The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Urban VIII (1623-1644)
Consistory of December 16, 1641 (VII)

(46) 1. MACCHIAVELLI, Francesco Maria (1608-1653)

Birth. 1608, Florence. Son of Filippo Macchiavelli and Maria Magalotti. Nephew of Cardinal Lorenzo Magalotti (1624). Cousin of Cardinals Francesco Barberini, seniore (1623) and Antonio Barberini, iuniore, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1627).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica in the pontificate of Pope Urban VIII (1623-1644). Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota. Accompanied Cardinal Marzio Ginetti, legate a latere in Cologne, as auditor and datary of the legation.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ferrara, with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age and not having yet received the presbyterate, October 11, 1638. Consecrated (no information found). Promoted to the titular patriarchate of Constantinople, retaining the see of Ferrara, March 26, 1640. Nuncio extraordinary with faculties of legate a latere to the city of Cologne and province of Germany during the temporary absence of Cardinal Marzio Ginetti.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1641; with dispensation for having two cousins in the Sacred College of Cardinals; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, May 26, 1642. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X.

Death. November 22, 1653, Ferrara. The news of his death reached Rome in the evening of November 29, 1653. Buried in front of the altar of S. Angelo Custodo in that cathedral.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 1-2; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), IV, 50.

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(47) 2. FILOMARINO, Ascanio (1583-1666)

Birth. 1583, Naples (1). Of the noble family of the dukes Della Torre. Eldest of the five sons of Claudio Filomarino and Porzia di Leonessa. The other children were Scipione (field marshall and State counselor), Francesco (abbot of S. Giorgio Maggiore in Naples), Marcantonio (a Capuchin friar with the name Francesco Maria and prior of the basilica del Carmine of Naples) and Ferdinando (Regular cleric with the name Gennaro and bishop of Calvi). Relative of Cardinal Ladislao d'Aquino (1616)

Education. Studied umane lettere; and later, obtained a doctorate in law in Benevento.

Early life. Went to Rome with his friend Ladislao d'Aquino, future cardinal (1616). Pope Urban VIII named them privy chamberlains participanti and canons of the chapter of the patriarchal Liberian basilica. Master of chamber of Cardinal Francesco Barberini, seniore, in the legations to Farnce and Spain. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Went to Spain to bring the fascie of the new infant prince. Declined promotion to the metropolitan see of Salerno offered by the king of Spain.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Abbot commendatario of the abbey of S. Maria Maddalena in Armillis in S. Egidio del Monte Albino until1634.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1641; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Aracoeli, February 10, 1642.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Naples, December 16, 1641; took possession of the see through his brother Gennaro Filomarino, bishop of Calvi, in January 1642. Consecrated, Sunday, January 19, 1642, Sistine Chapel, Rome, by Cardinal Antonio Barberini, seniore, O.F.M.Cap., assisted by Fuasto Poli, titular archbishop of Amasea, and by Gennaro Filomarino, bishop of Calvi. In the same ceremony was consecrated Cardinal Vincenzo Maculani, O.P., archbishop of Benevento. Celebrated diocesan synods in 1642, 1644, 1646, 1649, 1652, 1658 and 1662. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. He mediated in the Masaniello's (an abbreviation of Tommaso Aniello) revolt against Habsburg rule in Naples in 1647. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. He had an active role during the severe epidemic plague of 1656.

Death. November 3, 1666, Naples. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Naples.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 2-5; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 225; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 24, 45 and 254; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 416; Zigarelli, Daniello Maria. Biografie dei vescovi e arcivescovi della chiesa di Napoli con una descrizione del clero, della cattedrale, della basilica di s. Restituta e della cappella del tesoro di s. Gennaro. Napoli: Tipografico di G. Gioja, 1861, pp.166-179.

Link. His engraving, portraits and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 24; Cardella, Memorie de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 2, indicates that some sources say that he was born in Clanca, fief of his family, in the vicinity of Benevento. Clanca is probably the latinized form of Chianche; Zigarelli, Biografie dei vescovi e arcivescovi della chiesa di Napoli, p. 166, also says that he was born in a fief of his family near Benevento but does not mention its name.

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(48) 3. BRAGADIN, Marcantonio (1591-1658)

Birth. 1591, Venice. Son of Antonio Bragadin, head of the Council of the Ten, and Cecilia Morosini. Of a noble family that belonged to the non-official group of the 42 most influential houses of the republic. His first name is also listed as Marc'Antonio and his last name as Bragadino; and as Bragadini.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 28, 1626, Venice. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, March 17, 1627. Governor of Fabriano, April to December 1627. Governor of Sabina, October 17, 1628. Governor of Narni, December 28, 1628.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Crema, December 3, 1629. Consecrated, December 21, 1629, Sistine Chapel, Rome, by Cardinal Antonio Barberini, seniore, O.F.M.Cap., assisted by Luca Castellani, bishop of Catanzaro, and by Francesco Passionei, bishop of Cagli. Transferred to the see of Ceneda, January 12, 1633. Transferred to the see of Vicenza, October 3, 1639.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1641; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, May 26, 1642. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Opted for the title of S. Marco, November 19, 1646. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 10, 1650 to January 9, 1651. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Resigned the government of the diocese of Vicenza before October 14, 1655.

Death. March 28, 1658, in the palace of S. Marco, Rome. Buried in his title.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 5-6.

Links. His episcopal lineage; and his tomb in the basilica of S. Marco, Rome.

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(49) 4. RAGGI, Ottaviano (1592-1643)

Birth. December 31, 1592, Genoa. Uncle of Cardinal Lorenzo Raggi (1647).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Went to Rome and was named protonotary apostolic in 1616. According to the custom of the time, purchased in 1622, from the prelate Bentivoglio Bolognese, a clericate in the Apostolic Chamber with the presidency of the Grascia and later, with the presidency of the Annona. Substituted, during the absence of Cardinal Pietro Aldobrandini, as camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church and other important charges such as repairing the streets of Rome for the Jubilee celebrations. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Auditor general of the Apostolic Chamber, 1637. Ordinary judge of the Roman Curia in 1637 and 1640.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1641; received the red hat and the title of S. Agostino, February 10, 1642.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Aleria, Corsica, January 12, 1643. Consecrated, February 1, 1643, basilica of S. Maria Maggiore, Rome, by Cardinal Giandomenico Spinola.

Death. December 31, 1643, Rome. Buried in the church of SS. Nome di Gesù, Rome

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 6-7.

Link. His tomb in the church of SS. Nome di Gesù, Rome.

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(50) 5. CESI, iuniore, Pierdonato (1583-1656)

Birth. 1583, Rome. Son of Federico Cesi, signore of Oliveto, and Pulcheria Orsini. Of the dukes of Acquasparta. Other cardinals of the family are Paolo Emilio Cesi (1517); Federico Cesi (1544); Pierdonato Cesi, seniore (1570); and Bartolomeo Cesi (1596).

Education. Educated by the Fathers of the Oratory nella pietà, e nelle lettere. Obtained a doctorate in law.

Early life. Granted three wealthy abbeys. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Protonotary apostolic de numero participantium, April 8, 1615. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber before May 8, 1625. Governor of Civitavecchia, January 2, 1627 to 1630. Treasurer general of His Holiness, 1634.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1641; received the red hat and the title of S. Marcello, February 10, 1642. Legate a latere in Perugia, 1643. Granted dispensation by the pope to accept the appointment of canon of the cathedral chapter of Toledo, made by the king of Spain. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 9, 1651 until January 8, 1652. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII.

Death. January 30, 1656, in his Roman palace near the church of S. Marcello. Buried in the church of S. Prassede, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 8-9.

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(51) 6. VEROSPI, Girolamo (1599-1652)

Birth. 1599, Rome. Son of Ferdinando Verospi and Giulia de' Massimi. Nephew of Cardinal Fabrizio Verospi (1627).

Education. Studied law.

Early life. Advocate of causes in the Roman Curia. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, 1627, succeeding his uncle Fabrizio.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1641; received the red hat and the title of S. Agnese in Agone, February 10, 1642.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Osimo, with dispensation for not having yet received the sacred orders, February 10, 1642. Consecrated, Sunday April 27, 1642, Sistine chapel, Rome, by Cardinal Antonio Barberini, seniore, O.F.M.Cap., assisted by Fausto Poli, titular archbishop of Amasea, and by Celso Zani, former bishop of Città della Pieve. In the same ceremony was consecrated Cardinal Giulio Gabrielli, bishop of Ascoli Pisceno. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X.

Death. January 5, 1652, Osimo. The news of his death reached Rome on January 7, 1652. Buried in the cathedral of Osimo. In 1666 or 1667, transferred to Rome and buried in the tomb of his ancestor in the church of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 9; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 225-226.

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(52) 7. MACULANI, O.P., Vincenzo (1578-1667)

Birth. September 11, 1578, Fiorenzola d'Arda, diocese of Piacenza. His father was a bricklayer and for some time he also worked as such.

Education. Entered the Order of Preachers (Dominicans) in the convent of Pavia, 1594; changed his baptismal name Gaspare to Vincenzo. Studied in Bologna.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Lector of theology, canon law, practical geometry and architecture. Inquisitor in Padua, 1627, and in Genoa, August 1627 to 1629. Called to Rome by Pope Urban VIII, who named him procurator general of his order. Vicar of the Dominican master general during his visit to France. Commissary of the Holy Office, 1632. Master of the Sacred Palace, 1639.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1641; received the red hat and the title of S. Clemente, February 10, 1642.

Episcopate Elected archbishop of Benevento, January 13, 1642. Consecrated, Sunday, January 19, 1642, Sistine Chapel, Rome, by Cardinal Antonio Barberini, seniore, O.F.M.Cap., assisted by Fuasto Poli, titular archbishop of Amasia, and by Gennaro Filomarino, bishop of Calvi. In the same ceremony was consecrated Cardinal Ascanio Filomarino, archbishop of Naples. Called to Rome, resigned the government of the archdiocese before May 18, 1643 (1). Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Sent to Malta to direct the construction of the fortifications of the island. Directed the construction of the fortresses of Forte Urbano and Castel S. Angelo as well as the wall of the city of Rome. Helped to solve the schism provoked by the election of two masters general of his order in the general chapter of Genoa and the subsequent chapter celebrated in Rome at his instance. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 8, 1652 until January 8, 1653. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII.

Death. February 16, 1667, Rome. Buried in the church of S. Sabina, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 9-11; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 225.

(1) Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 113, erroneously indicates that he occupied the see of Benevento until his death.

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(53) 8. PERETTI DI MONTALTO, Francesco (1595-1655)

Birth. 1595, Rome. Roman prince. Second prince of Venafro. Venetian patrician. Marquis of San Martino. Count of Celano. Baron of Pescina. Signore of San Rufino, San Benedetto dei Marsi, Aschi, Cocullo, Venere, Cerchio, Lecce dei Marsi, Goia dei Marsi, Bisegna, San Sebastiano, Sperone, Ortucchio, Torrimpietra, Palidoro, Tor Lupara and Mentana. Great-grand-nephew of Pope Sixtus V and last descendant of the family. Nephew of Cardinal Alessandro Damasceni Peretti (1585).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Encouraged by his father to get married in order to insure the continuation of the family, he chose the Princess of Cesi to be his future wife. When his father saw the bride, he fell in love with her and decided to marry her. Francesco was very upset seeing himself replaced by his father and left the paternal house and embarked in a long trip. Not to hear again about nuptials and matrimony, he took the sacred orders (1).

Sacred orders. Ordained (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 16, 1641; received the red hat and the title of San Girolamo degli Schiavoni, February 10, 1642. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Monreale, May 30, 1650. Consecrated, June 7, 1650, in the papal chapel, Quirinale Palace, Rome, by Pope Innocent X. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 8, 1653 until January 12, 1654. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII.

Death. May 4, 1655, near 5 a.m., in his Roman palace near the church of S. Lorenzo in Lucina. Buried on May 7, 1653, in the chapel of Sixtus V in the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 11-13.

Link. His bust by Giuliano Fenelli, Bode-Museum, Berlin.

(1) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinale della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 11-12.

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(54) 9. GABRIELLI, Giulio (1604?-1677)

Birth. 1604?, Rome. Of a noble and ancient family. Eldest of the two children of Antonio Gabrielli and Prudenzia Lancellotti. Nephew of Cardinal Orazio Lancellotti (1611), on his mother's side. Relative of Pope Clement X; and of Cardinal Giulio Gabrielli (1801). Other cardinals of the family were Scipione Lancellotti (1583); and Filippo Lancelloti (1794).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber at a young age; later, dean.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 16, 1641; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria Nuova, February 10, 1642.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ascoli Piceno, with dispensation for not having yet received the presbyterate, February 10, 1642. Consecrated, Sunday April 27, 1642, Sistine chapel, Rome, by Cardinal Antonio Barberini seniore, O.F.M.Cap., assisted by Fausto Poli, titular archbishop of Amasia, and by Celso Zani, former bishop of Città della Pieve. In the same ceremony was consecrated Cardinal Girolamo Verospi, bishop of Osimo. Opted for the deaconry of S. Agata in Suburra, November 10, 1642. Co-legate in Urbino, together with Cardinal Francesco Barberini, July 6, 1643 to 1646. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X; left the conclave on September 10, 1644 because of illness. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata, May 14, 1655. Cardinal protodeacon. Opted for the order of priests and the title of S. Prisca, March 6, 1656. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, July, 18, 1667. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, November 14, 1667. Cardinal primoprete. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, retaining the administration of Ascoli Piceno, January 30, 1668. Administrator in commendam of the diocese of Rieti, ceasing ipso facto as administrator of Ascoli Piceno, March 12, 1668. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. Governor general of Fermo, May 24, 1670. Ceased as administrator of Rieti, August 2, 1670. Legate in Romagna, October 6, 1670. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI.

Death. August 31, 1677 (1), near 8 p.m., Rome. Buried on September 2, 1677 in his family's chapel in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 13-14; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 225-226; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 547.

Links. His engraving by Giovanni Maria Morandi and Giuseppe Testana; and his bust, Museo di Roma, Rome.

(1) According to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 14, he died in 1686, in età decrepita dopo quarantaquattro anni di Cardinalato. Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, says that he died in 1677 im 74 jahre seines Dlter.

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(55) 10. MAZARIN, Jules Raymond (1602-1661)

Birth. July 14, 1602, Pescina, Abruzzi. He is also listed as Giulio Raimondo Mazzarino. Son of Pietro Mazzarino, from Palermo, Sicily, and Ortensia Buffalini. His father was majordome of the Colonna family in Rome. Nephew of Father Giulio Mazarini, S.J. Brother of Cardinal Michel Mazarin, O.P. (1647).

Education. Collegio Romano, Rome. University of Alcalá de Henares, Alcalá de Henares, 1619-1621. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, 1628.

Early life. Became a very close friend of Girolamo Colonna, future cardinal, and accompanied him to Madrid, 1619-1621. Returned to Rome to defend his father, who had been accused of homicide. Captain of the papal troops in the Valtelline War, 1625-1626, and, later, in the war of succession of Mantua, 1628-1630; became friend of Giulio Sacchetti, commissary of the papal army and future cardinal. His negotiations of the truce of October 26, 1630 between France, Spain and Savoy, in which he favored the first one, made him a favorite of Cardinal Armand-Jean du Plessis de Richelieu, the French prime minister. Vice-sommista in the court of Cardinal Francesco Barberini, seniore. Auditor of the legation in Avignon, 1632. Canon of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, May 8, 1632. Protonotary apostolic, November 17, 1632. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature, March 8, 1633. Vice-legate in Avignon, 1634. Nuncio extraordinary in France, 1634; Spain complained of his support for Cardinal Richelieu's policies and Pope Urban VIII dismissed him from the post on January 17, 1636. Went to Paris, placed himself at the cardinal's disposition. He became a French subject in April 1639. On January 3, 1640, he established himself in Paris definitively. Charged with signing a secret treaty with Savoy, 1640. Cardinal Richelieu requested his promotion to the cardinalate the following year (1).

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal in the consistory of December 16, 1641; never received the red hat and the title or deaconry. Cardinal Richelieu died on December 4, 1642, and on his death bed, recommended Cardinal Mazarin to King Louis XIII of France. After the death of Louis, May 14, 1643, he became a member of the Council of Regency and Queen Anne of Austria, mother of the infant King Louis XIV, effectively bestowed the power to the cardinal (2). When he took office, he pretended that it was only provisionally but kept the post until his death. He conducted the Congress of Westphalia (1643-1648), at the end of the Thirty Years' War, with extraordinary ability. Arrived too late to the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X, to present the French veto against Cardinal Giambattista Pamphilj, who had already been elected pope and taken the name Innocent X. In 1645 he received, and gave protection in France, to Cardinals Francesco and Antonio Barberini, who were being investigated in Rome under the new Pope Innocent X. Between 1648 and 1653, the Parliament, some members of the nobility, military and clerics openly opposed the cardinal, contesting him as a foreigner and giving origin to the movement against him known as Fronda. On February 6, 1651, the cardinal was attacked by the Frondista party and forced to escape Paris and went to Brühl, Germany. He maintained a close epistolary contact with the Regent Anna d'Austria and continued directing the government's policies. On September 5, 1651, King Louis XIV reached adulthood and Cardinal Mazarin prepared his return to France but the nobles and the parliamentary judges emitted a proscription order against him and ordered the selling of his library in order to raise 50,000 franchi reward for his capture. In January 1652, Louis XIV having given, against the decisions of the parliament of Paris and the nobles, the order of free passage of the cardinal to French soil, he reentered France. Between 1652 and 1653 a civil war erupted in Paris and other regions of the country with the frondista party on one side and Mazarin, the king, the queen and those who remained loyal on the other. The cardinal, followed by the king, Anna d'Austria and court went from one place to another trying to suffocate the revolt. His most determined adversaries were the Prince of Condé, the duke of Orléans, the cardinal de Retz, and Mademoiselle Anna Maria di Montpensier. On February 3, 1653, Cardinal Mazarin reentered Paris with the king and the court, applauded by the people and adulated even by ex-Frondistes.

Episcopate. Nominated bishop of Metz by King Louis XIV on November 29, 1653, resigned in 1658 without ever been confirmed by the Holy See. Between 1653 and 1654, he confronted the Jansenist affair avoiding another wound in the life of the French caused by religious questions. Did not participate in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Between 1655 and 1657, the cardinal took back, as prime minister of the Sun King, the policy of the absolute monarchy internally and of the French supremacy abroad also favoring the reawakening of the cultural activities. From November 1658 to November 1659, after a year of negotiations, the Treaty of the Pyrenees between France and Spain, a great diplomatic achievement for Cardinal Mazarin, consecrated the complete success of the French policy and the definitive decline of Spain. On July 9, 1660, King Louis XIV married Maria Teresa de Austria, infanta of Spain in fulfillment of one of the conditions of the treaty. On February 8, 1661, the cardinal, gravely ill, was transported to Vincennes at his request. From March 3 to 7, 1661, he composed his testament leaving eighteen diamonds to the French crown; two million lire were destined to the foundation of the Collége des Quatre Nations, to which he annexed a library of 50,000 volumes.

Death. March 9, 1661, château de Vincennes. Buried in the chapel of Collège des Quatre Nations, which he founded and is now the Institut de France.

Bibliography. Bechet, Antoine; Gazeazzo Gualdo Priorato, conte. Histoire du ministère du Cardinal Mazarin, sous le regne de Louys XIV, roy de France, & de Navarre. [S.l. : s.n.], 1668, Google Books; Bertière, Simone. Mazarin; le maître du jeu. Paris : Éditions De Fallois, 2007; Chéruel. Histoire de France sous le ministère de Mazarin (1651-1661). 3 vols. Paris, 1883; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 14-18; Colquhoun-Grant. Queen and Cardinal. London, 1906; Hassall. Mazarin. London, 1903; Lettres de Mazarin à la reine, écrites durant sa retraite hors de France en 1651 et 1652. Edited by Ravenel. Paris, 1836; Lettres du Cardinal Mazarin pendant son ministère. Edited by Chéruel and D'Avenel. 9 vols. Paris, 1872-1906; Perkins. France under Mazarin. 2 vols. New York, 1886; Rivera, Giuseppe. Memorie biografiche dei cardinali Abruzzesi. Aquila : Tipografia G. Mele, 1924, pp. 121-130.

Links. Biography by Georges Goyau, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; portrait and biography, in English, Encyclopaedia Britannica; his tomb in the Institut de France, Paris; his bust, 17th Century French School, Châteaux de Versailles et de Trianon, France; Bibliothèque Mazarine, Paris; his engraving at the entrance of the Mazarin Gallery, by Robert Nanteuil and Pierre Van Schuppen; his engraving by Robert Nanteuil, Wikimedia; another engraving by the same artist, Drawings and Prints.

(1) Cardinal Richelieu had requested, in the name of the king of France, the promotion to the cardinalate of Fr. François de Leclerc du Tremblay, O.F.M.Cap., also known as Père Joseph. When he died on December 17, 1638, the prime minister supported and requested the promotion of Mazarin to the cardinalate.
(2) The relations between Cardinal Mazarin and Queen Anne of Austria are an enigma. The cardinal's biography in the site of The Catholic Encyclopedia, linked above, indicates that she was very attached to the cardinal and says that some historians even believe that they were secretly married although others deny it.

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(56) 11. ORSINI, O.S.Io.Hieros., Virginio (1615-1676)

Birth. May 17, 1615, Rome. Of an ancient and noble family. Of the dukes of Bracciano. The family gave the church several popes and cardinals: Celestine III (1191-1198); Nicholas III (1277-1280); Benedict XIII (1724-1730); Matteo Orsini (1262); Latino Malabranca Orsini, O.P. (1278); Giordano Orsini (1278); Napoleone Orsini (1288); Francesco Napoleone Orsini (1295); Giovanni Gaetano Orsini (1316); Matteo Orsini, O.P. (1327); Rinaldo Orsini (1350); Giacomo Orsini (1371); Poncello Orsini (1378); Tommaso Orsini (1383?); Giordano Orsini, iuniore (1405); Latino Orsini (1448); Cosma Orsini, O.S.B. (1480); Giovanni Battista Orsini (1483); Franciotto Orsini (1517); Flavio Orsini (1565); Alessandro Orsini (1615); and Domenico Orsini d'Aragona (1743).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. He resigned his primogeniture in his youth. Entered the Military Order of St. John of Jerusalem. Distinguished himself in the war against the Turks by his bravery.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 16, 1641; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Portico Octaviae, February 10, 1642. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria Nuova, November 10, 1642. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin, March 14, 1644. Did not participate in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Opted for the deaconry of S. Eustachio, July 21, 1653. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata, March 6, 1656. Cardinal protodeacon. Opted for the order of priests and the title of S. Maria degli Angeli, October 11, 1666. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, November 15, 1667. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, January 30, 1668. Cardinal protoprete. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X; he was absent from January 24 to 27; he left the conclave on February 27.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, March 18, 1671. Consecrated, March 30, 1671, collegiate church of Santo Stefano di Bracciano, Rome, by Cardinal Giulio Spinola, assisted by Federico Baldeschi, titular archbishop of Cesarea, and by Scipioni Martini, former bishop of Marcana. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Frascati, January 28, 1675. Did not participate in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI; died in his Roman residence during its celebration.

Death. August 21, 1676, at 3 a.m., in his palace in Monte Giordano, Rome, during the sede vacante. Transferred to Bracciano, was buried in the Augustinian church of S. Maria Novella.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 18-19.

Links. The Orsini family, in English; biography, in Italian.

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(57) 12. ESTE, Rinaldo d' (1618-1672)

Birth. 1618, Modena. Of the dukes of Modena. Son of Alfonso III, duke of Modena, and Princess Isabella of Savoy. Uncle of Cardinal Rinaldo d'Este (1686). Other cardinals of the family are Ippolito I d'Este (1493); Ippolito II d'Este (1538); Luigi d'Este (1561); and Alessandro d'Este (1599).

Education. Studied in Modena.

Early life. At a very young age started a promising military career but later felt and answered the calling to the ecclesiastic state.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 16, 1641. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria Nuova, November 28, 1644. Opted for the deaconry of S. Nicola in Carcere, December 12, 1644. His brother, Duke Francesco I of Modena, asked him to rule the duchy while he fought the Spaniards in 1647.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Reggio Emilia, December 5, 1650. Consecrated, November 19, 1651, cathedral of Modena, by Roberto Fontana, bishop of Modena, assisted by Maffeo Vitale, bishop of Mantova, and by Filippo Casoni, bishop of Borgo San Donnino. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Again, ruled the duchy in 1655, although unwillingly because he did not want to be away from his diocese. Resigned the government of the diocese, April 23, 1660 (1). Abbot commendatario of Cluny from 1661 until his death, of St Waast, Arras, and of several other abbeys in France (2) and Italy. Cardinal protodeacon, October 1666 (3). Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Opted for the order of priests and the title of S. Pudenziana, March 12, 1668. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, March 18, 1671. Cardinal protoprete. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, August 24, 1671.

Death. September 30, 1672, Modena. Buried in the church of the Capuchins, burial place of the dukes of Modena. Transferred to the mortuary chapel of the family built in 1838 by Duke Francesco IV d'Austria d'Este next to the parish church of S. Vincenzo Martire in Modena.

Bibliography. Bernabei, Nicola. Vita del Cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena e biografie dei cardinali modenesi e di Casa d'Este, dei cardinali vescovi di Modena e di quelli educati in questo Collegio di San Carlo. Modena : Tipografica Rossi, 1885, pp. 258-261; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 19-21.

Links. His genealogy, Partie 3, 1, B. f; and his portrait by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Collezione Nunes-Mauri, Rome.

(1) According to Bernabei, Vita del Cardinale Giovanni Morone, vescovo di Modena e biografie dei cardinali modenesi e di Casa d'Este, dei cardinali vescovi di Modena e di quelli educati in questo Collegio di San Carlo, pp. 259-260, King Louis XIV, after he resigned the see of Reggio Emilia, nominated him bishop of Montpellier and that Pope Innocent X asked him to resign shortly after. This contradicts Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 248, which in the list of bishops of that diocese indicates that François de Bosquet occupied the see from 1656 until his death in 1676 and makes no mention of Cardinal d'Este. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 20, says that King Louis XIV nominated him to Montpellier in 1652 but that he had to decline because Pope Innocent X never issued the bull of election because he did not want the cardinal to occupy two dioceses at the same time.
(2) He had those abbeys as protector of France, a traditional post in his family, which made him head of the French party in the Sacred College of Cardinals.
(3) As protodeacon, he retained his deaconry and did not opt for the one of S. Maria in Via Lata as it was customary for the occupants of that post.

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