The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Innocent X (1644-1655)
Consistory of October 7, 1647 (IV)
Celebrated in Rome

(13) 1. SAVELLI, Fabrizio (1607-1659)

Birth. 1607, Rome. Of an aristocratic family which included Pope Honorius IV (1285-1287), and Cardinals Bertrando Savelli (1216); Giovanni Batistta Savelli (1480); Giacomo Savelli (1539); and Silvio Savelli (1596). Nephew of Cardinal Giulio Savelli (1615) and uncle of Cardinal Paolo Savelli (1664).

Education. (No information found).

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Salerno, with dispensation for not having yet received the presbyterate, September 15, 1642. Consecrated, October 26, 1642, Rome, by Cardinal Alessandro Cesarini, assisted by Francesco Gonzaga, bishop of Cariati, and by (no information found about the second co-consecrator). Succeeded his uncle in this see. Nuncio in Poland (?).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 7, 1647; received the red hat and the title of S. Agostino, December 16, 1647. Legate in Bologna, January 15, 1648. Legate in Ravenna (?). Legate in Ferrara (?). Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Ceased as archbishop of Salerno before April 1, 1658. Minister of Poland before the Holy See, 1658.

Death. February 26, 1659, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Aracoeli, Rome, and buried in the tomb of his ancestors in the chapel of S. Francesco in that church.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 71-72.

Link. The Savelli family by Norbert M. Borengässer, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon.

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(14) 2. MAZARIN, O.P., Michel (1605-1648)

Birth. September 1, 1605, Pescina, Abruzzi. Baptized on that same day, received the name Alessandro. Son of Pietro Mazzarino and Ortenzia Buffalini. The family lived in Rome but his father administered the benefice of a relative in Pescina. Brother of Cardinal Jules Mazarin (1641). He is also listed as Michele Mazzarini.

Education. Entered the Order of Preachers (Dominicans) at the convent of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, when he was 15 years old; took the name Michel. Completed his studies in Bologna.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Professor of philosophy and theology in houses of study of his order. Successfully complete a delicate mission in Venice given to him by the master general of his order. Provincial of the Dominican province of Puglia, and of the Roman province, 1641. In October 1642, Pope Urban VIII named him vicar general of his order and deposed Niccolò Ridolfi, master general. He was elected master general in a chapter held in Genoa and presided over by him. Pope Innocent X considered the motives for the deposition of the master general to be insufficient. Opposed to his election were the Spaniards, the Flemish and the Germans, who then elected Fr. Tommaso di Roccamara. Fr. Mazarin resigned in the interest of peace and to avoid a schism within the order. Master of the Apostolic Palace, February 3, 1643.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Aix-en-Provence, July 10, 1645. Consecrated, Sunday July 23, 1645, Dominican church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, by Cardinal Girolamo Grimaldi, assisted by Alfonso Sacrati, former bishop of Comacchio, and by Ranuzio Scotti, bishop of Borgo San Donnino. Returned to Rome from his see in 1647 (1).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, with dispensation because he had a brother in the Sacred College of Cardinals, in the consistory of October 7, 1647; received the red hat and the title of S. Cecilia, December 16, 1647. Named viceroy of Catalonia, he entered Barcelona in January 1648 but had to leave shortly, in July of the same year, because of ill health. Returned to Rome as French minister in July 1648.

Death. August 31 (2), 1648, Rome. Exposed and buried in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 72-74; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 229.

(1) According to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 73, apparently to address some affairs of the French king before the Holy See but in reality because he did not adapt himself to the customs and manners of the French which he found odioso, e insoffrible.
(2) This is according to Hierarchia Catholic Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 29. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1230, indicates that he died on September 2, 1648 at 41 years of age.

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(15) 3. CHERUBINI, Francesco (1585-1656)

Birth. 1585, Montalboddo (since 1881, known as Ostra), diocese of Senigaglia. Of an ancient and modest family.

Education. Went to Rome and obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Assistant of studio of Giambattista Pamphilj, auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota and future Pope Innocent X (1644-1655); he accompanied him as auditor to the nunciatures in Naples and in Spain. Auditor of His Holiness. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, March 13, 1645.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 7, 1647; received the red hat and the title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, December 16, 1647. Pro-auditor of His Holiness. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Senigaglia, August 2, 1655. Consecrated, August 8, 1655, at Gesù church, Rome, by Salluste Cherubini, bishop of Città Ducale.

Death. April 24 (1), 1656, Senigaglia. Buried in the priorial and parochial church of S. Croce delle "Quattro Colonne", Montalboddo (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 74-75.

(1) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VII, 312. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 655, says that he died on April 21, 1656.
(2) According to the official site of the parish of Santa Croce in Ostra, Nella navata destra, vicino all'ingresso, è stato collocato il busto (con epigrafe e stemma) del cardinale Francesco Cherubini (1585-1656), vescovo di Senigallia, sepolto nella demolita chiesa delle "Quattro Colonne", "In the right nave, near the entrance, has been placed the bust (with inscription and arms) of Cardinal Francesco Cherubini (1585-1656), bishop of Senigallia, buried in the demolished church of the 'Four Columns'." It is not said if the remains of the cardinal were moved from the demolished church to the new one.

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(16) 4. VIDMAN, Cristoforo (1617-1660)

Birth. 1617, Venice. Son of Giovanni Vidman, count of Ortenburg. Descendant of an ancient German family. His last name is also listed as Widman.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, and later auditor.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of October 7, 1647; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, pro illa vice deaconry, December 16, 1647. Legate in Urbino, June 3, 1651. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Opted for the order of priests and the title of S. Marco, April 1, 1658.

Death. September 30, 1660 (1), S. Martino al Cimino, near Viterbo. Transferred to Rome, he was buried in the right nave of his title. The news of his death reached Rome on October 1, 1660.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 75-76.

Links. His tomb in S. Marco, Rome, his engraving by Stephan Picart; and his tomb, in the basilica of S. Marco, Rome.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storica de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 75, indicates that he was 45 years old when he died in 1660. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, says that he was near 43 years old at the moment of his death in 1660.

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(17) 5. RAGGI, Lorenzo (1615-1687)

Birth. 1615, Genoa. Of a senatorial family. Nephew of Cardinal Ottaviano Raggi (1641).

Education. Obtained a doctorate in philosophy in Rome.

Early life. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, December 16, 1641; later treasurer general.Protoforiere, 1643. Commissary of the papal troops. Intendant general of the galleys of the Papal State. Pro-majordome of His Holiness in the absence of Majordome Fausto Poli, 1643. Pope Urban VIII intended to promote him to the cardinalate but was impeded because of ill health.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of October 7, 1647; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Domnica, December 16, 1647. Pro-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, March 26, 1650. Opted for the deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria, July 21, 1653. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Opted for the deaconry of S. Eustachio, August 30, 1660. Opted for the order of priests and the title of Ss. Quirico e Giulitta, February 11, 1664. Participated in the conclave of 1667, whcih elected Pope Clement IX. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, February 6, 1679. Cardinal primoprete. Declined promotion to the metropolitan sees of Salerno and Taranto offered to him by King Felipe IV of Spain. Legate in Romagna for ten years.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, January 8, 1680. Consecrated, January 14, 1680, at the church of S. Catarina della Rota de Funari, Rome, by Cardinal Alderano Cibo, bishop of Frascati, assisted by Giacomo Altoviti, titular patriarch of Antioch, and by Odoardo Cibo, titular archbishop of Seleucia.

Death. January 14, 1687, Ravenna. The news of his death reached Rome on January 18, 1687. Exposed and buried in the basilica of S. Apollinare, Ravenna.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 76-78.

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(18) 6. MAIDALCHINI, Francesco
(1621-1700)

Birth. April 12, 1621 (1), Viterbo. His last name is also listed as Maldachini. Nephew of Olimpia Maidalchini, famous for her ascendancy over Pope Innocent X (1644-1655). Uncle of Cardinal Fulvio Astalli (1686).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Abbot commendatario of S. Martino, of S. Gaudenzio di Rimini, and of S. Pancrazio fuori le mura. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of October 7, 1647; received the red hat and the deaconry of S.Adriano, December 16, 1647. Opted for the title of S. Pancrazio, pro illa vice deaconry, May 5, 1653. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Portico Octaviae, March 23, 1654; the deaconry was suppressed by Pope Alexander VII on June 26, 1662, because its church was in ruins and without revenue; and transferred on the same day to the new church of S. Maria in Portico Campitelli. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata, October 11, 1666. Cardinal protodeacon. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1689. Opted for the order of priests and the title of S. Maria in Via, October 19, 1689. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, July 23, 1691.

Death. June 13 (2), 1700, near noon, Nettuno. Transferred to Rome the following day. The funeral took place on June 15, 1700, in the church of S. Eustachio where he was buried (3).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 78-80; Herman, Eleanor. Mistress of the Vatican : the true story of Olimpia Maidalchini, the secret female pope. New York, NY : William Morrow, 2008.

(1) This is according to Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1180. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 80, says that he died at 70 in 1700. El Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, indicates that he was born on November 26, 1700.
(2) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, V, 50. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1180, indicates that he died on June 10, 1700.
(3) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, V, 50. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1180, also indicates that he was transferred to Rome and buried in the church of S. Eustachio, en présence du Sacré College. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 80, states that he was transported to Viterbo and buried in the tomb of his ancestors in the church of S. Maria de' Gradi. Another source has him buried in the church of S. Martino al Cimino, near Viterbo.

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(19) 7. ARAGÓN, Antonio de (1616-1650)

Birth. November 24, 1616 (1), Lucena, diocese of Córdoba, Spain. Of an illustrious house related to the royal family. Seventh child, third boy, of Enrique de Aragón-Córdoba-Cardona y Enríquez de Cabrera, sixth duke of Cardona and fifth of Segorbe, viceroy of Navarra and Catalonia, and his second wife, Catalina Fernández de Córdoba y Figueroa. The parents established themselves in Lucena in 1606, when the got married; and lived there until 1618. Brother of Cardenal Pascual de Aragón (1660). His last name is also listed as de Aragonia; as d'Aragona; and as Aragón-Córdoba-Cardona y Fernández de Córdoba.

Education. Educated by D. Garci Gil Manrique, bishop of Barcelona. University of Salamanca, Salamanca; designated rector (2) of the university, November 10, 1635; resigned in August 1636 to accept a scholarship at the university's Colegio Mayor de San Bartolomé.

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Córdoba in 1630; took possesion in August 1631. Coadjutor of the archdeacon of Castro del Río, a dignity of the cathedral of Córdoba; he succeede to that post in December 1648. Knight of the Order of Alcántara. He was sent with his brother, the marquis of Povar, to Catalonia to help their mother, the duchess of Cardona, who was recently widowed, in a mission of reconciliation with the rebellious Catalans. They reached Barcelona on December 11, 1640 and soon after, on January 3, 1641, were taken prisoners and their house ransacked, and only released by exchange on November 15, 1641. Freed, he became general of the armed galleys in Valencia in 1642 and accompanied King Felipe IV in the military campaign in Lérida in 1644.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 27, 1642. Member of the Council of the Military Orders. Royal councilor to King Felipe IV of Spain. Member of the Supreme Council of the Tribunal of the Spanish Inquisition.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of October 7, 1647; published in the consistory of March 14, 1650; the pope sent him the red biretta to Madrid with Monsignor Bernardino Casale, canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Lateran basilica; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title.

Death. October 7, 1650, after a brief illness, in Madrid. Buried in the convent of the Concepción of the Dominican Discalced nuns, in Loeches, near Madrid. The news of his death was communicated to the Holy See by the Spanish ambassador on November 13, 1650. On June 17, 1662, transferred to the Cistercian monastery of Poblet, Catalonia, fortified royal residence and pantheon of the kings of Catalonia and Aragón, and buried in its church, on the side of the Gospel, net to the mausoleum of his parents (3).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 81; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 29; López de Cárdenas, Fernando J. Memorias de la ciudad de Lucena. Ecija : En la imprenta de B. Daza, 1777; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, II, 268; Ruiz de Vergara y Alava, Francisco; Joseph de Roxas y Contreras. Historia del Colegio Viejo de S. Bartholomé, mayor de la célebre Universidad de Salamanca. Vida del Exc. mo Y R. mo S.r Dom Diego de Anaya Maldonado. Madrid : Andrés Ortega, 1766. Segunda edición corrigida y aumentada. 3 vols, I, 571; Finestres y Monsalvo, Jaime. Historia del Real Monasterio de Poblet.

(1) This is according to López de Cárdenas, Memorias de la ciudad de Lucena. Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 29, which indicates that he was 35 years old when he died in 1650. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 81, says that he died at 32 in 1650. Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, II, 268, says that he died in October 1650 at 32. Both Gran Enciclopedia Española and Enciclopedia Catalana, state that he was born in 1616.
(2) There was the custom in that university to name rector a student from the most illustrious families of the kingdom.
(3) According to Esténaga, El Cardenal de Aragón, II, 274, only the dukes of Segorbe and their first-born sons were buried in the side of the Gospel. All others were buried in the side of the Epistle. Cardinal Antonio, although not the eldest, was buried in the side of the Gospel undoubtedly because he was an illustrious benefactor of the monastery.

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