The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Urban VIII (1623-1644)
Consistory of July 13, 1643 (VIII)

(58) 1. PANCIROLI, Giovanni Giacomo (1587-1651)

Birth. 1587, Rome. His first name is also listed as Gianjacopo and his last name as Panziroli and Pancirole. His father was a tailor.

Education. Archgymnasium of Rome, Rome (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, 1605).

Early life. Advocate of causes in the Roman Curia. Accompanied Nuncio Giambattista Pamphilj, future Pope Innocent X, as auditor to the nunciatures in Naples and Spain. Returned to Rome and entered the service of Cardinals Barberini. Chamberlain of honor of His Holiness. Superintendent of the house of Cardinal Francesco Barberini, seniore. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, June 10, 1628; auditor, 1632. Nuncio to the Italian princes and the ministers of the king of Spain to negotiate the peace between them. Domestic prelate. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, 1632.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular patriarch of Constantinople, retaining the auditorship, December 16, 1641. Consecrated, Sunday January 12, 1642, church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, by Cardinal Giulio Sacchetti, assisted by Lelio Falconieri, titular archbishop of Tebe, and by Alessandro Castracani, former bishop of Nicastro. Nuncio extraordinary in Spain, January 18, 1642.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 13, 1643. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Secretary of State, September 1644 until his death. Received the red hat and the title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, November 28, 1644.

Death. September 3, 1651 (1), at 7 p.m., in the apostolic palace at Monte Quirinale, Rome. Buried next to the main altar of the church of S. Silvestro nel Quirinale, Rome.

Bibliography. Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 225.

(1) Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, indicates that he died at 64 years of age, while Cardella, Memorie strocihe de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 22, says that he was 66 years of age when he died.

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(59) 2. POLI, Fausto (1581-1653)

Birth. February 17, 1581, Usigni, Cascia, diocese of Spoleto.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Went to Rome at a young age. Entered the court of Maffeo Barberini, cleric of the Apostolic Chamber and future Pope Urban VIII. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness. Economo of the Apostolic Palace. Prefect of the domus and palace of His Holiness, March 10, 1632.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Amasea, March 14, 1633. Consecrated, Monday July 25, 1633, Quirinale palace, Rome, by Cardinal Antonio Barberini, seniore, O.F.M.Cap., assisted by Giovanni de Robbia, bishop of Bertinoro, and by Benedetto Landi, former bishop of Frossombrone. Nuncio before Infanta María, sister of King Felipe IV of Spain and wife of Emperor Ferdinand of Austria in her voyage through the papal state on her way to Vienna.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 13, 1643; received the red hat and the title of S. Crisogono, August 31, 1643. Prefect ad interim of the Apostolic Palace, July 13, 1643. Transferred to the see of Orvieto, with personal title of archbishop, May 23, 1644. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X.

Death. October 7, 1653, Orvieto. Transferred to Rome, and according to his will, buried in his title, on the right side of the chapel of Angiolo Custode.

Bibliography. Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 212.

Link. His tomb and bust in S. Crisogono, Rome, The Australian National University; Usigni, his native village, Bill Thayer's Web Site, University of Chicago; and the church of S. Salvatore, which he built, and his arms, Bill Thayer's Web Site, University of Chicago.

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(60) 3. FALCONIERI, Lelio (1585-1648)

Birth. 1585, Florence. Of an ancient and noble family. Tenth of the thirteen children of Paolo Falconieri and his second wife Maddalena degli Albizzi. Grand-uncle of Cardinal Alessandro Falconieri (1724). Relative of Cardinal Chiarissimo Falconieri Mellini (1838).

Education. University of Perugia, Perugia (doctorate in law).

Early life. Went to Rome and became advocate at the Roman Curia. Papal prelate in the pontificate of Pope Paul V. Governor of San Severino, 1619. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Governor of Spoleto, 1621 Vice-governor of Benevento, 1622. Governor of Campagna e Marittima, October 5, 1622. In the pontificate of Pope Urban VIII was named relator of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta and commissary general of Umbria and Romagna.

Sacred orders. Ordained (no information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tebe, December 4, 1634. Consecrated, Sunday December 10, 1634, church of S. Giovanni de' Fiorentini, Rome, by Cardinal Giulio Cesare Sacchetti, assisted by Nicola Sacchetti, bishop of Volterra, and by Ludovico Serristori, bishop of Cortona. Nuncio in Flanders, 1635-1637; returned to Rome because of a serious illness. Secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, 1642.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 13, 1643; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria del Popolo, August 31, 1643. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Legate in Bologna; after suffering a very serious illness in Florence, decided to return to Rome.

Death. December 14, 1648, Viterbo, while traveling to Rome. Transferred to Rome and buried in the church of S. Giovanni de' Fiorentini.

Bibliography. Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 213; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 390.

Link. His tomb (top) in S. Giovanni de' Fiorentini, Rome, The Australian National University.

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(61) 4. MATTEI, Gasparo (1598-1650)

Birth. 1598, Rome. Eldest child of Mario Mattei, duke of Paganica, and Prudenzia Cenci. Relative of Pope Paul V. Nephew of Cardinal Tiberio Cenci (1645), on his mother's side. His first name is also listed as Gaspare.

Education. Studied at the Archgymnasium of Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in law.

Early life. Being the eldest son, his parents hoped he would marry a young lady with whom he was in love. But abandoning the prospect of marriage, he became a papal prelate in the pontificate of Pope Paul V. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Governor of San Severino, December 29, 1621. Commissary apostolic in Forlì, 1629. Vice-legate in Urbino, February 14, 1632. Governor of Perugia, January 29, 1636. Commissary general of Romagna.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Atena, with dispensation for not having yet received the sacred orders six months earlier, September 5, 1639. Consecrated, October 30, 1639, chapel of the court, Vienna, by Cardinal Ernest Adalbert von Harrach, archbishop of Prague, assisted by Philipp Friedrich von Breuner, bishop of Vienna, by György Lippay, bishop of Veszprém, by Johannes Bartholomaus Kobold, titular bishop of Lampsaco, and by Johannes Walderfinger, titular bishop of Germaniciana. Nuncio in Austria, 1639-1643.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 13, 1643; received the red hat and the title of S. Pancrazio, December 14, 1643. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X; left the conclave on September 10, 1644 because of illness (1). Opted for the title of S. Cecilia, September 28, 1648.

Death. April 9, 1650, near 1 a.m., Rome (2). Buried in the church of S. Cecilia, Rome.

Bibliography. Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, p. 124-125; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 216.

(1) According to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 28, he suffered a grave malattia contratta per una passione di bile.
(2) Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 25, indicates that he died when he was 52 years old, while Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 28, says that he died at 63.

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(62) 5. FACCHINETTI, Cesare (1608-1683)

Birth. September 17, 1608, Bologna. Son of Ludovico Facchinetti, 2nd marquis of Vianino, senator of Bologna, ambassador of the Regiment of the City of Bologna before the Holy See, and Violante da Correggio, countess of Coenzo. He was the last male surviving member of the family. Great-grand-nephew of Pope Innocent IX. Nephew of Cardinal Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti de Nuce, iuniore (1591).

Education. Obtained the title of magister.

Early life. Went to Rome in 1632. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Named by Pope Urban VIII, secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars. Prelate of the S.C. of Good Government and of several other Roman congregations. Nuncio extraordinary in Spain to negotiate a league of the Christian princes against the Turks, May 12, 1639; nuncio ordinary, August 8, 1639.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Damietta, September 5, 1639. Consecrated, October, 9, 1639, at the convent of Princesa Doña Juana, Descalzas Reales, Madrid, by Diego Castejón Fonseca, former bishop of Lugo, governor of the archdiocese of Toledo, assisted by Timoteo Pérez Vargas, former bishop of Ispahan, and by Juan Alfonso Ocón, bishop of Yucatán. Nuncio in Spain, September 6, 1639. Secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, 1642. Transferred to the see of Senigaglia, retaining the denomination of titular archbishop of Damietta, May 18, 1643.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 13, 1643; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Quattro Coronati, August 31, 1643. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Transferred to the see of Spoleto, retaining the denomination of titular archbishop of Damietta, August 2, 1655. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, August 24, 1671. Cardinal protoprete. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, November 14, 1672. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XII. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, February 6, 1679. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. At the death of Cardinal Francesco Barberini, seniore, on December 10, 1679, was acting vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church. Secretary of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, 1679-1683. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia and Velletri, proper of the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 8, 1680.

Death. January 30 (al. 31), 1683, near 9 a.m., of kidney stones, Rome. Buried in the chapel of S. Teresa in the church of S. Maria della Scala, Rome.

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(63) 6. GRIMALDI-CAVALLERONI, Girolamo (1595-1685)

Birth. August 20, 1595 (1), Genoa. Son of Giacomo Grimaldi, senator of Genoa, and Girolama di Agostino de' Mari. Of an illustrious family. Of the barons of S. Fele from the kingdom of Naples. Nephew of Domenico Grimaldi, archbishop of Avignon (1584-1592). The family gave the church another three cardinals: Girolamo Grimaldi (1527), Nicola Grimaldi (1706) and Girolamo Grimaldi (1730).

Education. Studied in Rome.

Early life. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1621. Vice-legate of Viterbo, March 1625 to May 1626; at the death of Cardinal Odoardo Farnese, on February 21, 1626, he became governor. Vice-legate of the province of Patrimony, 1626. Governor of Rome, April 26, 1628 until March 1632. Nuncio extraordinary before Ferdinand II of Austria. Governor of the city of Perugia, May 24, 1634 until February 1636. Governor of the duchy of Urbino as vice-legate in the absence of the legate Cardinal Francesco Barberini, seniore, February 27, 1636 until January 23, 1641.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Seleucia, February 25, 1641. Consecrated, March 3, 1641, chapel of Urban VIII, at the Vatican, Rome, by Fausto Poli, titular archbishop of Amasea, assisted by Alfonso Sacrati, former bishop of Comacchio, and by Sigismondo Taddei, bishop of Bitetto. Nuncio in France, March 27, 1641 (2) until June 1643.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 13, 1643; received the red hat and the title of S. Eusebio, October 17, 1644. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Resided in France from 1646 until his death. Named by King Louis XIV of France administrator of the temporal affairs of the archdiocese of Aix, September 20, 1648 (3). Abbot commendatario of St. Florent de Saumur, 1649 until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Aix, August 30, 1655 (4). Opted for the title of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, October 11, 1655. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Did not participate in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, January 28, 1675. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XII.

Death. November 4, 1685, Aix. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Aix (5). The news of his death reached Rome on November 24, 1685.

Bibliography. Jean, Armand. Les évêques et les archevêques de France. Depuis 1682 jusqu'a 1801. Paris ; Memers : Picard; Fleury, 1891, pp. 18-19; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, pp. 100-101.

Link. His engraving by Baltazar Moncornet, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin.

(1) This is according to Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1653 and Del Re, Monsignor gevernatore di Roma, p. 101. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 32, indicates that he died in 1685 at 90 years of age. Jean, Les évêques et les archevêques de France. Depuis 1682 jusqu'a 1801, p. 18, says that he was born on August 20, 1597.
(2) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 311; Del Re, Monsigonor governatore di Roma, p. 101, indicates that he was named on March 9, 1641.
(3) According to Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1653, Cardinal Grimaldi had helped Cardinal Francesco Barberini, seniore, his brother Taddeo and his family, escape from Rome and go to France when an investigation against them was started at the beginning of the pontificate of Pope Innocent X. For this, he had angered the new pope. At the death of Cardinal Michel Mazarin, archbishop of Aix, in Rome on August 31, 1648, the pope alleged to have the right to name the successor in virtue of the concordat that gave the pope the right to do so when the titular had died in Rome. He wanted to name Msgr. du Noizet, French auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, to succeed the cardinal. The French court opposed the nomination arguing that the pope did not have the right because Cardinal Mazarin had died in Rome as chargé d'affaires of France, and named Cardinal Grimaldi to fill the vacancy. The pope refused and never issued the bulls. It was not until the pontificate of Pope Alexander VII that Cardinal Grimaldi was promoted to the see of Aix.
(4) According to Jean, Les évêques et les archevêques de France. Depuis 1682 jusqu'a 1801, pp. 18-19, il se mostra aussi gallican que les natifs, plus courtisan envers le Roi et fort indulgent envers les Jansénistes. Aussi est-il combleé d'éloges par la Gallia Christiana. He manifested himself more Gallican than the natives, more courtesan towards the king and more indulgent towards the Jansenists. He also was full of praise for the Gallia Christiana.
(5) His body was found incorrupt in 1708 when his successor Archbishop Daniel de Cosnac was buried.

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(64) 7. ROSSETTI, Carlo
(1614-1681)

Birth. 1614, Ferrara. Of a noble family. Baptized in the cathedral of Ferrara on March 26, 1614.

Education. University of Bologna, Bologna (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law). Obtained a doctorate in philosophy and in theology in Rome.

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Ferrara. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Apostolic minister before the queen of England, 1638; the Puritans revolted against his presence and work in the English court and threatened his life; he had to seek refuge in the palace of the queen mother of France, who resided with her daughter the queen of England; the pope ordered him to leave England and he went to Flanders under the protection of the Venetian ambassador. Nuncio extraordinary to the Congress of Münster for three years.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tarso, retaining the canonship of Ferrara and with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age and not having yet received the sacred orders, September 16, 1641. Consecrated, December 8, 1641, Köln, by Fabio Chigi, bishop of Nardò. Transferred to the see of Faenza, May 4, 1643. He retained the denomination of titular archbishop of Tarso until his promotion to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of July 13, 1643. Named legate a latere to the Congress of Münster and Osnabrück; the appointment never took effect. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Cesareo, November 28, 1644. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Via, August 18, 1653. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 12, 1654 until January 10, 1656. Opted for the title of S. Silvestro in Capite, March 9, 1654. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, November 14, 1672. Cardinal protoprete. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati, retaining the administration of the diocese of Faenza, October 19, 1676. Opted for the see of Porto e Santa Rufina, January 8, 1680. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Death. November 23, 1681, Faenza. Buried in the cathedral of Faenza. The news of his death reached Rome on November 28, 1681.

Link. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati.

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(65) 8. ALTIERI, seniore, Giambattista (1589-1654)

Birth. June 20, 1589, parish of S. Marco, Rome. Baptized in that parish church, June 20, 1589. Son of Lorenzo Altieri and Vittoria Delfini. Roman patrician. Brother of Pope Clement X. Nephew of Gentile Delfino, governor and bishop of Camerino.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in theology and in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, in Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 1, 1613, Rome. Canon theologian of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, 1613.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Camerino, February 26, 1624. Consecrated, March 12, 1624, chapel of S. Gregorio, patriarchal Liberian basilica, by Cardinal Scipione Borghese, assisted by Raffaele Inviziati, bishop of Zante, and by Vincenzo Landinelli, bishop of Albenga; Fausto Caffarelli, archbishop of Santaseverina, and Ottavio Broglia, bishop of Asti, were also consecrated in the ceremony. Resigned the government of the diocese in favor of his brother Emilio Altieri, future Pope Clement X, before November 27, 1627. Custode del Sigillo of the Apostolic Penitentiary. Apostolic visitor of six suburbicarian dioceses. Vicegerent of Rome, February 14, 1637 until March 27, 1643.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 13, 1643; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, August 31, 1643. Transferred to the see of Todi, August 31, 1643. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X.

Death. November 26, 1654, at 10 p.m., of an apoplexy, Narni, while travelling to Rome. The news of his death reached Rome on November 28, 1654. Transferred to Rome, was buried in his family's chapel in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome.

Bibliography. Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 203; Del Re, Niccolò. Il vicegerente del vicariato di Roma, Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1976, p. 56; Di Castro, Daniela ; Gabriele, Reina. Roma, Palazzo Altieri : Le stanze al piano nobile dei cardinali Giovanni Battista e Paluzzo Altieri. Parma : Franco Maria Ricci 1999. (Grand tour ; 17).

Link. The Altieri Chapel, S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

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(66) 9. THEODOLI, Mario (1601-1650)

Birth. 1601, Rome. Son of Teodolo Theodoli, marquis of S. Vito, and Flavia Fani. Relative of Cardinal Augusto Theodoli (1886).

Education. Studied law in Rome at a very young age.

Early life. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Abbreviatore di parco maggiore, January 1626. Governor of the city of Terni, December 8, 1626. Governor of Cesena, November 1627 to November 1628. Governor of Orvieto, December 1628 to 1629. Governor of Camerino, January 8, 1630. Governor of Ancona, February 1631 to 1633. Governor of Viterbo, June 6, 1633 to June 1634. Bought, according the custom of the time, a clericate in the Apostolic Chamber, 1638. Named president of the Annona, April 20, 1637. Protonotary apostolic participantium and ordinary judge of the Roman Curia, 1642. Auditor general of the Apostolic Chamber, 1642.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 13, 1643; received the red hat and the title of S. Alessio, August 31, 1643. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Minister of France before the Holy See in the absence of Cardinal Alessandro Bichi.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Imola, October 17, 1644. Consecrated, Tuesday December 27, 1644, church of S. Catarina di Sienna, Rome, by Cardinal Ciriaco Rocci, assisted by Alfonso Gonzaga, titular archbishop of Rodas, and by Giacomo Theodoli, bishop of Forlí. Resigned the government of the diocese because of ill health before February 19, 1646. Opted for the title of S. Maria del Popolo, January 28, 1649.

Death. June 27, 1650, at dawn, Rome. Buried in his title.

Bibliography. Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 228; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 939.

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(67) 10. RAPACCIOLI, Francesco Angelo
(1608-1657)

Birth. 1608, Collescipoli (1), diocese of Narni. Of a modest family.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Abbreviatore di parco maggiore, September 17, 1630. Regent of the Apostolic Chancery, December 14, 1634. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, November 1636. Treasurer general of the Apostolic Chamber. President of the archives. Commissary of the papal army.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 13, 1643. Legate of Viterbo and the entire province of the Patrimony, August 2, 1643. Received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Via, December 14, 1643. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Abbot of Saint-Athanase de Carbonne, diocese of Clermont.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Terni, October 18, 1646. Consecrated, October 28, 1646, at the church of S. Lucia in Selci, Rome, by Cardinal Marco Antonio Franciotti, assisted by Alfonso Gonzaga, titular archbishop of Rhodes, and by Girolamo Farnese, titular archbishop of Patras. Opted for the title of S. Cecilia, November 21, 1650. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Pro-camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1655. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 10, 1656 until January 15, 1657. Resigned the government of the diocese before May 29, 1656.

Death. May 15, 1657 (1), near 4 p.m., of an apoplexy, in his Roman palace at Capitolio. Buried near the chapel of the Madonna SS. del Rosario in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 37, says that he was born in Rome of a family that originated in Collescipoli, while Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 26; Katterbach, Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII, p. 278; and Weber, Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio (1550-1809), p. 857, indicate that he was born in Collescipoli (Colle Scipionis) and do not mention Rome at all.
(2) According to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 38, he died at 62 while Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 26, indicates that he died at 49.

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(68) 11. CEVA, Francesco Adriano (1580-1655)

Birth. 1580, Mondovì, Savoy. Of the marquises of Ceva. Son of Marquis Garzilasco Ceva. His first name is also listed as Adriano only; and as Hadriano.

Education. Obtained the title of magister.

Early life. Went to Rome and entered the court of Cardinal Maffeo Barberini, future Pope Urban VIII; secretary of his legation to France, 1604-1607; his conclavist in 1623. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Lateran basilica with the charge called Concessum. Secretary of Memorials. Master of chamber of His Holiness. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, February 14, 1637. Nuncio extraordinary to France to establish the peace with the Holy See, 1632-1634. Secretary of State.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 13, 1643; received the red hat and the title of S. Prisca, August 31, 1643. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII.

Death. October 12, 1655, near 3 p.m., of podagra and chiragra, Rome (1). Buried in the baptistery of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, ; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. ; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), III, 258.

Links. His prosopography, in German, Requiem Datenbank; and his tomb in the Lateran Basilica, Rome, The Australian National University.

(1) Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 26, says that he died at 75; while Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 39, indicates that he died at 70.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D    ·    O    ·    M·
HADRIANO CEVÆ
S·R·E·PRINCIPI CARDINALI·
E CFSAREA ALDERAMNI MONTISFERRATI MARCHIONVM
PROSAPIA ORIVNDO
QVOD PER INGENTES ET DIVTVRNOS LABORES
EGREGIA SVORVM IMITATVS EXEMPLA MAIORVM
THETII BONIFACII ANSELMI NANI CARGILASCII
IN AVLA TVM ROMANA TVM GALLICA
SVMMORVM PRINCIPVM
VRBANI OCTAVI PONTIFICIS MAXIMI
ET CHRISTIANISSIMI GALLIARVM REGIS LVDOVICI XIII·
IN ADMINISTRATO REI ECCLESIASTICÆ MVNERE
GRATIAM ET LAVDEM SIBI COMPARAVIT
SACRAQVE PVRPVRA CVM OMNIVM PLAVSV DECORATVS
POSTERITATI SVÆ ILLVSTRI CVM FAMA PRÆFVLSERIT·
VBEREMQVE EXEMPLORVM MATERIEM IPSI RELIQVERIT·
AD QVORVM IMITATIONEM
SIMILIA PONTIFICIÆ BENEFICENTIÆ ORNAMENTA SIBI PROMEREATVR·
ÆTERNÆ MEMORIÆ DIGNISSIMO PATRVO
TOTIVS CEVÆ FAMILIÆ NOMINE
FRANCISCVS HADRIANVS VTRIVSQVE SIGNATVRÆ REFERENDARIVS
GRATISSIMVS NEPOS ET HÆRES
IN PERPETVI ARGVMENTVM AMORIS MONVMENTVM HOC
EX TERSTAMENTO PONENDVM PRÆSCRIPSIT

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(69) 12. COSTAGUTI, Vincenzo (1612-1660)

Birth. 1612, Rome, of an illustrious Genoese family. Son of Prospero Costaguti, marquis of Sipicciano and of Rocca Elvezia, and Paola Costa. His father married in second nuptials a Countess Vidman. Half-brother of Cardinal Giambattista Costaguti (1690). Great-grand-uncle of Cardinal Baldassare Cenci, iuniore (1761), on his mother's side.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, October 8, 1638.

Early life. Protonotary apostolic participantium, October 16, 1632. Regent of the Apostolic Chancery, December 12, 1636. Commissary general of Umbria and Marca. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, October 8, 1638. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber and president of the Dogane and the Grascia. Vice-legate of Ferrara, March to July 1643.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of July 13, 1643; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Portico Octaviae, August 31, 1643. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Legate in Urbino, 1648 to 1651. Opted for the deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria, September 23, 1652. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin, July 21, 1653. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Opted for the deaconry of S. Eustachio, March 6, 1656. Opted for the order of priests and the title of S. Callisto, July 19, 1660.

Death. December 6, 1660, of an acute fever, Rome. Buried in his family's chapel in the church of S. Carlo ai Catinari, Rome.

Bibliography. Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 26, 41, 51, 52, 53; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 219; and I, 279; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 251, 416 and 600-601.

Link. His prosopography in German, Requiem Datenbank.

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(70) 13. DONGHI, Giovanni Stefano (1608-1669)

Birth. 1608, Genoa. Son of Bartolomeo Donghi and Giacoma Bernardi. The family was originally from Voltri and in 1581 (or 1629 or 1642) was ascribed to the Genoese nobility.

Education. University of Bologna, Bologna; University of Salamanca, Salamanca.

Early life. Protonotary apostolic participantium, June 15, 1635. Prefect of the Annona. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. President of the Apostolic Chamber. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, 1638. In January 1643, he was named commissary resident of the three legations of which Cardinal Antonio Barberini, iuniore, was legate but in which he did not reside.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of July 13, 1643; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, August 31, 1643. Confirmed as prefect of the Annona, July 17, 1643. Plenipotentiary of His Holiness in the War of Italy; obtained the peace with the confederated princes. Legate in Ferrara, 1644-1648. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Legate in Romagna and exarch in Ravenna, July 3, 1651.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ajaccio, Corsica, November 27, 1651. Consecrated, May, 12, 1652, at the cathedral of Ravenna, by Luca Torregiani, archbishop of Ravenna, assisted by Isidoro della Robia, bishop of Bertinoro, and by Pompeo Spreti, bishop of Cervia. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Opted for the deaconry of S. Agata in Suburra, May 14, 1655. Transferred to the see of Imola, August 2, 1655. Transferred to the see of Ferrara, February 26, 1663. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Cardinal protodeacon.

Death. November 26, 1669, near 11 p.m., Rome. Buried in the chapel of the Madonna in the church of Santissimo Nome di gesù, Rome.

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(71) 14. RONDININI, Paolo Emilio (1617-1668)

Birth. 1617, Rome. Son of Alessandro Rondinini and Felice Zacchia. Grand-nephew on his mother's side of Cardinal Paolo Emilio Zacchia (1599), and grandson of Cardinal Laudivio Zacchia (1626).

Education. University of Perugia, Perugia (obtained a doctorate).

Early life. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, 1637. Acting treasurer general of the Apostolic Chamber in the absence of Francesco Angelo Rapaccioli, commissary of the army, who was in the War of Castro. Prefect of the Annona, March 4, 1643.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of July 13, 1643; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Aquiro, August 31, 1643. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Assisi, May 5, 1653. Consecrated, May 25, 1653, at the church of S. Silvestro in Capite, Rome, by Cardinal Fabio Chigi, bishop of Imola, assisted by Ranuzio Scotti, former bishop of Borgo San Donnino, and by Giovanni Battista Scanarolo, titular bishop of Sidon. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Opted for the deaconry of Giorgio in Velabro, May 14, 1655. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin, March 6, 1656. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Opted for the order of priests and the title of S. Eusebio, April 30, 1668.

Death. September 16, 1668, at 6 p.m., after a brief illness, in a palace of Prince Camillo Pamphilj in the old street of Pozzo delle Cornachie, next to what was then called and still is Piazza Rondadini, Rome. Buried on September 18, 1668 next to his father and grand-father in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome.

Bibliography. Zacchia Rondinini, Antonio. Memorie della famiglia Zacchia Rondinini. Cenni storici e biografici. Documenti. Bologna : L. Parma, 1942, pp. 51-55.

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(72) 15. GIORI, Angelo (1586-1662)

Birth. May 11, 1586, Capodacqua, diocese of Camerino. Son of Giovanni Francesco Giori and Polidora Polini. Of a modest family.

Education. In Camerino studied grammar and in Rome, literature, rhetoric, Greek, logic, physics and Latin. Archgymnasium of Rome, Rome (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law).

Early life. Called to Rome by his uncle Cesareo Giori, entered the service of Cardinal Maffeo Barberini, future Pope Urban VIII. In 1606, was entrusted with the education of future Cardinals Francesco and Antonio Barberini and their brother Taddeo, future prince of Palestrina and prefect of Roma. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness. Papal coppiere. Canon altarista of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Secretary of Memorials, 1632-1643. Prefect of the cubiculi of His Holiness, 1635.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 13, 1643, with special permission of the pope after having lost an index finger and a thumb in a hunting accident.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 13, 1643; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Quirico e Giulitta, August 31, 1643. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. After the death of Pope Urban VIII he withdrew to his house in the Gianicolo, Rome. Represented the interests in Rome of the Barberini cardinals during their exile in France. Supervised the work of Gian Lorenzo Bernini on the tomb of Pope Urban VIII and after death of Taddeo in Paris in 1647 he was appointed the guardian of his sons. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII.

Death. August 8, 1662, Rome. Transferred to Camerino and buried in the church of S. Maria in Via in that city.

Bibliography. Feliciangeli, Bernardino. Il cardinale Angelo Giori da Camerino e Gianlorenzo Bernini. Sanseverino : Taddei, 1917; S. Corradini. "La collezione del Cardinale Angelo Giori." Antologia di Belle Arti, I/1 (March 1977), 83-94.

Links. His engraving, portrait and prosopography, in German, Requiem Datenbank; and his engraving by Aubertus Cluet, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin.

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(73) 16. LUGO Y DE QUIROGA, S.J., Juan de (1583-1660)

Birth. November 25, 1583, Madrid, Spain. Son of Juan de Lugo and Teresa de Quiroga. Of a noble family originally from Seville. For some time, as it was the custom for the second son, he used his mother's last name as his family name. Brother of Francisco de Lugo, S.J. also a theologian of note.

Education. Studied grammar, rhetoric and belles-lettres in Seville. University of Salamanca, Salamanca (law). Entered the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), 1603, without his father's permission; took solemn vows, Valladolid, 1618.

Early life.He received the tonsure in 1593 and in 1597 defended a public thesis in logic. Appointed by King Felipe II to an ecclesiastical benefice which he retained until his solemn profession as a Jesuit in 1618.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Professor of philosophy at Monforte de Lemos, 1612 for a year; at Medina del Campo for a year, 1613; at León for three years, 1614-1617; professor of theology at Valladolid and Salamanca, 1617-1621. Called to Rome by the superior general of his order in 1621 and taught at Collegio Romano until 1643. The superior general ordered him to print his works in 1633, and had material for the first three volumes prepared within five years. His superiors asked him to dedicate his works to Pope Urban VIII, who was so impressed and pleased with him that he frequently consulted him.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of July 13, 1643; published in the consistory of December 14, 1643; received the red hat and the title of S. Stefano in MonteCelio, May 2, 1644. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Opted for the title of S. Balbina, October 17, 1644. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 15, 1657 until January 14, 1658. Intervened in favor of the introduction of quinine, known then as Cortex peruvianus, as a medical treatment in Rome. He was one of the most distinguished theologians of modern times and a prolific writer in moral and dogmatic theology and well as the relationship between law and justice. Until the end he led a humble and simple life practicing an extraordinary charity towards the poor of Rome.

Death. August 20, 1660, near 5 a.m., in the palace where he resided next to the piazza of the church of Santissimo Nome di gesù, Rome, assisted by his disciple Cardinal Pietro Sforza Pallavicino, S.J. Buried, according to his will, near the tomb of St. Ignatius Loyola in that church.

Bibliography. Brinkman, Gabriel. The social thought of John de Lugo. Washington : Catholic University of America Press, 1957; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 47- 49; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp.26, 40 and 50.

Links. Biography by Joseph de Ghellinck, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography by C. J. Pinto de Oliveira, in Spanish, Gran Enciclopedia Rialp: Humanidades y Ciencia; his portrait and brief biographical data, in Spanish, Grupo de investigacisn eumednet, Universidad de Málaga; his engraving and brief biographical data, in English, at&t Business Internet Service; his role in the use of quinene against malaria, Dr. B.S. Kakkilaya's Malaria Web Site; Friedrich von Hugal On Cardinal Juan de Lugo, The 17th Century Spanish Jesuit, in English, Good Jesuit, Bad Jesuit; his tomb in the Gesù Church, Rome, next to Cardinal Johann Eberhard Nidhard's tomb, The Australian National University; and his engraving by Giuseppe Testana, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin.

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(74) 17. ESTAMPES DE VALENÇAY, Achille d' (1593-1646)

Birth. July 5, 1593, Tours, France. Son of Jean d'Estampes, signeur of Valençay, and Sara d'Happlaincourt.Of a noble family.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Received a knighthood of the Sovereign Order of Malta when he was 8 years old. Sent by his father to the island of Malta. Distinguished himself for his valor in the Maltese galleys in France, Italy, and the Low Countries. He and his four brothers demonstrated a remarkable intrepidity in the siege of Montauban. Named by King Louis XIII captain of company in the regiment of cavalry. Served as vice-admiral in the siege of La Rochelle. Promoted to field marshal in 1628 and named commander of the guards of Queen Mother Marie de Médici, September 1632 to August 1633. Distinguished himself again in the battle of Pas de Suze, Piémont. When peace was achieved, he returned to Malta and was named general of the galleys of the order, 1635. Participated in the taking of the island of Sainte-Marure, one of the Ionian Islands. Through his nephew the bailly of Valençay, then ambassador of France before the Holy See, Pope Urban VIII invited him to come to Rome and serve against the duke of Parma. He accepted and was named general of the papal army under Cardinal Antonio Barberini, iuniore, September 1642 to May 1644, and achieved victory in the enterprise. As recompense, the pope promoted him to the cardinalate.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of July 13, 1643; published in the consistory of December 14, 1643; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Adriano, May 2, 1644. Participated in the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocent X. Defended vigorously the interests of France against the Admiral of Castille, Spanish ambassador before the Holy See, who had made some indiscreet remarks about the king of France, and made him apologize and visit Cardinal Rinaldo d'Este, protector of France.

Death. June 27, 1646, near 7 p.m., Rome. Buried in the church of S. Maria della Vittoria in the tomb of Cardinal Domenico Rivarola.

Links. His prosopography in German, Requiem Datenbank; and his epitaph in his tomb, together with Cardinal Domenico Rivarola in the church of S. Maria della Vittoria, Rome, Requiem Datenbankk.

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