The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Urban VIII (1623-1644)
Consistory of November 28, 1633 (VI)

(39) 1. BRANCACCIO, Francesco Maria (1592-1675)

Birth. April 15, 1592, Canneto, archdiocese of Bari. Of an ancient and noble Neapolitan family. Son of Baron Muzio II Brancaccio, viceroy of Puglia, and Zenobia di Costanza. His last name is also listed as Brancacci and Brancati. Uncle of Cardinal Stefano Brancaccio (1681); and of Emmanuele Brancaccio, bishop of Ariano. Another five members of the family were created cardinals: Landolfo Brancaccio (1294); Niccolò Brancaccio, pseudocardinal of Clement VII (1378); Rinaldo Brancaccio (1384); Ludovico Bonito (1408); Tommaso Brancaccio, pseudocardinal of John XXIII (1411).

Education. Attended the Jesuit College, Naples, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on November 5, 1611; and a doctorate in theology on September 30, 1620.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 21, 1619, Naples. Papal prelate in the pontificate of Pope Gregory XV (1621-1623). Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Governor of Fabriano, February 2, 1623; Todi, 1626; and Terni, 1627.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Capaccio, August 9, 1627. Consecrated, Wednesday, September 8, 1627, church of S. Andrea della Valle, by Cardinal Cosmo de Torres, assisted by Giuseppe Acquaviva, titular archbishop of Tebe, and by Francesco Nappi, bishop of Polignano. In the same ceremony were consecrated Annibale Mascambruno, bishop of Castellamare di Stabi; Luis Jiménez, bishop of Urgento; and Giacobino Marenco, bishop of Saluzzo.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 28, 1633; received the red hat and the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, January 9, 1634. Resigned the government of the diocese of Capaccio before February 12, 1635 (1). Transferred to the see of Viterbo e Toscanella, September 13, 1638. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, July 2, 1663. Cardinal primo prete. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, October 11, 1666. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Frascati, January 30, 1668. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X; Spain vetoed his election to the papacy (2). Resigned the government of the diocese of Viterbo e Toscanella before June 2, 1670. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, March 18, 1671. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Prefect of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars. Prefect of the S.C. of Rites. His book collection contributed to the formation of the Biblioteca Brancacciana of Naples. Published several works, among them one in which he defended the consumption of chocolate demonstrating that it did not interrupt fasting.

Death. January 9, 1675, near 11 a.m., Rome. Buried in the church of SS. Nome di Gesù, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 307-310; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 208.

Webgraphy. The Brancaccio family, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his episcopal lineage, in English; his engraving by Giuseppe Maria Testana, Museo di Roma, Rome; his portrait and biographical data, in Italian; biography, in Italian; and his epitaph in the church of SS. Nome di Gesù, Rome; his portrait, bottega italiana, secolo XVIII (1750-1799), diocese of Viterbo, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

(1) According to his biography in the site of the bishops of Frascati, linked above, while in Capaccio, he was involved in a verbal argument with a Spanish official for jurisdictional questions and when the offical was killed, he was accused of his death. Afraid of being imprisoned by the local authorities, without arguing the case, he escaped to Rome where the pope offered him secure refuge and defense, and certain that he was not culpable, declared him innocent. In spite of this, the Neapolitan ministers sequestered the income of the diocese and intimated grave pains to whomever still considered him the head of the church of Capaccio. The rumor circulated that the Spanish wanted him dead at any cost. The pope, to protect him from any trouble from the Neapolitan justice, created him cardinal priest of Ss. XII Apostoli and asked the neo-cardinal not to return to his see and to resign the property and riches sequestered. To recompense him, at least in part, for the sudden loss, the pope assigned him to the see of Viterbo.
(2) This is according to Giancarlo Zizola, Il conclave. Storia e segreti. L'elezione papale da San Pietro a Giovanni Paolo II, (Rome : Newton, 1993), p. 124; Frederic Baumgartner, Behind locked doors. A history of the papal elections (New York : Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), p. 160, says that Spain declared that it was not going to exclude anybody.

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(40) 2. BICHI, Alessandro (1596-1657)

Birth. September 30, 1596, Siena. Son of Vincenzo Bichi and Faustina Piccolomini. Nephew of Cardinal Metello Bichi (1611). Other cardinals of the family were Antonio Bichi (1657); Carlo Bichi (1690); and Vincenzo Bichi (1731).

Education. Studied in Siena.

Early life. Lieutenant of the auditor of the Apostolic Chamber in the pontificate of Pope Urban VIII. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Isola, May 5, 1628. Consecrated (no information found). Nuncio in Naples, May 24, 1628. until June 1630. Transferred to the see of Carpentras, September 9, 1630. Nuncio in France, September 20, 1630.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 28, 1633; received the red hat and the title of S. Sabina, December 7, 1637. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII.

Death. May 25, 1657, near 10 p.m., Rome. Exposed and buried in his title (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 306-307; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. 6 v. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 104.

Webgraphy. His tomb in the basilica of S. Sabina, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

R .     S .     I .
ALEXANDRO BICHIO SENENSI TIT : S:TAE SABINAE S . R . E . PRAEB. CARDINALI
COELIQ FRATRI SAC . ROT . ROM . AVDITORI
METELLI CARDINALIS E VINCENTIO FRATRE NEPOTIBVS
VICARIA . A . C . IVRISDICTIONE PERFVNCTIS
VNDE
ALEXANDER VRBANI VIII PONT . MAX . DELECTV
IN REGNO NEAPOLITANO INSVLANVS IN GALLICANO CARPENTORATENSIS ANTISTES
VTROBIQVE NVNCIVS
AEQVANIMI MAGNITVDINE PER ASSIDVA RARAE PIETATIS AC PRVDENTIAE DOCVMENTA
EXTINTO SIMVL FRANCORVM REGIS AUSPICIIS
INTRA ITALIAM EXARDENTIVM BELLORVM INCENDIO
ET PACTIS(sic!) IN GALLIA PROVINCIIS
TOTIVS REGNI GALLIAE APVD SANCTAM SEDEM COMPROTECTOR
GLORIAM NVMQVAM QUAESITAM SEMPER PROMERITVS
COELIVS VERO PARI LAVDVM TENORE SANCTIORIB . PONTIFICIAE MOLIS CVRIS ADHIBITVS
ARCHIGYMNASII ALMAE VRBIS PREFECTVS
AC DEMVM
ALEXANDRI VII . PONT . MAX . ORACVLO
SANCTAE . INQVISITIONIS AC SACRAE PENITENTIARIAE CONSVLTOR
IVSTISSIME IN SAPIENTISSIMO ROTALI CONSENSV ANNOS XIX . EMENSVS
GALGANVS ARCIS ALBENIAE MARCHIO
FRATRIBVS MORTALITATAE EXVTIS
ANNO SALVTIS MDCLVII
COAELIO DIE IX MARTII AETATIS ANNO LVII
ALEXANDRO DIE XXV MAII AETATIS ANNO LXI
POSVIT

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(41) 3. CARPEGNA, Ulderico (1595-1679)

Birth. June 24, 1595 (1), Scavolino, diocese of Ferrara. Of a noble Roman family. Son of Count Tommaso Carpegna di Carpegna, and Vittoria Landriana. Brother of Pietro di Carpegna, bishop of Gubbio (1628-1630). Uncle of Cardinal Sebastiano Antonio Tanara (1695). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Alessandro Tanara (1743). Relative of Cardinal Gasparo Carpegna (1670), who belonged to another branch of the family. His last name is also listed as Carpineo.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Named abbot of Santa Maria di Mutino in the pontificate of Pope Gregory XV; occupied the post until 1631. Member of the court of Cardinal Antonio Barberini, seniore, O.F.M.Cap.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Gubbio, September 23, 1630. Consecrated, October, 7, 1630, in the Pauline Chapel of the Apostolic Palace of the Quirinal, Rome, by Cardinal Luigi Caetani, assisted by Antonio Ricciulli, bishop emeritus of Belcastro and vicegerent of Rome, and by Benedetto Landi, bishop of Fossombrone.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 28, 1633; received the red hat and the title of S. Anastasia, January 9, 1634. Transferred to the see of Todi, October 11, 1638. Resigned the government of the diocese before August 31, 1643. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 13, 1648 until February 1, 1649. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Opted for the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, April 21, 1659. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, November 21, 1661. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, October 11, 1666. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Frascati, March 18, 1671. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, January 28, 1675. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI.

Death. January 24, 1679, Rome. Buried in the Barberini chapel in the church of S. Andrea della Valle, Rome.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre .... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 635; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 310-312.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian; his episcopal lineage, in English; his engraving by Giuseppe Maria Testana, Museo di Roma, Rome; and his tomb in the church of S. Andrea della Valle, Rome; his portrait, ambito eugubino, secolo XIX (1800-1899), diocese of Gubbio, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

(1) Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 635, says that he was born on May 25, 1595. Feillet in his notes to Oeuvres du cardinal de Retz, says that he was born on May 15, 1595.

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(42) 4. DURAZZO, Stefano (1594-1667)

Birth. June 16, 1594 (1), Multedo, archdiocese of Genoa. Son of Pietro I Durazzo, doge of the Republic Genoa, and Aurelia Saluzzo. Of a patrician family. Uncle of Cardinal Marcello Durazzo (1686).

Education. Studied law in Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1618. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1621. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, 1621-1623. Protonotary apostolic, 1624. Prefect of the Annona, February 4, 1626. Treasurer general of the Apostolic Chamber, August 30, 1627 to 1633. Pro-secretary of the Apostolic Chamber, 1633 to the Spring of 1634.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 28, 1633; received the red hat and the title of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna, January 9, 1634. Legate in Ferrara, May 23, 1634 to 1637.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Genoa, March 5, 1635. Consecrated (no information found). Treasurer of the S.C. of Ecclesiastical Immunity and of State, 1636 and 1639-1641. Legate in Bologna, May 21, 1640 until November 1642. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Resigned the government of the archdiocese, October 1664. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, October 11, 1666. Cardinal protoprete. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX.

Death. July 11, 1667, near 7 a.m., Rome. Buried in the church of S. Maria in Monterone, Rome. Later, transferred to Genoa.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 312-314; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 154, 251 and 649.

Webgraphy. His monument in the church of S. Maria in Monterone, Rome, tenth group of pictures on the page; his portrait and arms, scuola genovese, secolo XVII (1650-1674), archdiocese of Genoa, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

(1) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica medi et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 24, which says that he died on July 11, 1667 at 73 minus diebus 25; Enciclopedia Universal Ilustrada Europeo-Americana and Enciclopedia Seguí indicate that he was born in 1596.

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(43) 5. OREGGI, Agostino (1577-1635)

Birth. 1577, Santa Sofia, Tuscany. Of a modest family (1). His last name is also listed as Oreggi da Santa Sofia and as Oregius.

Education. His parents sent to study in Rome in 1594 (2); he attended Collegio Romano, where he obtained doctorates in philosophy and theology; and La Sapineza University, where he earned a doctorate in canon and civil law; he also studied Greek and Oriental languages.

Early life. Befriended and assisted by Cardinal Roberto Bellarmino, who named him his personal theologian.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Canon theologian of the cathedral chapter of Faenza, November 23, 1605. Public professor of theology in Faenza for nine years. Because of the reputation as a learned man, he was named theologian of princes and cardinals; for his humility, he always declined emolument and honors. He published an interesting dissertation entitled Aristotelis vera de rationalis animae immortatlitate sententia, Bologna, 1621. Dedicated one of his works to Cardinal Maffeo Barberini, legate in Bologna, future Pope Urban VIII, who named him his personal theologian. Cardinal Maffeo Barberini invited him to join his legation in Bologna. After the election to the papacy of Cardinal Barberini, he was named the new pontiff's theologian, almoner and canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. He was also consultor of the SS.CC. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition and of Rites. Between 1629 and 1633, Canon Oreggi published several theological treatises such as De Deo uno (3); De individuo Sanctissimae Trinitatis mysterio; De angelis; De opere sex dierum; De sacrosancto incarnationis mysterio. He had a significant role in the complex events that led to the condemnation of Galileo Galilei in 1633. He was one of three qualificatori, together with Michele Inchofer and Zaccaria Pasqualigo, who had to elaborate an opinion on Galileo's Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo, published in 1632.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 28, 1633; received the red hat and the title of S. Sisto, January 9, 1634; in the consistory, the pope said to him: "Eris magnum in Ecclesia Dei".

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Benevento, November 28, 1633. Consecrated, December 31, 1633, at the Sistine chapel, in the Vatican, by Cardinal Antonio Barberini, seniore. He left Rome for Benevento on January 19, 1635. Distiguished theologian Cardinal Roberto Bellarmino, S.J., future saint, called him "il suo teologo" and Pope Urban VIII called him "il suo Bellarmino".

Death. July 12, 1635, at 9 p.m., in the evening, of acute fever, Benevento. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Benevento (4).

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre .... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1222; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 314-315; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 24, 50 and 113; Strocchi, Andrea. Memorie istoriche del duomo di Faenza e de' personaggi illustri di quel capitolo. Faenza : Tripografia Montanari e Marabini, 1838, pp. 158-161.

Webgraphy. Biography by Silvano Giordano, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 79 (2013), Treccani; Agostino Oreggi, qualificatore del Dialogo, e i limiti della Conoscenza Cientifica by Luca Bianchi, Università di Vercelli, Italia, Consejería de Educación, Cultura y Deportes, Gobierno de Canarias.

(1) According to Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1222, ne dut son élevation qu'à son mérite; Strocchi, Memorie istoriche del duomo di Faenza e de' personaggi illustri di quel capitolo, p. 158, says that his family was of ristrette fortune.
(2) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VI, 314-315, Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1222; and Strocchi, Memorie istoriche del duomo di Faenza e de' personaggi illustri di quel capitolo, p. 158, relate an incident involving young Agostino: Lodged in a small bourgeoisie house, a young woman who worked in the house, one winter night tried to seduce him. He escaped and spent the night in the cold streets of the city without a coat or any protection from the inclement weather. Un'azione così eroica, e degna veramente di un giovine cristiano, spread throughout the city producing great admiration. When Cardinal Bellarmino heard the story, he called him and sent him to live in Casa S. Anna, a boarding school for young nobles.
(3) In the vast Galilean bibliography, Oreggi appears almost exclusively because in his De Deo uno, of 1629, is the account of the meeting during which then Cardinal Maffeo Barberini, presented to Galileo the famous anticopernican objection based on the notion of the divine omnipotence, later inserted at the express order of the master of the Sacred Palace (Oreggi) at the end of the Quarta Giornata.
(4) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Strocchi, Memorie istoriche del duomo di Faenza e de' personaggi illustri di quel capitolo, p. 161:

D. O. M.
AVGVSTINO TIT. S. SIXTI
PRESBYTERO CARD. OREGIO
VIRO INNOCENTIA PROBE SPECTATO NEDVM VIRTVTIBVS VERVM
CÆTERIS SCIENTIIS AC MORVM SVAVITATE CONSPICVO VATICANAE BA-
SILICAE CANONICO S. D. N. URBANI VIII. THEOLOGO INTIMO CVBICVLA-
RIO ELEEMOSYNIS GENERALI PRAEFECTO SACRAE ET VNIVERSALIS INQVI-
SITIONIS ROM. FIDELISSIMO CONSVLTORI VARIIS ARDVISQ. MVNERIBVS
EGREGIE FVNCTO AB EODEM VBBANO AD SACRAM PVRPVRATORVM DI-
GNITATEM ET AD HANC INSIGNEM BENEVENT. METROPOLIM EX MERITIS
EVECTO ANNO AETATIS LVIII. POST PVRPVRAM XIX. MENSE XII. IVLII
M. DC. XXXV. CELEBRI ORBITA CONTVMVLATO.
IOANNES FRATER NICOLAVS ET IOSEPH NEPOS
M. P. P.

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(44) 6. UBALDI, Benedetto (1588-1644)

Birth. 1588, Perugia. Son of Mario Monaldi and Zenobia Ubaldi. Of a noble family. Under his father, the Monaldi house inherited the name and title of the Ubaldi family and obtained, ca. 1635, the marquisate of Migliano. His last name is also listed as Monaldi Baldeschi and Baldeschi. Nephew of Monsignor Francesco Baldeschi, auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota. Brother of Orazio Monaldi, bishop of Gubbio and Perugia.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Perugia; at Collegio S. Bernardo, Perugia; studied letters; obtained a doctorate at the University of Perugia in 1611.

Early life. Went to Avignon for two years with his uncle Monsignor Francesco. Returned to Perugia and obtained a doctorate. Went to Rome called by his uncle and practiced law .Succeeded his uncle as auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, December 2, 1626. Auditor and datary of Cardinal Antonio Barberini, legate in Lombardy in 1628; and in Urbino in 1631. Abbot commendatario of S. Bevignate, near Perugia.

Sacred orders. Received the clerical tonsure. (No further information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 28, 1633; received the red hat and the deaconry of Ss. Vito e Modesto, January 9, 1634. Legate in Bologna, February 1634 until 1637.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Perugia, April 2 (al. 3), 1634. Consecrated, Sunday, April 23, 1634, Sistine chapel, Rome, by Cardinal Antonio Barberini, seniore, O.F.M.Cap., assisted by Fausto Poli, titular archbishop of Amasia, and by Ceslo Zani, former bishop of Città della Pieve. Resigned the government of the diocese before December 14, 1643.

Death. January 18 (al. 20), 1644, Perugia. Buried in the Servite church of S. Maria Nuova, Perugia (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 316-319; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 213.

Webgraphy. His sepulchral monument, bottega umbra, secolo XVII (1644), diocese of Perugiia Città della Pieve, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

(1) This is the text of the inscription in his funeral monument, taken from the image of the same in Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb), linked above:

D      O      M
BENEDICTO MONALDO PERUSINO
S.R.E. CARDINALI LEG(ATO) BONON(IENSI) EP(ISCOP)O PERUS(INO)
AB URBANO VIII P(ONTIFICE) ET BENEFACTORE MAX(IMO) TIT(ULO) APIBUSQ(UE) DECORATO
EX TEST(AMENTO) FRANCISCO UBALDO AVUNCULO R(OMAE) ROT(AE) AUD(ITORE) DE UBALDIS COGNOMINATO
IO(ANNES) ANTONIUS MONALDUS GERM(ANUS) FRATER URNA ET ARA ERECTA PARENTAT(E)
OBIIT A(NNO) S(ALUTIS) MDCXLIV AET(A TE) LVI EP(ISCOPAT)US X

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(45) 7. FRANCIOTTI, Marcantonio (1592-1666)

Birth. 1592, Lucca. Son of Curzio Franciotti. Of a noble and senatorial family related to the house of Riario and to Cardinals Galeotto Franciotti della Rovere (1503) and his half-brother Sisto Gara della Rovere (1507). His first name is also listed as Marc'Antonio.

Education. Studied law at the University of Bologna.

Early life. Went to Rome and became a papal prelate. Worked in the studio of Giambattista Spada, future cardinal. Protonotary apostolic participantium, December 12, 1619. Governor of Faenza, 1622. Governor of Fabriano, 1622. General auditor of the Apostolic Chamber, June 7, 1623. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, 1626. Prefect of the Annona, September 20, 1627. Auditor general of the Apostolic Chamber, 1629-1637.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore tacite in the consistory of November 28, 1633; published in the consistory of March 30, 1637; received the red hat on April 2, 1637; and the title of S. Clemente, August 17, 1637.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Lucca, March 30, 1637. Consecrated, Sunday, April 19, 1637, Quirinale Palace, Rome, by Cardinal Antonio Barberini, seniore, O.F.M.Cap., assisted by Fuasto Poli, titular archbishop of Amasia, and by Antonio Seceroli, archbishop of Ragusa. Opted for the title of S. Maria della Pace, December 19, 1639. Legate in Romagna, May 21, 1640 until December 1642. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Resigned the government of the diocese in 1645. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 10, 1650 to January 9, 1651. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII.

Death. February 8, 1666, near 6 p.m., in his Roman palace in piazza Colonna. Exposed and buried in the church of SS. Nome di Gesù, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VI, 319-323; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), pp. 217-218; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 24, 41 and 45; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 429.

Webgraphy. his engraving by an anonymous artist, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin.

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AZZOLINI, Lorenzo (1583-1633)

Birth. 1583, Fermo. Nephew of Cardinal Decio Azzolini, seniore (1585). Uncle of Cardinal Decio Azzolini, iuniore (1654).

Education. (No information found).

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Canon of the cathedral chapter of Fermo. Vicar general of Fermo.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ripastrone, February 17, 1620. Consecrated, February 25, 1620, church of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, Rome, by Cardinal Ottavio Bandini, assisted by Orazio Mattei, bishop of Gerace, and by Sebastiano Poggi, former bishop of Ripatransone. Transferred to the see of Narni, August 2, 1632. Secretary of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta.

Cardinalate. Pope Urban VIII intended to create him cardinal in the consistory of November 28, 1633 but he died before the promotion could take place.

Death. Died before November 28, 1633. Buried (no information found).

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LECLERC DU TREMBLAY, O.F.M.Cap., François de (1577-1638)

Birth. November 4, 1577, Paris, France. Son of Jean Le Clerc, signeur of Tremblay, president of petitions at the royal palace, and Marie de La Fayette. He is also known as Père Joseph.

Education. Collège de Boncourt, Paris (Greek and Latin; studied under a private tutor at his family's house in Tremblay, near Versailles (Spanish, Italian, Hebrew, philosophy, jurisprudence and mathematics); Acadème de Antoine de Pluvinel, Paris (horsemanship, mathematics, fortification, fencing, military drill, calligraphy and good manners). Studied theology in Capuchin houses of study.

Early life. Took the title of baron de Maffliers. Traveled to Italy, Germany and England to learn their customs and language. Later, he joined the army and fought the Spanish in the northern provinces of France. Returned to France in 1598. Entered the Order of the Friars Minor Capuchins on February 2, 1599 (1). Took the name Joseph de Paris. Novitiate in Orlèans, 1599-1600; professed, February 3, 1600, Paris; Capuchin Seminary at Rouen, 1600-1601; lector of philosophy, Capuchin convent at rue Saint-Honoré, 1603-1604, Paris.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1604, (no further information found). Vicar of the guardian and master of novices at the convent of Meudon, June 4, 1604 to 1605. Guardian of the convent of Bourges and master of the seminary, September 1605 to 1606. Guardian of the convents of Rennes, August 1606; of Chinon, 1607; and of Tours, May 8, 1609 to 1610. Elected first definitor and counselor of his province, March 29, 1612, Tours. Provincial of Toraine, September 17, 1613 to 1616; relected, August 1624. Negotiator of the Peace of Loudun, February 10 to May 6, 1616. Became a preacher in the west of France where he founded a new religious congregation: the Benedictines of the Calvary. Also in that area, he met young Armand-Jean du Plessis de Richelieu, bishop of Luçon, who felt a great admiration for him. When Bishop Richelieu became secretary of State in 1616, he charged him with a delicate mission to Rome which he completed very successfully and which gained him the praise of Pope Paul V. Apostle of the crusade against the Turks, 1616-1625. Prefect of foreign missions, June 13, 1625 to 1638. Later, when Richelieu became prime minister, he appointed him to the secret council. When the cardinal undertook the siege of La Rochelle, he brought along Père Joseph, who, to the astonishment of the French general, gave the most useful advice to obtain the surrender of the city. On their return to Paris, the friar was entrusted with the organization of the cardinal's espionage against both his domestic and foreign enemies. During the Thirty Year's War, Père Joseph demonstrated incomparable skill. While the cardinal had to remain in France to advise King Louis XIII and defend his policies against his enemies, Père Joseph, "his double", worked abroad making alliances with the foreign princes in Germany and Italy. When the health of the cardinal-prime minister started to fail, he, together with King Louis XIII, chose a successor: Père Joseph. But this never took place because the friar died before the cardinal.

Cardinalate. King Louis XIII of France requested for several years his promotion to the cardinalate but both died without this happening because at the time the relations between the French court and the Holy See were temporarily strained, and also, because there was lapse of eight years before the next consistory was celebrated (2).

Death. December 18, 1638, Rueil, of an apoplexy, in the arms of Cardinal Richelieu (3). Buried in the Capuchin church, near the steps of the main altar next to the tomb of Fr. Ange de Joyeuse, who had received him in the order thirty nine years earlier.

Bibliography. Dedouvres, Louis. Politique et apôtre. Le Père Joseph de Paris, capucin, l'Éminence grise. Paris : Angers : G. Beauchesne; Sté. ame. des éditions de l'Ouest, 1932; Dedouvres, Louis. Le Père Joseph. Êtudes critiques sur ses oeuvres spirituelles. Paris : Ch. Poussielgue, 1903; Dedouvres, Louis. Le Père Joseph polémiste, ses premiers premiers icrits 1623-1626. Paris : A. Picard, 1895; Dedouvres, L. Le Père Joseph polemiste : rêponse à M. Gustave Fagniez. Angers : Lachèse, 1897; Fagniez, Gustave-Charles. Le Père Joseph et Richelieu (1577-1638) . 2 vols. Paris : Hachette, 1894; Grente, Georges. L'éminence grise. 4th edition. Paris : Gallimard, 1941; Huxley, Aldous. Grey eminence : a study in religion and politics. New York : Harper, 1941.

Webgraphy. Biography by Georges Goyau, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; Michelangelo da Rossiglione and Bonifazio da Nizza, "Ritratto VII. Padre Giuseppe le Clerc nominato alla Sagra Purpura dal Rei di Francia Ludovico XIII, Capuccino della Provincia di Parigi" in Cenni biografici e ritratti di padri illustri dell'ordine capuccino : sublimati alle dignità ecclesiastiche dal 1581 al 1804 (3 v. in 1. Roma : G.A. Bertinelli, 1850), III, 43-51.

(1) Because of the color of his habit and his close friendship and collaboration with Cardinal Richelieu, he is referred to as the grey eminence.
(2) According to Huxley, Grey eminence, p. 278, "Urban VIII was not inclined to do what the King desired. There were several reasons why he did not want to make Father Joseph a cardinal. To begin with, there was already one Capuchin Cardinal and this gentleman was strongly opposed to any move that would give him a rival and competitor within the Sacred College. Then there was the Emperor Ferdinand, who remembered his encounter with Father Joseph at Ratisbon and had no wish to see so powerful an enemy promoted to a position in which he could be even more dangerous to Austrian interests. Similar objections were raised in Madrid. And finally there was the fact, which no Counter Reformation Pope could safely ignore, that Father Joseph enjoyed the worst possible reputation among the rank and file of the Catholic laity and clergy. Notorious even before the Diet of Ratsibon, he had climbed since 1630 to even higher eminences of ill fame. All things considered, it was not at all surprising that the Pope should have so long refused to grant His Most Christian Majesty's petition. The surprising thing is that, in the end, he finally gave way. In 1638 the hat was finally promised--too late; for the friar died before he could receive it." The other Capuchin cardinal was Antonio Barberini, seniore, brother of Pope Urban VIII.
(3) Huxley, Grey eminence, p. 326-327, also states that "... news of his second stroke had been carried to Paris, where a prudent secretary immediately drew up, for the King's signature, a letter to the Pope, in which His Holiness was informed of the sad event and begged not to proceed with the announcement of Father Joseph's promotion. His Most Christian Majesty had the right to ask for only a limited number of promotions to the Sacred College; for this reason, a hat inadvertently presented to a dying man would be a total loss to the French monarchy."

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