de' Medici. St. Vincent de Paul was his disciple and St. Francis de Sales, his friend. He is considered one of the most important mystics of the 17th century.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of August 30, 1627; never received the red hat and the title. President of the Royal Council, 1628. He was going to be named French ambassador before the Holy See when he died (1).
Death. October 2, 1629, while celebrating mass, in Paris. Buried in the church of the Oratory, Paris.
Bibliography. Bayle, Marc Antoine. Vie de Saint Philippe de Néri, fondateur de l'oratoire (1515-1595) : suivie de notices sur l'oratoire du cardinal de Bérulle, sur la fondation de l'oratoire en Angleterre, sur le nouvel oratoire français de l'immaculie conception, et des maximes et sentences du saint pour chaque jour de l'année. Paris : A. Bray, 1859; Bérulle, Pierre de. Correspondance du Cardinal Pierre de Bérulle, 1599 - 1629. Edited by Jean Dagens. 3 volumes. Paris : Desclée de Brouwer ; Louvain : Bureaux de la Revue, 1937-1939. (Bibliothèque de la Revue d'Histoire Ecclésiastique, 17, 18 and 19). Contents: I. 1599-1618.--II. 1619-1624.--III. 1625-1629; Caraccioli, Louis-Antoine, marquis, 1719-1803. Der fromme Priester : in dem Leben des geistreichen Kardinal von Bérulle Stifters der Priester des Oratorium in Frankreich abgebildet. Augsburg : Rieger, verlegts Matthäus Rieger und Söhne, 1772. Responsibility: von Herrn Marquis Caraccioli königl. polnischen und churfürstl. sdchsischen Obersten. Aus dem Französischen übersetzt; Caraccioli, Louis-Antoine, marquis, 1719-1803. La vie du Cardinal de Birulle, fondateur de la Congrigation de l'Oratoire en France. Paris : Nyon, 1764; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 274-277: Dagens, Jean. Bérulle et les origines de la restauration catholique (1575-1611). Bruges : Desclée de Brouwer, 1952; Habert, Germain. La vie du Cardinal de Bérulle, instituteur et premier Superieur Général de la Congregation de l'oratoire de Iesus-Christ nostre Seigneur. Paris : J. Camusat, et P. Le Petit, 1646; Houssaye, Michel. La vie du cardinal de Bérulle. Paris : Plon, 1872-1875. Notes: [I.] M. de Bérulle et les Carmélites de France, 1575-1611. [II.] Le Père de Bérulle et l'Oratoire de Jésus, 1611-1625. [III.] Le cardinal de Bérulle et le cardinal de Richelieu, 1625-1629. [IV.] Appendice. Les carmélites de France et le cardinal de Bérulle : courte réponse ` l'auteur des 'Notes historiques'. Other titles: M. de Bérulle et les Carmélites de France, 1575-1611; Le Père de Bérulle et l'Oratoire de Jésus, 1611-1625; Le cardinal de Bérulle et le cardinal de Richelieu, 1625-1629; Les carmélites de France et le cardinal de Bérulle :; courte riponse à l'auteur des 'Notes historiques'; Montfort, François. Petite vie de Pierre Bérulle, fondateur de l'Oratoire de Jésus. Préface Jean Dujardin. Paris : Desclée de Brouwer, 1997. (Petite vie).
Links. Biography by Augustin Ingold, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography by M. Cuenca Toribio, in Spanish, Gran Enciclopedia Rialp, Canal Social; his portrait by an anonymous artist UQÀM, Université de Québec à Montréal; ; his portrait and biography, in French, abbe-papon.net; biography, in French, Centre d'Études en Rhétorique, Philosophie et Histoire des Idées (CERPHI), École Normale Supérieure Lettres et Sciences Humaines, Lyon; Pierre de Bérulle, homme politique malgré lui. Portraits de cardinaux français du XVIe au XXe siècle, la-Croix.com; biography by Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon.
(1) Cardinal Armand-Jean du Plessis de Richelieu, prime minister, wanted to distance him from Paris. For religious reasons, Cardinal Bérulle favored the allegiance of France with Austria and Spain, the other Catholic powers, while Cardinal Richelieu wanted to undermine their influence in Europe.
(23) 4. CESARINI, iuniore, Alessandro (1592-1644)
Birth. 1592, Rome. Of the marquises of Civitanova. Son of Giuliano Cesarini, marquis of Civitanova e Montecorato, and Livia Orsini. Great-grand nephew of Cardinal Alessandro Cesarini, seniore (1517). Other cardinals of the family were Giuliano Cesarini, seniore (1426); and Giuliano Cesarini, iuniore (1493).
Education. University of Parma, Parma; obtained a doctorate in Rome.
Early life. Papal prelate. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber. Governor of the conclave of 1623, in which Pope Urban VIII was elected.
Sacred orders. (No information found).
Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of August 30, 1627; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Domnica, October 6, 1627. Opted for the deaconry of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, September 6, 1632.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Viterbo, May 14, 1636. Consecrated, Sunday May 25, 1636, Quirinale Palace, Rome, by Cardinal Antonio Barberini, seniore, O.F.M.Cap., assisted by Fabrizio Suardi, bishop of Lucera, and by Benedetto Landi, bishop of Fossombrone. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin, February 9, 1637. Opted for the deaconry of S. Eustachio, July 28, 1638. Resigned the government of the diocese before September 13, 1638.
Death. January 25, 1644, Rome. Buried in the tomb of his family in the church of S. Maria in Aracoeli, Rome.
Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 277-279; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 216.
Birth. August 5, 1607, Rome. Son of Carlo Barberini and Costanza Magalotti. Brother of Taddeo Barberini, prince of Palestrina and prefect of Rome, and of Cardinal Francesco Barberini, seniore (1623). Nephew of Pope Urban VIII; and of Cardinals Antonio Barberini, seniore, O.F.M.Cap. (1624) and Lorenzo Magalotti (1624). Cousin of Cardinal Francesco Maria Machiavelli (1641). Uncle of Cardinal Carlo Barberini (1653). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Francesco Barberini, iuniore (1690).
Education. (No information found).
Early life. Grand prior in Rome of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem. Grand cross of that order. Entered the ecclesiastical state in 1627.
Sacred orders. (No information found).
Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of August 30, 1627; with dispensation for having two uncles and one brother in the Sacred College of Cardinals; published in the consistory of February 7, 1628; received the red hat on February 10, 1628; and the deaconry of S. Maria in Aquiro, February 28, 1628. Prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, March 18, 1628. Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica. Supreme commander of the papal army. Secretary of Apostolic Briefs. Abbot commendatario of the abbeys delle Tre Fontane, of Nonantola, and of Saint-Ebroul, France. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica. Legate a latere of the city and district of Urbino, June 11, 1631. Opted for the deaconry of S. Agata in Suburra, November 24, 1632. Prefect of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide from December 1632 until his death. Having resigned the legation in Urbino, was named legate in Avignon, February 21, 1633. In 1633, with his brother Cardinal Francesco, settled in his new palace in Quattro Fontane, where he contributed to the opening of Teatro Barberini and where he became a generous mecenas of artists and literary authors carrying on the life of a prince and supporting a large group of courtesans such as Naudé, Holste and Bouchard, who contributed to the formation of his great library. He himself was a recognized Latin poet. Abbot commendatario of Subiaco, 1633. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, July 28, 1638 until his death. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata, November 10, 1642. Cardinal protodeacon. Legate a latere in the provinces of Bologna, Ferrara, and Romandiola, December 1, 1642. Together with his brother Taddeo, general of the papal army, was charged with the supervision of the military operations during the War of Castro. The war ended disastrously in the battle of Lagoscuro in 1644 with the surrender of the papal troops. Pope Urban VIII died shortly after. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. The Barberini family fell into disgrace because of the resentment accumulated in Rome against them. In 1645, the new Pope Innocent X (1644-1655) ordered an investigation of the illicit profits of the Barberinis during the pontificate of Urban and in particular concerning the War of Castro. Because of the development of the situation Cardinal Antonio and his brother Taddeo escaped to Paris on September 27, 1645. They received the hospitality and the support of King Louis XIV and his minister Cardinal Jules Mazarin. Member of the Order of Saint-Esprit. The cardinal reconciled with Pope Innocent X and returned to Rome on July 12, 1653. The pope restored all his titles and protectorates on August 15, 1653. He recovered his wealth in the pontificate of Pope Alexander VII (1655-1667). From that moment, he underwent a conversion dedicating himself to religion and abandoning the worldly conduct that had characterized his life until then. He assumed a rigid attitude over orthodoxy and particularly against Jansenism. Opted for the order of priests and the title of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, July 21, 1653.
Episcopate. Nominated bishop of Poitiers by King Louis XIV of France, August 16, 1653; never confirmed by the Holy See. Grand Almoner of France and commander of the Order of Saint-Esprit, 1653. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati, October 11, 1655. Consecrated, October 24, 1655, church of the novitiate of the Society of Jesus, Rome, by Giovanni Battista Scanaroli, titular bishop of Sidon, assisted by Lorenzo Gavotti, Theat., bishop of Ventimilia, and by Marcantonio Bettoni, T.O.S.F., titular bishop of Coron. Nominated archbishop of Reims by King Louis XIV of France, June 27, 1657; confirmed by the Holy See, retaining the post of camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, July 18, 1667. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, November 21, 1661. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X.
Death. August 3 (or 4), 1671, near 3 a.m., of an apoplexy, Nemi, diocese of Albano. Buried in the chapel of S. Lorenzo in the cathedral of Palestrina. Later, following his will, his brother Cardinal Francesco transferred his remains to the church of his family dedicated to S. Rosalia.
Bibliography. I Barberini e la cultura Europea del seicento : atti del convego internazionale Palazzo Barberini alle Quattro Fontane, 7-11 dicembre 2004. Per cura di Lorenza Mochi Onori ... [et al.]. Roma : De Luca Editori D' Arte, 2007. Note: Papers from the International Conference on Barberini and the European Culture of the 17th Century, held at the Palazzo Barberini, December 7-11, 2004; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 278-282; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. "Le épiscopat français de Clément VIII a Paul VI." In Dictionnaire d'histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques (Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1912- ). Fascicule 102-103, p. 178; Wolfe, Karin. "Cardinal Antonio Berberini (1608-1671) and the politics of art in Baroque Rome" in Cutler, Lucy C. "Representing an apernative empire at the court of Cardinal Federico Borromeo in Habsburg Milan" in The possessions of a Cardinal : politics, piety, and art, 1450-1700. Edited by Mary Hollingsworth & Carol M. Richardson. University Park, Pa. : Pennsylvania State University Press, 2010, p. 265-293.
Links. Biography, in Italian; his bust, Collegio di Propaganda Fide, Rome.
(1) During his long stay in France, Cardinal Luigi Capponi acted as vice-prefect from 1645 until 1653.
Birth. March 23, 1604, Orsogna, in his family's fief, archdiocese of Chieti. Second of the eleven children of Filippo I Colonna, sixth duke and prince of Paliano, and Lucrezia Tomacelli. The other children were Federico I, Marcantonio V, Carlo (Benedictine, titular patriarch of Jerusalem), Giovanni Battista (patriarch of Jerusalem), Prospero (grand prior of Malta in Spain), Pietro (abbot) Anna, Ippolita (nun in San Egidio monastery, Rome), Clara Maria (nun in San Egidio monastery, Rome) and Maria Teresa (nun in Regina Coeli monastery, Rome). Uncle of Cardinals Gianfrancesco Guidi di Bagno (1627) and Nicolò Guidi di Bagno (1657), on their mother's side. Relative of Cardinals Francesco Barberini, seniore (1623) and Antonio Barberini, iuniore, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1627), because his sister Anna was married to Taddeo Barberini, brother of those cardinals. Other members of the family who were elevated to the cardinalate were Giovanni di San Paolo Colonna (1193); Giovanni Colonna (1212); Giacomo Colonna (1278); Pietro Colonna (1288); Giovanni Colonna (1327); Agapito Colonna (1378); Stefano Colonna (1378); Oddone Colonna (1405; later Pope Martin V); Prospero Colonna (1426); Giovanni Colonna (1480); Marco Antonio Colonna, seniore (1565); Ascanio Colonna (1586); Carlo Colonna (1706); Prospero Colonna (1739); Girolamo Colonna di Sciarra (1743); Prospero Colonna di Sciarra (1743); Marcantonio Colonna, iuniore (1759); and Pietro Colonna (1766), who took the last name Pamphili.
Education. Studied humanities in Rome; and later, studied theology in Spain, and at the University of Alcalá de Henares, in that country, obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law. On his return to Rome, he was promoted to the cardinalate.
Sacred orders. (No information found).
Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of August 30, 1627; published in the consistory of February 7, 1628; received the red hat on February 10, 1628; and the title of S. Agnese in Agone, pro illa vice deaconry, on February 28, 1628. Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica.
Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Bologna, retaining the archpresbyterate of the patriarchal Lateran basilica and with dispensation of the canonical age, November 24, 1632. Consecrated, 1632, papal private chapel, Rome, by Pope Urban VIII. Received the palllium on January 10, 1633. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin, June 27, 1639. Opted for the deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria, March 14, 1644. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Opted for the deaconry of S. Eustachio, December 12, 1644. Legate a latere for the opening and closing of the Holy Door in the patriarchal Lateran basilica in the Holy Year of 1650. Opted for the order of priests and the title of S. Silvestro in Capite, September 23, 1652. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, June 9, 1653. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Ambassador of Spain before the Holy See. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, April 21, 1659. Cardinal protoprete. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati, November 21, 1661. Called to Spain by King Felipe IV and appointed counselor of state and war affairs. Celebrated the wedding between Emperor Leopold I and Infanta Margarita of Spain, daughter of King Felipe IV of Spain; as legate, accompanied her to Germany. He built a sumptuous apartment with numerous works of art. He built the churches of S. Barnaba in Marina and the one in Rocca di Papa, monuments of his piety.
Death. September 4, 1666 (1), of maligna febbre, in the Dominican convent in il Finale, now Finale Marina, near Genoa, while traveling from Spain after assisting at the death of the king of Spain. Buried in the Dominican convent, il Finale. Unconfirmed news of his death reached Rome on September 11, 1666. Letters from Milan and Genoa dated January 15, verified the news. After six years, in 1672, his remains were exhumed, translated to Rome and buried in the chapel of his family in the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome (2).
Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 282-284; Colonna, Prospero. I Colonna. Dalle origini all'inizio del secolo XIX. Sunto di ricordi storici raccolti per cura di Prospero Colonna. Roma : Istituto Nazionale Medico Farmacologico "Serono", 1927, p.272 and 285; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 22, 39, 44, 46, 49, 51, 52 and 118; Meluzzi, Luciano. I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna. Bologna : Grafica Emiliana, 1975, (Collana storico-ecclesiastica; 3), pp. 436-440; Rivera, Giuseppe. Memorie biografiche dei cardinali Abruzzesi. Aquila : Tipografia G. Mele, 1924, pp. 118-121.
Links. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; and his genealogy, A5 B5 F2 G2, by Miroslav Marek, Genealogy EU.
(1) This is according to Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi, IV, 22 and 39; Meluzzi, I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna, p. 439; and his biography in Italian, diocese of Frascati, linked above Colonna, I Colonna. Dalle origini all'inizio del secolo XIX, p. 285, says that he died on August 20, 1666.
(2) This is the text of the epigraph on his tomb, which he had composed himself, taken from Colonna, I Colonna. Dalle origini all'inizio del secolo XIX, p. 285:
(26) 7. PAMPHILJ, Giambattista (1574-1655)
Birth. May 6 (al. 7), 1574, Rome. Son of Camillo Pamfilj and Maria Cancellieri del Bufalo. The Pamfilj family resided originally in Gubbio and moved to Rome during the pontificate of Pope Innocent VIII (1484-1492). His first name is also listed as Giovanni Battista; and last name as Pamphili. Great-great-great-grandson of Pope Alexander VI (1492-1503) (1). Nephew of Cardinal Girolamo Pamphilj (1604). Uncle of Cardinal Camillo Francesco Maria Pamphilj (1644). Other cardinals of the Pamphilj family were Benedetto Pamphilj, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1681); Giuseppe Maria Doria Pamphilj (1785); Antonio Maria Doria Pamphilj (1785); and Giorgio Doria Pamphilj (1816).
Education. Educated by his uncle the cardinal, who persuaded him to enter the ecclesiastical state. Collegio Romano, Rome (doctorate in law, 1594).
Early life. Consistorial lawyer in 1601. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, June 1604, replacing his uncle when he was created cardinal. Canonist of the Sacred Apostolic Penitentiary. Nuncio in Naples, March 26, 1621 until 1625. Datary of Cardinal Francesco Barberini, seniore, legate a latere in France in 1625 and in Spain in 1626.
Sacred orders. (No information found).
Episcopate. Elected titular patriarch of Antioch, retaining the auditorship of the Sacred Roman Rota, January 19, 1626; he occupied the post until his promotion to the cardinalate. Consecrated, January 25, 1626, Sistine chapel, Rome, by Cardinal Laudivio Zacchia, bishop of Montefiascone, assisted by Alfonso Manzanedo, titular Latin patriarch of Jerusalem, and by Fabio Lagonissa, archbishop of Conza. Nuncio in Spain, May 30, 1626.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of August 30, 1627; published in the consistory of November 19, 1629; received the red hat and the title of S. Eusebio, August 12, 1630. Legate in Germany (?). Prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council from 1639 until September 15, 1644. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 12, 1643 until March 14, 1644. Participated in the conclave of 1644 and was elected pope; Cardinal Jules Mazarin arrived too late to present the French veto against his election..
Papacy. Elected on September 15, 1644. Took the name Innocent X. Crowned by Cardinal Carlo de' Medici, protodeacon of S. Nicola in Carcere, October 4, 1644. Took possession of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, November 23, 1644. He created forty cardinals in eight consistories. He practiced nepotism during his pontificate; his avaricious sister-in-law, Olimpia Maidalchini, exercised an undue influence (2).
Death. January 7, 1655, at 2:45 p.m., Rome. Exposed and buried in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome (3). Later his remains were transferred to the tomb built by his nephew Camillo Pamphilj and his grand nephew Giovanni Battista Pamphilj, in the church of S. Agnese in Agone, Rome.
Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 284-285; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 206; Herman, Eleanor. Mistress of the Vatican. The true story of Olimpia Maidalchini: The secret female pope. New York : HarperCollins, 2008; Re, Nicola del. "I cardinali prefetti della sacra congregazione del concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), pp. 116-117; Poncet, Olivier. "Innocenzo X" Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, 321-335.
Links. Biography, in English; biography, in English (Britannica); his episcopal lineage, in English; portrait, arms and biographical information, in English; his portrait by Diego Velázquez; his bust by Domenico Guidi, in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, England; his bust, Museo Nazionale di Palazzo Venezia, Rome; his bust by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Galleria Doria Pamphili, Rome; and his statue by Alessandro Algardi, Palazzo dei Conservatori, Rome.
(1) In an electronic message of December 27, 2003, Dr. Frank Burkle-Young, author of Passing the keys : modern cardinals, conclaves, and the election of the next pope (Lanham, Md.: Madison Books : Distributed by National Book Network, 1999), indicated that this makes Pope Innocent X the most recent pope to be descended directly from another pope.
(2) According to his first biography in English, linked above, "The accusation, made by Gualdus (Leti) in his "Vita di Donna Olimpia Maidalchini" (1666), that Innocent's relation to her was immoral, has been rejected as slanderous by all reputable historians."
(3) Upon the death of Pope Innocent X, Olimpia Maidalchini took all the belongings of the pontiff, refusing to give even vestments for his burial. His body was left in room for a day, until Majordome Scotti had a simple casket constructed for him. Canon Segni gave five scudi for his burial expenses.
(27) 8. GUIDI DI BAGNO, Giovanni Francesco (1578-1641)
Birth. 1578 (1), Florence. Son of Fabrizio Guidi di Bagno, marquis of Montebello, and Laura Colonna, daughter of Pompeo Colonna, duke of Zagarolo. Brother of Cardinal Nicolò Guidi di Bagno (1657) and nephew of Cardinal Girolamo Colonna (1627) on his mother's side. He is also listed as Giovanni Francesco Bagni and Gianfrancesco de' Conti Guidi di Bagno.
Education. Studied at the University of Pisa; and at the University of Bologna (philosophy and law under Giacomo Mazzoni).
Early life. Went to Rome and was named papal prelate, 1596. Traveled with Pope Clement VIII to Ferrara. Protonotary apostolic participantium, August 22, 1597. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1600. Accompanied Cardinal Ippolito Aldobrandini, legate a latere to France to congratulate King Henri IV for his marriage to Maria de' Medici. Vice-legate in Marche, 1601; and in Fermo, February 12, 1603 until April 3, 1606; April 8, 1606 until July 4, 1606. Governor of Orvieto, 1607; Fano, 1608; and Fermo, May 1, 1610; Campagna e Marittima, 1611. Vice-legate of Avignon, 1614. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace.
Sacred orders. (No information found).
Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Patras, March 3, 1614. Consecrated, Sunday April 13, 1614, church of S. Silvestro dei Teatini, Rome, by Cardinal Giovanni Battista Leni, assisted by Marco Cornaro, bishop of Padua, and by Francesco Cennini, bishop of Amelia. Legate in Avignon, 1614-1621. Nuncio extraordinary in France in the pontificate of Pope Gregory XV (1621-1623). Nuncio in Flanders. Again, transferred to France, in the pontificate of Pope Urban VIII (1623-1644), to assist Cardinal Francesco Barberini, seniore, legate a latere; returned to Flanders. Nuncio in France, 1627-1630. Transferred to the see of Cervia, retaining the denomination of titular archbishop of Patras, May 17, 1627.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of August 30, 1627; published in the consistory of November 19, 1629; received the red hat and the title of S. Alessio, May 26, 1631. Transferred to the see of Rieti, April 16, 1635. Resigned the government of the diocese before February 28, 1639. Philosopher René Descartes highly appreciated him.
Death. July 24, 1641, near 6 a.m., of podagra, chiragra, cold, and dysenteria, Rome. Buried in his title.
Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 285-287; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 175; Lutz, Georg. Kardinal Giovanni Francesco Guidi di Bagno. Politik un Religion im Zeitalter Richelieus un Urbans VIII. Tübingen : M. Niemeyer, 1971. (Bibliothek des Deutschen Historischen Instituts in Rom, Bd. 34). Note: A revision of the author's thesis, Munich, 1965, published with title: Die Politik Urbans VIII., der Aufstieg Richelieus und die Krise der Gegenreformation (1626-1630).
Links. His tomb in S. Alessio, Rome, Requiem Datendbank; brief biographical note and portrait, Les Correspondants de Peiresc par Agnès Bresson, one-fourth down the page.
(1) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 22, which says that he died at 63 in 1641. Diccitionnaire des cardinaux, col. 295, says that he was born in July 1565.
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