The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Innocent X (1644-1655)
Consistory of March 6, 1645 (II)

albergatiludovisi.tif

(5) 1. ALBERGATI-LUDOVISI, Niccolò
(1608-1687)

Birth. September 15, 1608, Bologna. Of a patrician family. Relative of Pope Gregory XV (1621-1623). With the approval of Pope Innocent X, he added the last name Ludovisi to his own (1). Cousin of Cardinal Ludovico Ludovisi (1621).

Education. Obtained a doctorate in law on February 3, 1627.

Early life. Embraced the ecclesiastical life, March 4, 1622. Received the abbey that his brother Fabio had. Entered the Society of Jesus (2). Called to Rome in 1631 by his cousin Cardinal Ludovisi. Became a papal prelate. Vicar of the basilica of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, Rome. President of the Congregation of Dodici Apostoli and governor of the Nazione bolognese. Archpriest of the metropolitan cathedral of Bologna, 1635. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace in the pontificate of Pope Urban VIII; resigned in 1637 in favor of his brother Antonio.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Bologna, February 6, 1645. Consecration, February 26, 1645, in the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, by Cardinal Girolamo Colonna, assisted by Onorato Onorati, bishop of Urbania, and by Orazio Giustiniani, Orat., bishop of Nocera. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, March 5, 1645.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 6, 1645; received the red hat and the title of S. Agostino, April 24, 1645. He was granted the pallium on Marh 6, 1645. Opted for the title of Maria degli Angeli, June 25, 1646. Baptized Leopoldo, son of Grand duke Ferdinando of Tuscany, 1647. Called to Rome in 1648, was ill there for six months. Legate to present Ana of Austria, queen of Spain, the Rosa d'Oro while she was in Milan, June 28, 1649. Declined appointment to the sees of Palermo and Monreale offered by King Felipe V of Spain. Penitentiary major, February 21, 1650 to August 9, 1687; because of his poor health, Cardinal Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni was his coadjutor from 1670 to 1676. Resigned the government of the archdiocese before December 11, 1651. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 14, 1658 until January 13, 1659. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, October 11, 1666. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X; had to leave because of ill health, March 18, 1670. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, October 19, 1676. Cardinal protoprete. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, September 13, 1677. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, December 1, 1681. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Opted for the sububicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, proper of the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, February 15, 1683.

Death. August 9, 1687, near 4 a.m., post longam et laboriosam infirmitatem, in Rome. Exposed and buried in the tomb he had built in front of the main altar of the church of S. Maria in Trastevere, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 54-57; Meluzzi, Luciano. I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna. Bologna : Grafica Emiliana, 1975, (Collana storico-ecclesiastica; 3), pp. 442-446.

Webgraphy. His portrait and arms, ambito bolognese, secolo XIX (1890-1899), archdiocese of Bologna, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

(1) Prince Niccolò Ludovisi, son of Count Orazio Ludovisi, brother of Pope Gregory XV, and cousin of Msgr. Niccolò Albergati, declared him his brother with the condition that he assumed the arms and the last name of the family Ludovisi. Later, the prince requested his promotion to the cardinalate.
(2) This is according to Meluzzi, I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna, p. 442. None of the other sources consulted mention it.

Cool Archive

(6) 2. CENCI, Tiberio (1580-1653)

Birth. 1580, Rome. Son of Ludovico Cenci, Roman noble, and Laura Lante. Of a noble and ancient family. Nephew of Cardinal Marcello Lante (1606), on his mother's side. Uncle of Cardinal Gasparo Mattei (1643), on his mother's side. Other cardinals of the family are Baldassare Cenci, seniore (1695), Serafino Cenci (1734), and Baldassare Cenci, iuniore (1761).

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Chamberlain of honor of Pope Clement VIII (1592-1605). Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, September 21, 1602. Governor of Jesi, 1612. Governor of Spoleto, 1614. Governor of Campagna e Marittima, 1615. Vice-governor of Fermo, June 27, 1618.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Jesi, November 24, 1621. Consecrated (no information found). Governor of Loreto, April 20, 1622.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 6, 1645, with dispensation for having an uncle and a nephew in the Sacred College of Cardinals; received the red hat and the title of S. Callisto, April 24, 1645.

Death. February 26, 1653, extra Curia Romana. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Jesi.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 57-58; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), p. 242; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 216; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 182, 244, 275, 387, and 568.

Cool Archive

(7) 3. CARAFA, seniore, Pier Luigi (1581-1655)

Birth. July 18, 1581, Naples. Son of Ottavio Carafa, marquis of Anzi, and Crisostoma Carafa, of the counts of Policastro. Other cardinals of the family were Filippo Carafa (1378); Oliviero Carafa (1467); Gianvincenzo Carafa (1527); Carlo Carafa (1555); Diomede Carafa (1555); Alfonso Carafa (1557); Antonio Carafa (1568); Decio Carafa (1611); Carlo Carafa della Spina (1664); Fortunato Ilario Carafa della Spina (1686); Pierluigi Carafa, iuniore (1728); Francesco Carafa della Spina (1773); Marino Carafa di Belvedere (1801); and Domenico Carafa della Spina (1844).

Education."... compiuti con fama di straordinario talento i suoi studi ..." (1).

Early life. Went to Rome in 1614. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1607. Vice-legate in Ferrara, 1614-1620. Governor of Fermo, 1620-1624. Received the subdiaconate, May 6, 1624, Rome.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tricarico, with dispensation for not having yet received the diaconate and presbyterate, March 29, 1624. Consecrated, Sunday June 2, 1624 (2), Rome, by Cardinal Cosimo de Torres, assisted by Gianantonio Angrisani, archbishop of Sorrento, and by Alessandro (Fabrizio) Suardi, bishop of Lucera. Succeeded his brother Diomede as bishop of this see. Nuncio in Cologne, July 15, 1624 until September 20, 1634.Later, also apostolic visitor to Lower Germany. Requested to return to his diocese. Declined promotion to the sees of Capua and Urbino.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 6, 1645; received the red hat and the title of S. Martino ai Monti, July 10, 1645. Prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, 1645 or 1646 until his death. Resigned government of the diocese before January 8, 1646. Legate in Bologna, July 3, 1651; resigned shortly after for health reasons. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII, and died during its celebration.

Death. February 15, 1655, near 1 p.m., in conclave, Rome. Exposed and buried on the right side of the main door of the church of Santissimo Nome di Gesù, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 58-63; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 204; Re, Nicola del. "I cardinali prefetti della sacra congregazione del concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), p. 118; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), III, 216.

Webgraphy. His portrait, ambito dell'Italia meridionale, secolo XVII (1646-1672), diocese of Tricarico, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his portrait, ambito napoletano, secolo XVII (1624-1646), diocese of Tricarico, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

(1) " ... completed his studies with fame of extraordinary talent ...", Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 58;
(2) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VII, 343; and Combaluzier, "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662", p. 204; Re, "I cardinali prefetti della sacra congregazione del concilio", p. 188, indicates that he was consecrated on May 29, 1624.

Cool Archive

(8) 4. GIUSTINIANI, Orat., Orazio (1578-1649)

Birth. 1578 (1), Chio, diocese and island of Chio, Aegean Sea. Of a Genoese patrician family. Relative of Girolamo Giustiniani, O.P., bishop of Chio (1599-1604) and Marco Giustiniani, O.P., bishop of Chio (1604-1640).

Education. Entered the Congregation of the Oratory of St. Philip of Neri in 1603.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Named by Cardinal Antonio Barberini superintendent of the abbey of Farfa and custodian of the Vatican library, 1630. Sent to Ancona to convince pseudo patriarch Atanasio Patelema not to go to Rome. Consultor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Montalto, February 13, 1640. Consecrated, September 16, 1640, in the church of S. Catarina da Siena, Rome, by Cardinal Giovanni Battista Pamphilj, assisted by Giovanni Battista Rinuccini, archbishop of Fermo, and by Lelio Falconieri, titular archbishop of Tebes. Transferred to the see of Nocera, January 16, 1645.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 6, 1645; received the red hat and the title of S. Onofrio, April 24, 1645. Librarian of the Holy Roman Church, September 25, 1646 until his death. Penitentiary major, December 4, 1647 until his death.

Death. July 25, 1649, near 1 a.m., Rome. Exposed and buried in the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, in the tomb of the priests of his congregation.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 63-64.

Webgraphy. His portrait, scuola marchigiana, secolo XVII (1640-1645), diocese of San Benedetto del Tronto-Ripatransone-Montalto, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his portrait, ambito veneto, secolo XVII (1675-1699), diocese of Padua, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb)

(1) Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VII, 246, indicates that he was 55 years old in 1640 when he was elected bishop of Montalto. The same source, VII, 28, says that he was 71 when he died on July 25, 1649. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 64, says that he had not yet turned 70 when he died in 1649.

Cool Archive

(9) 5. CIBO, Alderano (1613-1700)

Birth. July 16, 1613, Genoa. Son of Carlo I Cibo, prince of Massa and duke of Carrara, and Brigida Spinola of the marquises of Calice and signori of Castellaro. Relative of Pope Innocent VIII; and of Cardinals Lorenzo Cibo de' Mari (1489); Innocenzo Cibo (1513); and Camillo Cibo (1729). His last name is also listed as Cybo.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Went to Rome at a very young age and became a papal prelate in the pontificate of Pope Urban VIII (1623-1644). Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Named papal majordome by Pope Innocent X in 1644. Prefect of the Sacred Palace.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 6, 1645; received the red hat and the title of S. Pudenziana, April 24, 1645. Legate in Urbino, February 19, 1646. Legate in Romandiola, June 15, 1648. Legate in Ferrara, July 3, 1651. Superintendent general of the Papal State. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Iesi, April 24, 1656. Consecrated (no information found). Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, January 30, 1668. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. Ceased as bishop of Iesi, December 10, 1671. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI. Secretary of State, September 23, 1676 until August 12, 1689. Legate in Avignon, 1677-1690. Secretary of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition. Prefect of the S.C. of Rites. Prefect of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars (?). Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, September 13, 1677. Cardinal primoprete. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, February 6, 1679. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Frascati, January 8, 1680. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, February 15, 1683. Secretary of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, 1683-1700. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, proper of the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 10, 1687. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII.

Death. July 22, 1700, Rome. Exposed and buried in the tomb of his family in the church of S. Maria del Popolo, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 64-67.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; his bust in the Cybo Chapel, S. Maria del Popolo, Rome, The Australian National University; his genealogy, A1 B3 C3 D1 E1 F5, Genealogy EU; and his engraving by Giuseppe Testana, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; his portrait, ambito italiano, secolo XVII (1600-1699), diocese of Massa Carrara-Pontremoli, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his portrait, ambito romano, secolo XVII (1640-1660), diocese of Pesaro, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).

Cool Archive

(10) 6. SFORZA, Federico (1603-1676)

Birth. January 20, 1603, Rome. Of the dukes of Segni. Son of Alessandro, Sforza, 7th count of Santa Fiora, duke of Segni and prince of Valmontone, and Eleonora Orsini. Grand-nephew of Cardinals Guido Ascanio Sforza di Santa Fiora (1534) and Alessandro Sforza (1565). Cousin of Cardinal Alessandro Orsini (1615). Relative of Cardinal Francesco Sforza (1583). He was prince of Valmontone.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Protonotary apostolic participante, November 11, 1623. Governor of Terni, 1625. Governor of Cesena, August 1625 until January 1626. Vice-legate in Avignon, 1637-1645.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 6, 1645; received the red hat and the deaconry of Ss. Vito e Modesto, July 10, 1645. Pro-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, September 27, 1645 until July 12, 1653. Archmandrite of S. Salvatore di Messina, from 1650.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Rimini, November 19, 1646. Consecrated, December 23, 1646, in the church of Gesù, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Luigi Carafa, assisted by Alessandro Vittrici, bishop of Alatri, and by Ranuzio Scotti, bishop of Borgo San Donnino. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Opted for the order of priests and the title of S. Martino ai Monti, June 26, 1656. Resigned government of the see before June 26, 1656. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 13, 1659 until January 12, 1660. Opted for the title of S. Anastasia, April 21, 1659. Opted for the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, November 21, 1661. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement IX. Transferred to the see of Tivoli, January 28, 1675.

Death. May 24, 1676, Rome. Buried on May 26, 1676, in the chapel of his family in the patriarchal Liberian basilica.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 67-69; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 133, 198, 394, and 915.

Webgraphy. His genealogy, B4 D2 G8 H1 J7.

Cool Archive

(11) 7. ODESCALCHI, Benedetto (1611-1689)

Birth. May 19, 1611 (1), Como. Of a patrician family. Son of Livio Odescalchi, patrician of Como and banker in Venice, and Paola di Castelli, of Bergamo. Brother of Giulio Maria Odescalchi, O.S.B., his successor in the see of Novara (1656-1667). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Benedetto Erba-Odescalchi (1713). Great-grand-uncle of Cardinal Antonio Maria Erba-Odescalchi (1759). Great-great-grand-uncle of Cardinal Carlo Odescalchi, S.J. (1823).

Education. At an early age felt a vocation to the ecclesiastical life (2). Studied with the Jesuits in Como. Apprenticed at his family's bank in Genoa when he was fifteen years old. Studied law in Rome and Naples and obtained a doctorate in 1639.

Early life. Pope Urban VIII (1623-1644) named him successively protonotary apostolic participantium, May 15, 1640; Referendary of the tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1642. Named cleric of the Apostolic Chamber by Pope Innocent X; later its president. Commissary in Ancona. Governor of Macerata. Financial commissary in the Marches. Governor of Picena.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 6, 1645; received the red hat and the deaconry of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, April 24, 1645. Prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace, January 22, 1647. Legate in the city and state of Ferrara, June 15, 1648 until October 21, 1651.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Novara, April 4, 1650. Consecrated, January 29, 1651, cathedral of Ferrara, by Cardinal Francesco Maria Macchiavelli, titular patriarch of Constantinople and archbishop of Ferrara, assisted by Maffeo Vitale, bishop of Mantova, and by Giulio Borea, bishop of Comacchio. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Resigned government of the diocese, before March 6, 1656. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Onofrio, April 21, 1659. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 12, 1660 until January 24, 1661. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X; France vetoed his election to the papacy. Participated in the conclave of 1676 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope on September 21, 1676. Took the name Innocent XI. Crowned, October 4, 1676, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Francesco Maidalchini, protodeacon of S. Maria in Via Lata. Took possession of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, November 8, 1676. He unsuccessfully legislated against nepotism among the cardinals. He created forty three cardinals in two consistories.

Death. August 12, 1689, from kidney stones, Rome. Exposed in the patriarchal Vatican basilica; and buried in the pilar of the left nave of the basilica (3). His praecordia was placed in the chapel of the Madonna in the church of Ss. Vincenzo ed Anasatasio, Rome; his heart is in the chapel of the Odescalchi Palace, also in Rome. His monument in the basilica was designed by Carlo Maratta.

Beatification. The process of beatification was started on April 11, 1691 by Pope Innocent XII (1691-1700). The initial phase was concluded in 1698. In 1714, the formal introduction of the cause was discussed and Prospero Lambertini, future Pope Benedict XIV, was asked to prepare the animadversationes. The new phase of indagine took place in Rome and Como between 1714 and 1733; these apostolic processes were approved in 1736. In 1744, the process was blocked by accusations of simony, philo-Jansenism and hostility to France and the French (4). The process was revitalized by the publication of documents by Fr. Berthier, O.P., and Pope Pius XII ordered it to be reopened. The Holy Office was consulted concerning the accusations of Quietism against Innocent and it declared its unwillingness to place obstacles to the cause. Finally, Innocent XI was beatified on October 7, 1956, by Pope Pius XII. After the beatification, the body was placed in a glass urn under the altar of the chapel of St. Sebastian in the patriarchal Vatican basilica on October 11, 1956. His feast is celebrated on August 12. On April 8, 2011, in a private ceremony in St. Peter's Basilica his remains were moved from the altar in the chapel of St. Sebastian to make way for Blessed Pope John Paul II, and transferred to the Altar of the Transfiguration. The altar sits to the left of the high altar, which is overshadowed by a marble statue of St. Andrew the Apostle.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 69; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturæ a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), pp. 296 and 313; Menniti Ippolito, Antonio. "Innocenzo XI, beato." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, 368-389; Miccinelli, Carlo. Il beato Innocenzo XI : cenni biografici.Vatican City : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1956. Bibliografia di papa Innocenzo XI (Benedetto Odescalchi) 1676-1689, fino al 1927. Manoscritto inedito ad altri cimeli innocenziani esistenti nelle raccolte dei musei civici di Como, Author: Monti, Santo. Como, Tip. A. Noseda, 1957. Responsibility: a cura di Mariuccia Zecchinelli; Montor, Artaud de. The lives and times of the popes, including the complete gallery of the portraits of the pontiffs reproduced from "Effigies pontificum romanorum Dominici Basae"; being a series of volumes giving the history of the world during the Christian era, retranslated, rev. and written up to date from Les vies des papes, by the Chevalier Artaud de Montor. 10 vols. Lateran ed. New York : The Catholic Publication Society of America 1910-11, VI, 121-150; O'Brien, Louis. Innocent XI and the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Berkeley, Calif. : [s.n.], 1930. Dissertation: Thesis (Ph. D.)--Columbia University, 1930; Papasogli, Giorgio. Innocenzo XI (1611-1689) Sommo Pontefice dal 1676 al 1689 elevato all'onore degli Altari nel 1956. Roma : Banco di Roma, 1956; Vita di papa Innocenzo XI. Edited by Mattia Giuseppe Lippi ; Luigi Marracci; Joachim Joseph Berthier. Roma : Tipografia vaticana, 1889. Note: "L'altra Vita d'Innocenzo, che noi pubblichiamo nell' Appendice, tra altri documenti, n. XI, fu scritta dal celebre Maracci, l'unico confessore del venerabile papa Innocenzo ... La terza Vita da noi stampata come anonima, (Append., n. XII), non manca pure d'importanza, perchè scritta da un contemporaneo, nel 1689, dopo il 29 agosto ..."--Proemio. Responsibility: raccolta in tre libri per Mattia Giuseppe Lippi. Edita con aggiunte a cura del P. fr. Giovacchino Berthier, de' Predicatori; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 676; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 252 and 804.

Webgraphy. Biography by Michael Ott, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English, Encyclopaedia Britannica; biography by Antonio Menniti Ippolito, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Treccani; his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom Jr, in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; his tomb in St. Peter's Basilica, Rome; his effigy on a medal.

(1) Several soruces consulted give this as the date of his birth and an equal number of sources indicate that he was born on May 19, 1611.
(2) Several sources, among them Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinal della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 69, say that he had been a soldier before entering the ecclesiastical state. Montor, The lives and times of the Popes, VI, 122, indicates that this is incorrect, and that those writers confused him with another Odescalchi who fought in Flanders and that he was never anything but an ecclesiastic. Montor cites a dissertation written by Count Antonio Giuseppe Rezzonico, printed in Como in 1742, that demonstrates that Benedetto Odescalchi was never a soldier.
(3) His body was so poorly watched after his death, that during the night, he was almost gnawed by rats, who ate part of his nose.
(4) According to Menniti Ippolito, Innocenzo XI, beato", Enciclopedia dei papi, III, 388, Pope Benedict XIV decided to freeze the cause and face all the doubts that had emerged during the process. Together with the French objections, the main reason that paralyzed the process was the doubt that this pontiff expressed concerning the holiness of his predecessor. He wrote that Innocent XI more than a saint had been a good man (uomo da bene). Even in the presence of two miraculous events, the pope did not recognize the heroic quality of Innocent's sanctity.

Top Catalogs Home

©1998-2015 Salvador Miranda.