The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Urban VIII (1623-1644)
Consistory of November 19, 1629 (V)
Celebrated in Rome

(28) 1. PÁZMÁNY, S.J., Péter (1570-1637)

Birth. October 4, 1570, Nagyvárad (Oradea), Hungary. Of a noble family. Son of Nikolas Pázmány, vice-lieutenant of the county of Bihar. His parents were Calvinists, and his stepmother, who was a Catholic, was instrumental in his conversion to Catholicism in 1583. He is also listed as Péter Pázmány de Panasz.

Education. Jesuit College, Kolozsvä (Cluj). Entered the Society of Jesus, 1587; did his probation in Kraków; philosophy in Vienna, 1589-1592; and studied theology in Rome under Cardinal Roberto Bellarmino, S.J., 1592-1596; obtained a doctorate in theology, 1597.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1596, Rome. Prefect of studies at the Jesuit school in Graz in 1597, for a year. Lecturer of philosophy at the University of Graz, 1598. Sent to preach and spread the Catholic faith and doctrine from the Jesuit house of Sellye, Hungary in 1601; his mission was very successful in Kassa and in the county of Nyitra. Lecturer of theology at the University of Graz, 1603-1606. Returned to Hungary in 1607 and entered the court of Archbishop Ferenc Forgách of Esztergom. At the initiative of the archbishop and the request of King Matthias II of Hungary, Pope Paul V, by apostolic brief of March 5, 1616, granted him permission to leave the Society of Jesus and enter the Congregation of Regular Clerics of Somasca; he did not leave the Society of Jesus; there was only submissions of request and permission to leave (1). Provost of the priory of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Turóc (2), Slovakia, April 25, 1616.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Esztergom, November 28, 1616. Consecrated, March 12, 1617, Prague, by Cardinal Melchior Klesl, bishop of Vienna, assisted by Pal Almasy, bishop of Vác, and by János Telegdy, bishop of Nagyvárad. Named by Emperor Matthias first counselor of the imperial ecclesiastical department. Imperial chancellor, supreme secretary and privy counselor of Emperor Ferdinand II.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 19, 1629; received the red hat and the title of S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni, May 31, 1632. The emperor named him ambassador to the Holy See but the pope refused and asked him to return to Hungary. The leading figure of the Counter-Reformation in Hungary, he greatly distinguished himself for his preaching and writings and was instrumental in the conversion of noble families which in turn helped in the conversion of the people of Hungary. He implemented the decrees of the Council of Trent (1545-1563) and founded numerous educational institutions among them the first Hungarian Catholic university in Trnava, May 12, 1635.

Death. March 19, 1637, Pozsony (Bratislava). Exposed in the cathedral of St. Martin, Pozsony and buried in the floor of its presbytery at the foot of the mausoleum of St. John the Almsgiver, which he had built in precious marble with a silver urn and a lamp burning in front of it (3).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 287-290; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalvm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque Clementem IX P. O. M. 4 vols. Romae : Cura, et Svmp. Philippi, et Ant. De Rvbeis. Svperiorvm Permissv., 1630, II, 977; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 22, 42 and 322; Lukinich, Imre. A history of Hungary in biographical sketches. Freeport, New Yotk : books for libraries press, 1968. (Essay index reprint series). First published 1937, "Cardinal Péter Pázmány," pp. 153-160; Tusor, Péter. Purpura Pannonica : az esztergomi "bíborosi szék" kialakulásának elozminyei a 17. században = Purpura Pannonica : the "Cardinalitial See" of Strigonium and its Antecedens in the 17th Century. Budapest : Róma : Research Institute of Church History at Péter Pázmány Catholic University, 2005. (Collectanea Vaticana Hungariae, Classis I, vol. 3), pp. 58, 69, 76, 77-105, 106, 108, 109, 124, 128, 129, 133, 142, 144, 161, 191, 195, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 208, 210, 213,-220, 222, 224, 225, 230, 233, 237 and 323-324.

Links. Biography by Adalbert Bangha, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his image and biography, in English, AbsoluteAstronomy.com; his portrait and biography, in English, Wikipedia; biography by Walter Troxler, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographischen Kirchenlexikons; his engraving by György Szelepcsényi, Christian Museum, Esztergom; his engraving by an anonymous artist, AEIOU; his portrait, Pannonhalma Abbey, Hungary; another portrait, Pannohalma Abbey, Hungary; and another portrait, also at Pannohalma Abbey, Hungary.

(1) He wrote to the general of the Society of Jesus on February 28, 1616: Societatem amo atque observo, amaboque dum vivam (I love and respect the Society and I will love it as long as I shall live).
(2) It was a Premonstratesian priory and later, Cardinal Ferenc Forgách, archbishop of Esztergom, gave it to the Society of Jesus.
(3) On September 12, 1859, during reconstruction at St. Martin's cathedral, Father Ferdinand Knauz and a number of others present, came across the grave of Cardinal Pázmány. His body was found dry yet almost intact, with his face missing the nose and yet still bearded. He still carried his Jesuit hat on his head with some hair underneath, was dressed in red damask and wore simple leather shoes on his feet. Now the silver coffin of the saint is in the new chapel of St. John the Almsgiver that was built by Archbishop Imrich Eszterhazy in the 18th century.

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(29) 2. SANTACROCE, Antonio (1598-1641)

Birth. 1598, Rome. Son of Marcello Santacroce, of the marquises of Pietraforte, and Porzia, of the marquises del Drago. Nephew of Cardinal Prospero Santacroce (1565). Uncle of Cardinal Marcello Santacroce (1652). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Andrea Santacroce (1699).

Education. Obtained a doctorate in law in Rome.

Early life. Papal prelate. Protonotary apostolic participantium, March 24, 1621. Vice-legate in Viterbo, 1622 until October 1625. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1622. Governor of the provinces of Campagna e Marittima, February 20 to December, 1625. Accompanied Cardinal Francesco Barberini, seniore, legate a latere to France, 1625.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Seleucia, with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age of 30 years for the episcopate, March 1, 1627. Consecrated, March 21, 1627, church of S. Andrea della Valle, Rome, by Cardinal Tiberio Muti, assisted by Erasmo Paravicini, bishop of Alessandria, and by Francesco Cavalieri, bishop of Sulmona. Nuncio in Poland, April 16, 1627.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 19, 1629; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, August 12, 1630. Legate in Bologna, June 24, 1631 until May 1634. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Chieti, March 10, 1631. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Urbino, June 9, 1636. Resigned the government of the archdiocese in 1639.

Death. November 25, 1641 (1), near 1 p.m., of tuberculosis, in his Roman palace. Buried in his family's church of S. Maria in Publicolis, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 290-291; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 207; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 154, 182, 431 and 892.

Links. His prosopography, in German; and his tomb in he church of S. Maria in Publicolis, Rome.

(1) Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 22, indicates that he died at 43 but Cardella, Memorie de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 291, says that he was 44 years old when he died.

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(30) 3. DU PLESSIS DE RICHELIEU, O.Carth., Alphonse-Louis
(1582-1653)

Birth. 1582, Paris, France. Of a noble family. Second son of François du Plessis de Richelieu and Suzanne de la Porte de Vezins. Brother of Cardinal Armand-Jean du Plessis de Richelieu (1622).

Education. Received his early education under the care of his mother in the castle of his paternal grandparents where, together with his two brothers and two sisters, he had moved after the death of the father in 1590. Collège de Navarre, Paris, 1594-1601. Obtained a doctorate in theology in order to occupy the bishopric of Luçon that corresponded almost as inheritance to his family. When he declined, his brother Armand-Jean took his place as bishop of that see.

Early life. Declined promotion to the see of Luçon offered by King Henri IV of France in 1602; entered the Carthusian order, 1602; professed, 1605.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Prior of the Carthusian monastery of Bompas. In 1626, his brother the cardinal arranged for his promotion to the episcopate.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Aix-en-Provence, April 27, 1626. Consecrated, June 21, 1626, Carthusian church, Paris, by Guillaume d'Hughes, archbishop of Embrun, assisted by Claude de Rueil, bishop of Bayonne, and by Nicolas Sanguin, bishop of Senlis. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Lyon, November 27, 1628. Abbot commendatario of Saint-Michel, 1628.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 19, 1629, with dispensation for having a brother in the Sacred College of Cardinals. Named by King Louis XIII in 1631, Grand Aumonier of France. Abbot commendatario of Saint-Etienne de Caen, 1632 and of Saint-Victor de Marsella or La Chaise-Dieu. Commander of the Order of Saint-Esprit, 1633. Provisor of La Sorbonne University, Paris. Dean of Saint Martin de Tours. Received the red hat and the title of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, June 4, 1635. During the plague epidemic in Lyon in 1638, he himself assisted in the nursing of the sick. In June 1644, as grand aumonier, he presided over the funeral of King Louis XIII. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. He was widely appreciated for his humility and his merciful dedication to the poor. The relationship between the two cardinal brothers was not tension-free despite their close friendship. He introduced chocolate in France and it appears that his excessive consumption was his only vice.

Death. March 24, 1653 (1), of dropsy, Lyon. Buried in the church of  la Charité of the poors' hospital, Lyon.

Bibliography. Bergin, Joseph. The making of the French Episcopate, 1589-1661. New Haven; London : Yale University Press, 1996, ch. IV, "Biographical dictionary," p. 691; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 291-292; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 279-280; Deloche, M. Un frère de Richelieu inconnu. Paris : 1935; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 22, 50 and 226.

(1) This is according to Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 22, 50 and 226; Chapeau, Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973, p. 279-280, says that he died on March 23, 1653 in Lyon.

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(31) 4. PALLOTTA, Giovanni Battista Maria (1594-1668)

Birth. January 23, 1594, Caldarola, diocese of Camerino. Of a noble family. Eldest of the five children of Martino Pallotta, castellano of Camerino, and Maddalena Ferretti. The other children were Maddalena (a nun), Desiderio (a Jesuit), Domenica and Nicola. Nephew of Cardinal Giovanni Evangelista Pallotta (1587). Other members of the family promoted to the cardinalate were Guglielmo Pallotta (1777) and Antonio Pallotta (1823). His last name is also listed as Pallotti and Pallotto.

Education. Studied belle lettere in the boarding school of S. Bernardo, Perugia, under Antonio Bonciario; then, attended Seminario Romano (philosophy and law).

Early life. Went to Rome in the pontificate of Pope Paul V (1605-1621). Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1611. Vice-legate in Ferrara, 1623. Apostolic collector in Portugal, from June 8, 1624 to June 6, 1626 (1). Governor of Rome, February 14 to April 8, 1628. Nuncio extraordinary before Emperor Ferdinand II of Austria, April 8, 1628, to mediate in the conflict for the succession to the duchy of Mantua. Named nuncio ordinary in Austria, September 9, 1628 until the first half of 1630.

Priesthood. Ordained, in the last week of October 1628, Nikolsburg, by Cardinal Franz Seraph von Dietrichstein, bishop of Olomouc. He celebrated his first mass at the chapel Leopoldstag in Vienna.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tessalonica, September 18, 1628. Consecrated, December 10, 1628, chapel Leopoldstag, Vienna, by Cardinal Melchior Klesl, bishop of Vienna, in the presence of the royal family.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 19, 1629; received the red hat and the title of S. Silvestro in Capite, May 26, 1631. Founder of the Pio Sodalizio dei Piceni di Roma. Legate in Ferrara, July 1, 1631 until 1634. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Co-protector of Loreto, with Cardinal Antonio Barberini, iuniore, 1644 for eight years. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 7, 1647 until January 13, 1648. Opted for the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, September 23, 1652. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII (2). Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, April 21, 1659. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, November 21, 1661. Cardinal primoprete. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, July 2, 1663. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Frascati (3), October 11, 1666. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX.

Death. January 22, 1668, near 5 a.m., Rome. The remains were deposited in the church of S. Spirito in Sassia, Rome, and later transferred and buried in Caldarola.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 292-297; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, p. 100; Kiewning, Hans. "Nuntiatur des Pallotto, 1628-1630," in Nuntiaturberichte aus Deutschland nebst ergänzenden Actenstücken. 4. Abt. : Siebzehntes Jahrhundert. Berlin : A. Bath, 1897; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, pp. 117-119 Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 706.

Links. His portrait by an anonymous artist, Palazzo Pio Sodalizio dei Piceni, Rome; biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; and his engraving by Giuseppe Testana, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin.

(1) At that time, Portugal was under the king of Spain and the apostolic collector acted as nuncio, or "vice-nuncio".
(2) According to the biographical data of the cardinal in the site of the Pallotta family, linked above, the contemporaries believed that he should have been elected to the pontificate, supported by Austria, Spain, and Tuscany, but that his election had been contested by Donna Olimpia Maidalchini Pamphili, sister in law of the late Pope Innocent X, due to an old rancor. The cardinal had told the pope how the Roman people lamented the poor quality of the bread and Innocent X had chided Donna Olimpia, who had its monopoly, and this had provoked her anger against the cardinal.
(3) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 23. Squicciarini, Nunzi apostolici a Vienna, p. 119, indicates that he was named bishop of Tivoli in 1666 but he is not listed in the series of occupants of that diocese.

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(32) 5. NARO, Gregorio (1581-1634)

Birth. 1581, Rome. Son of Gregorio Naro and Olimpia Lante, sister of Virginia Lante, wife of Giovanni Battista Borghese, brother of Pope Paul V. Of the marquises of Mompeo. Nephew of Cardinal Marcello Lante (1606), on his mother's side. His last name is also listed as Nari.

Education. Studied at the University of Perugia, where he earned a obtained a doctorate.

Early life. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, January 18, 1621. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, 1622. Prefect of the Annona, November 10, 1623 (1). Auditor general of the Apostolic Chamber. Governor of Civitavecchia, 1624-1625. Protonotary apostolic, January 28, 1626.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 19, 1629, with dispensation for having an uncle in the Sacred College of Cardinals; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Quirico e Giulitta, December 17, 1629.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Rieti, February 6, 1634. Consecrated (no information found).

Death. August 7, 1634, Rieti. Transferred to Rome and buried in his family's chapel in the basilica of S. Maria sopra Minerva.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 297-298.

(1) This is according to Weber, Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio (1550-1809), p. 797; Katterbach, Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII, p. 253, indicates that he was appointed on September 1, 1625.

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(33) 6. VIRILI, Luca Antonio (1569-1634)

Birth. 1569, Rome. From a noble family from Sabina. Son of Lelio Virili, a Roman lawyer, and Sigismonda Prati.

Education. Studied at the University of Siena, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, in 1590.

Early life. Returned to Rome and learned the practice of the Roman Curia in the studio of Francesco Pegna, dean of the Sacred Roman Rota. Pope Paul V (1605-1621) named him civil lieutenent of the auditor of the Apostolic Chamber, Giandomenico Spinola, future cardinal. Named superintendent of the papal household by Pope Gregory XV (1621-1623). Master of chamber of Cardinal Antonio Barberini, iuniore. Secretary of Memorials. Commissary of the Holy See before the duke of Urbino, August - September 1624. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, June 22, 1626. Vice-prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 19, 1629; received the red hat and the title of S. Salvatore in Lauro, December 17, 1629.

Death. June 4, 1634, before dawn, in his Roman residence. The funeral took place in the church of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, Rome, and he was buried in that same church.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 298.

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(34) 7. TRIVULZIO, Giangiacomo Teodoro (1597-1656)

Birth. 1597 (al. 1596), Milan. Son of Carlo Emmanuele Trivulzio, count of Melzi, and Caterina Gonzaga, daughter of Alfonso Gonzaga, prince of Castelgoffredo. Of a noble family. His last name is also listed as Vivulzio. Count of Melzo, signore of Castelzevio and Codogno. Prince of Musocco and Mesolina. Prince of the Holy Roman Empire. Great-grand-nephew of Cardinal Scaramuccia Trivulzio (1517). Grand-nephew of Cardinal Antonio Trivulzio, iuniore (1557). Other cardinals of the family were Antonio Trivulzio, seniore, O.C.R.S.A. (1500); and Agostino Trivulzio (1517).

Education. Educated by his mother after his father's death when he was a young boy. Studied letters.

Early life. Knight of the Order of Santiago, 1606. Milanese patrician, 1609. In 1615, married Giovanna Maria Grimaldi, daughter of Ercole I of Monaco and Maria Landi, of the princes of Val di Taro; they had two daughters, Ottavia and Caterina, and a son, Ercole Teodoro; she died in 1620. First prince of Musocco and prince of the Sacred Roman Empire. Signore of Valle Misolcina, September 17, 1622, with the treatment of "Illustre". Naturalized German in 1625. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, 1625. Protonotary apostolic participantium, April 21, 1626. Governor of Collescipoli, 1628.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 19, 1629; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Cesareo in Palatio, December 17, 1629. Legate in the Marche, June 2, 1631. Governor general of the national militia of the duchy of Milan and superintendent of the fortresses, 1638. Imperial commissary. Grande of Spain, first class, 1642. Viceroy and captain general of Aragón, 1642. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Opted for the deaconry of S. Nicola in Carcere, October 17, 1644. Opted for the deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria, December 12, 1644. President and captain general of the Kingdom of Sicily, 1647-1649. Viceroy of Sardinia, 1649. Opted for the deaconry of S. Eustachio, September 23, 1652. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata, July 21, 1653. Cardinal protodeacon. Participated in the conclave of 1655. Opted for the order of priests and the title of S. Maria del Popolo, May 14, 1655. Governor and captain general of the duchy of Milan, ad interim, December 2, 1655 to August 3, 1656.

Death. August 3, 1656, Milan. Buried in his family's chapel in the basilica of S. Stefano, Milan.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 298-300.

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(35) 8. GUZMÁN DE HAROS, Diego (1566-1631)

Birth. 1566, Ocaña (1), archdiocese of Toledo, Spain. Of a noble family. His second last name is also listed as Aros, Aro and Haro. Some sources (2) list him as Diego Guzmán only.

Education. University of Salamanca, Salamanca (doctorates in theology and law).

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Chaplain of the Franciscans Discalced, Madrid. Mayor royal chaplain, 1608. Member of the Supreme Council of the Inquisition, August 1613. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Toledo. Abbot of Santander, diocese of Burgos. Preceptor of Infantas Ana María and Margarita.

Episcopate. Named patriarch of the West Indies, March 14, 1616. Elected titular archbishop of Tiro, April 18, 1616. Consecrated, 1616 (no further information found). Commissary of the bull of the crusade in Spain, June 30, 1620. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Seville, September 15, 1625.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of November 19, 1629; published in the consistory of July 15, 1630; never received the red hat and the title. In 1629, traveled to Hungary to accompany his former pupil Infanta María Ana Margarita, who was going to get married to future Emperor Ferdinand III; and on his return he was going to go to Rome to receive the red hat but died before arriving in that city.

Death. January 21, 1631, Ancona. Buried in the church of the Jesuits in Ancona and later transferred and buried in Madrid.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 300-301; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1500-1699). Españoles obispos en españa, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 34), p. 133-134.

(1) This is according to Guitarte, Episcopologio español (1500-1699), pp. 133-134. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali de Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 300, says that he was born in Avila of an illustrious family from Andalucia.
(2) España Sagrada (1879) and Diccionario Enciclopédico Hispano Americano.

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(36) 9. WAZA, S.J., Jan Olbracht (1612-1634)

Birth. May 25, 1612, Kraków, Poland. Son of King Zygmunta III Wazy of Poland and Konstanze of Habsburg, archduchess of Austria. He had four brothers, Jan Kazimierz, the younger (cardinal); Jan II Kazimierz; Karol Ferdynand (bishop of Wrocław, 1625-1655; and Płock, 1640-1655); and Aleksander Karol; two sisters, Anna Konstancja and Anna Katarzyna Konstancja; two half-brothers. Władysław IV, king of Poland; and Krzysztof; and three half-sisters, Anna Maria, Katarzyna and Katarzyna. Nephew of Leopold Habsburg, bishop of Strasbourg (1607-1626); and of Karol Habsburg, bishop of Wrocław (1608-1624). Brother of Cardinal Jan Kazimierz Waza, S.J. (1646). Related to Cardinal Fryderyk Jagiellończyk (1493). His family name is also listed as Vasa, Wasa and Wazów.

Education. Entered the Society of Jesus. (No further educational information found).

Sacred orders. He never recived any of the sacred orders.

Episcopate. Nominated administrator of the diocese Ermland by its cathedral chapter; named by the pope, with Canon Michael Dzialynski, as co-administrator for a triennium, October 21, 1621.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore tacite in the consistory of November 19, 1629; published in the consistory of December 20, 1632; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Aquiro, December 20, 1632. Administrator of the see of Kraków, retaining the administration of Ermland, November 6, 1632. Elected bishop of Kraków, cum munere administrationis donec ad legitimam aetatem prevenerit, November 20, 1632.

Death. December 29, 1634, Padua (1). Transferred to Poland with splendida pompa and buried in the crypt of the Royal Basilica, Wawel Castle, Kraków.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 301-302; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalvm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque Clementem IX P. O. M. 4 vols. Romae : Cura, et Svmp. Philippi, et Ant. De Rvbeis. Svperiorvm Permissv., 1630, II, col. 978; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 23, 52 and 167; Nitecki, Piotr. Biskupi Kościoła w Polsce w latach 965-1999. Słownik biograficzny. Przedmowa Henryk Gulbinowicz. Warszawa : Instytut Wydawniczy "Pax", Warszawa 2000, col. 471.

Links. His portrait, arms and biography, in Polish, Wikipedia; his genealogy (Child 8), Directory of Royal Genealogical Data.

(1) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 23. The two genealogies linked above indicate that he died on December 22, 1634.

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(37) 10. ROCCI, Ciriaco (1581-1651)

Birth. 1581, Rome. Son of Bernardio Rocci and Clarice Arrigoni. The family was from Cremona. Nephew on his mother's side of Cardinal Pompeio Arrigoni (1596). Uncle of Cardinal Bernardino Rocci (1675).

Education. Studied literarture.

Early life. Abbreviatore del parco maggiore in the Apostolic Chancery, April 2, 1606. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government, 1609. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1609. Governor of Viterbo, December 20, 1620. Vice-legate in Ferrara, June 1624 to December 1628. Prelate of the SS.CC. of Good Government and of the Ecclesiastical State.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Patra, May 29, 1628. Consecrated (no information found). Nuncio in Switzerland, May 29, 1628 until 1630. Nuncio in Austria, May 18, 1630 until 1634.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore tacite in the consistory of November 19, 1629; published in the consistory of November 28, 1633. Returned to Rome on May 31, 1635. Received the red hat on July 5, 1634; and the title of S. Salvatore in Lauro, August 13, 1635. Legate in Ferrara, February 19, 1637 until February 20, 1640. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 8, 1646 until January 7, 1647.

Death. September 25, 1651, near 5 p.m., vor allzu Grosser fetigkeit (1), caused by his great obesity, in his Roman palace. Buried in his family's chapel in the church of S. Maria di Monserrato, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 301-302; Fink, Urban. Die Luzerner Nuntiatur 1586-1873 : Zur Behördengeschichte und Quellenkunde der päpstlichen Diplomatie in der Schweiz. Luzern ; Stuttgart : Rex Verlag, 1997. (Collectanea Archivi Vaticani ; Bd. 40) (Luzerner Historische Veröffentlichungen ; Bd. 32); Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 33, 49, 59 and 276; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, p. 120-121.

Link. His engraving and prosopography, in German, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is according to Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste.

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(38) 11. MONTI, Cesare (1594-1650)

Birth. May 15, 1594, Milan (1). Of a patrician family. Second of the two sons of Senator Princivalle Monti, Milanese patrician, and his second wife, Anna Landriani. The other son was Marcantonio (a senator in 1628). His first name is also listed as Caesar; and his last name as Montius.

Education. Studied at the University of Pavia, where he obtained a doctorate in law in 1617; while at the university, he resided at Collegio Borromeo.

Early life. In 1618, he obtained the inscription in the prestigious Collegio dei Giureconsulti of Milan. In that same year, probably because the good relations of his father with Cardinal Federico Borromeo, he was named protonotary apostolic and moved to Rome, where he entered the curial career. In 1620, he became referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. In 1622, he was named by consultor of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition (Holy Office); he took the oath on June 8; and later, in October 1624, he became its assessor. He was also named auditor of the Sacred Consulta, which was the supreme civil and criminal tribunal of the Papal State. Prelate of the S.C. of Good Government. Probably in his capacity as a consultant of the Holy Office, he met and befriended Cardinal Maffeo Barberini, future Pope Urban VIII. That pope entrusted him with the task of investigating, with inquisitorial powers of commissioner delegate, the story of Isabella Gonzaga di Bozzolo, accused of witchcraft by her second husband, Vincenzo Gonzaga, who wanted the annulment of their marriage. In December 1623, Cardinal Ludovico Ludovisi, with the approval of the pope, appointed Monsignor Monti his deputy in the office of auditor of cases relating to the Congregation of Propaganda Fide. Named nuncio in Naples on April 17, 1627; occupied the post until 1628. Nuncio extraordinary in Spain in April 1628 to negotiate with the king the peace in Italy afflicted by the war of Mantua; on the following June 2, he was in Barcelona; three weeks later, he was received by King Felipe III, when the hostilities had already started; in spite of his efforts, and those of Nuncio Giovanni Battista Pamphilj, Spain did not abandon its bellicose stance; the failure of the mission was not due to lack of diplomatic ability on the part of the extraordinary nuncio but to the distrust of the Spanish court toward Pope Urban VIII, who was considered excessively francophile.

Sacred orders. Received the minor and the major orders between the end of 1629 and the beginning of 1630.

Episcopate. Elected titular patriarch of Antioch, November 19, 1629. Consecrated, January 28, 1630, chapel of the Royal Palace Buen Retiro, Madrid, by Cardinal Giovanni Battista Pamphilj, former nuncio to Spain, assisted by Cristóbal de Lobera y Torres, bishop of Córdoba, and by Alfonso Pérez de Guzmán, patriarch of the West Indies. Named nuncio in Spain on March 1, 1630; occupied the post until January 31, 1634. Took possession of the nunciature on April 30, 1630, after the former nuncio had left Madrid.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore tacite in the consistory of November 19, 1629. Named archbishop of Milan, retaining the titular patriarchate, December 20, 1632; the resistance of King Felipe IV to grant the placet was not overcome until May 1633. Published in the consistory of November 28, 1633; on that same date he ceased as titular patriarch of Antioch; he was informed of the promotion to the cardinalate in December 1633. Arrived in Rome from Spain on May 31, 1634. Received the red hat on July 1, 1634; and the title of S. Maria in Traspontina, August 6, 1634. He entered Milan on April 29, 1635 and took possession of the see on the following day. From 1635, when France entered in war against the House of Hapsburg, it represented for the State of Milan a stormy bellic phase and Cardinal Monti had to confront during the fifteen years of his episcopate religious and especially political problems linked to the ongoing war on the soil of Lombardy. He celebrated diocesan synods in 1636, 1640 and 1650. He realized a pastoral visit of his vast archdiocese in 1636; he completed the major seminary of Milan and opened the one in Monza in 1638; and introduced the Cistercian monks of S. Bernardo. In the years 1643 to 1647, the cardinal undertook the long issue of the relations between Catholics and Protestants in Valtellina and Chiavenna, Lombard lands under the rule of the Swiss cantons and the Gray League, and he did his utmost to protect the Catholic faith. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. For his support during the conclave, the new pope named the cardinal's brother master of chamber.

Death. August 16, 1650. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Milan; and buried in front of the altar of Beatissima Vergine "dell'Albero", in that cathedral (2). He had stated in his will his wish to be buried in Santuario di Concesa, but the canons of the cathedral chapter and the Milanese people did not follow his desire volendo avere nel loro Duomo l'Arcivescovo tanto amato..., "wanting to have in their cathedral the beloved archbishop." His heir for goods other than income from receivables and ecclesiastical, which went to the Ospedale Maggiore in Milan, was his cousin Giulio, in favor of whom, since February 1637, he had established a fedecommesso. Most of the paintings collection, 221 works, to devise, were given to his successors in the see of Milan, pro tempore and with the prohibition of alienation.

Bibliography. Arese, Franco. "Cardinali e vescovi milanesi dal 1535 al 1796" in Archivio storico lombardo, CVII (1981), ser. X, VI, 163-234; Besozzi, Leonida. "Il cardinale arcivescovo Cesare Monti giureconsulto collegiato e patrizio milanese (1594-1650)" in Archivio storico lombardo, CXX (1994), ser. XII, I, 39-164; Biaudet, Henry. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes jusqu'en 1648. Helsinki ; Suomalainen tiedeakatemia, 1910, p. 275; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 304-306; Cazzani, Eugenio. Vescovi e arcivescovi di Milano. Nuova ed. a cura di Angelo Majo, 2d ed. Milano : Massimo : NED, 1996. Note: Originally published 1955, now enlarged and updated, p. 236-238; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 23, 45, 86 and 237; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturæ a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), pp. 252, 272 and 295; Majo, Angelo. Storia della chiesa ambrosiana. 5 vols. 2nd ed. Milano : NED, 1983-1986, III, 39, 41-43, 64-66, 7076 and 82; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XLVI, 250-251; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 634; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), III, 752.

Links. Biography by Massimo Carlo Giannini, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 76 (2012), Treccani; his engraving, arms and portraits, Araldica Vaticana; Serie cronologica dei vescovi di Milano (III-XXI secolo), in Italian, archdiocese of Milan.

(1) This is according to his biography by Giannini, linked above. Cazzani, Vescovi e arcivescovi di Milano, p. 236, says that he was born in 1593. Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 23, says that he died on August 16, 1650 at fifty seven.
(2) This is the text of the inscription in his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

OSSA
CAESARIS MONTII
CARDINALIS
ARCHIEP. MEDIOL.
VIXIT ANNIS LVI
REXIT ECCLESIAM
ANNIS XV
OBIIT
ANNO MDCL
XVII KAL. SEPTEMB.

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