The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Innocent X (1644-1655)
Consistory of February 19, 1652 (VI)

(21) 1. GONDI DE RETZ, Jean-François-Paul de (1613-1679)

Birth. September 29, 1613 (1), Montmirail-en-Brie, Marne, France. His last name is also listed as Gondy. Also known as Cardinal de Retz. Son of Philippe-Emmanuel de Gondi, general of galleys (2) and Françoise Marguerite de Silly, dame de Commercy. Destined from infancy to the ecclesiastical state. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Pierre de Gondi (1587) and nephew of Cardinal Henri de Gondi (1618), first cardinal de Retz, and Jean-François de Gondi, first archbishop of Paris (1622-1654). The family was originally from Florence.

Education. Had the future St. Vincent de Paul as preceptor. Studied theology, history, ecclesiastical history, and patristics. Besides his native French, was fluent in Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Italian, Spanish and German. Obtained the first doctorate conferred by La Sorbonne University, Paris.

Early life. Protégé of Cardinal Armand-Jean du Plessis de Richelieu. Abbot of Buzay, 1623-ca.1673 and of Quimperlé, Bretagne, 1623-1662; and of Chaume, in the duchy of Retz. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Notre-Dame of Paris, 1627.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Corinto and appointed coadjutor of Paris, with dispensation for not having yet received the presbyterate, June 12, 1643.

Priesthood. Ordained, November 1643. Consecrated bishop, January 31, 1644, metropolitan cathedral of Paris, by Jean-François de Gondi, archbishop of Paris, assisted by Nicolas de Nets, bishop of Orléans, and by Dominique Séguier, bishop of Meaux. After the Fronde he had a role peu édifient.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 19, 1652. The animosity between him and Cardinal Jules Mazarin, who suspected he had plans to replace him as minister, was mutual and strong. Cardinal Mazarin pushed King Louis XIV of France to imprison him in Vicennes, December 1652 (3). Succeeded to the see of Paris while in prison, March 21, 1654. Because of his promise to resign the archbishopric, he was transferred to Nantes in April 1654. He escaped in August 1654, went to Spain, and then to Rome (4). Participated in the conclave of 1655; he played a distinguished role supporting the "flying squadron" in the election of Cardinal Fabio Chigi, who became Pope Alexander VII in this conclave. He detailed the election in part V of his Mémoires. Received the red hat and the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, May 14, 1655. Later he had an errand life throughout Europe, governing his archdiocese through vicars general. Finally, after the death of Cardinal Jules Mazarin in 1661, he resigned the government of the archdiocese by order of the king, February 15, 1662. In compensation he was named abbot commendatario of Saint-Denis, Paris, 1662. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI.

Death. August 24, 1679, Hôtel de Lesdiguières, Paris (5). Exposed and buried in the church of Saint-Denis, near Paris.

Bibliography. Les archevêques de Paris (1622-2002). Paris : Letpuzey & Ané, 2002; Batiffol, Louis. Le cardinal de Retz; ambitions et aventures d'un homme d'esprit au XVIIe siècle. Paris : Hachette, 1927. (Figures du passé); Bertière, Simone. La vie du cardinal de Retz. Paris : Editions de Fallois, 1990; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 83-86; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 319-320; Salmon, John Hearsey McMillan. Cardinal de Retz: the anatomy of a conspirator. London : Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1969.

Webgraphy. Biography by Georges Goyau, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English, Encyclopaedia Britannica; portrait, engravings and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his engraving by Stephan Picart, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; and The Memoirs of Cardinal de Retz written by Himself, Being Historic Court Memoirs of the Great Events during the Minority of Louis XIV. and the Administration of Cardinal Mazarin, (1899), Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation.

(1) This is according to Les archevêques de Paris (1622-2002), p. 17. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1015, and The Catholic Encyclopedia, linked above, indicate that he was born in October 1614. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 84, states that he died in 1679 at 65 years of age. The cardinal's birth certificate, in an appendix to his Mémoires, VIII, 363, indicates that he was baptized on September 20, 1613. Chapeau, Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973, p. 319-320, says that he was born on September 20, 1613.
(2) Having become a widower, and after having participated in many naval expeditions, he retired and joined the Oratory of St. Philip of Neri and became a priest. He died in Joigny on June 29, 1662, at 81.
(3) In the consistory of January 8, 1653, the pope announced to the cardinals that the previous Thursday, January 2, the French ambassador had an audience in which he had informed the pope of the incarceration of the cardinal, which the pope deplored.
(4) He arrived in Rome on the evening of November 30, 1654, after escaping from the castle of Nantes in Bretagne, and was received by the pope the following day.
(5) This is according to Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1017, but Armand, Les évêques et les archevêques de France. Depuis 1682 jusqu'a 1801, p. 283, indicates that he died at his abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés, Paris, which is an error because he never was its abbot.

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(22) 2. PIMENTEL ZÚÑIGA, O.P., Domingo (1584-1653)

Birth. October 3, 1584, Benavente, Segovia, diocese of Zamora, Spain (1). Brother of Bishop Enrique Pimentel Zúñiga of Cuenca (1574-1643). He was the 4th son of the 8th count of Benavente. His baptismal name was Rodrigo.

Education. Entered the Order of Preachers (Dominicans); professed very young in the convent of Santa Cruz, Segovia, 1603; took the name Domingo; studied arts and theology in Colegio de S. Gregorio, Valladolid; in 1606 went to the convent of Benavente.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Professor at Colegio de Santo Tomás, Ávila. Prior of the convent of Segovia. Twice rector of Colegio San Gregorio, Valladolid, 1618 and 1624. Provincial of his order in Spain, 1623. Rector and later regent of the University of Alcalá de Henares (?).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Osma, October 2, 1630. Consecrated, May 25, 1631, convent of the Encarnación, of the Augustinian Discalced nuns, Madrid, by his brother, Enrique Pimentel Zúñiga, bishop of Cuenca, assisted by Juan Bravo Lagunas, O.S.A., former bishop of Ugento, and by Julián Alvear, titular bishop of Siria, auxiliary of Toledo. Transferred to the see of Córdoba, July 18, 1633. King Felipe IV of Spain sent him to Rome as ambassador of the clergy; remained in the post until 1635. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Seville, July 19, 1649.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 19, 1652. Ambassador of Spain before the Holy See. Resigned the government of the archdiocese, December 2, 1652. Received the red hat and the title of S. Silvestro in Capite, June 23, 1653.

Death. December 2, 1653, at 5 a.m., Rome. Exposed and buried in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 86-87; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1500-1699). Españoles obispos en españa, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 34), p. 154.

Webgraphy. His tomb in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome; and another view of his praying statue by Gian Lorenzo Bernini in that church.

(1) This is according to Guitarte Izquierdo, Episcopologio Español (1500-1699), num. 973, p. 154. Hierarchia Catholic Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 268, states that he was born in Benevente, diocese of Oviedo. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 86, indicates that he was born in Segovia, Old Castille, Spain.

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(23) 3. CHIGI, Fabio (1599-1667)

Birth. February 13, 1599, Siena. Of a noble family of the count of Ardengesca. Son of Flavio Chigi, nephew of Pope Paul V (1605-1621), and Laura Marsigli. Uncle of Cardinal Flavio Chigi, seniore (1657). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Antonfelice Zondadari (1712). Other cardinals members of the family were Sigismondo Chigi (1667); Flavio Chigi, iuniore (1753); and Flavio III Chigi (1873).

Education. Because of poor health, he was not able to attend school and was taught by his mother and by tutors; University of Siena, Siena (doctorates of philosophy, law, and theology, 1626); entered the ecclesiastical state, December 1626, Rome.

Early life. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Vice-legate in Ferrara, 1627-1632. Inquisitor in Malta.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 1634.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Nardò, January 8, 1635. Consecrated, July 1, 1635, chapel of the Jesuit College, La Valletta, Malta, by Juan Balaguer de Camarasa, bishop of Malta, assisted by Salvatore Imbroll, prior of Saint John of Jerusalem, and by Antonio Toloscenzio, vicar general of Malta. Nuncio in Cologne, June 11, 1639 until 1651. Envoy extraordinary to the conference of Münster, 1644, which culminated with the Peace of Westphalia, 1648, ending the Thirty Years' War. Secretary of State, December 1651 until January 7, 1655.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 19, 1652; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria del Popolo, March 12, 1652. Transferred to the see of Imola, May 13, 1653. Participated in the conclave of 1655 and was elected pope unanimously.

Papacy. Elected pope on April 7, 1655. Took the name Alexander VII. Crowned, April 18, 1655, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Teodoro Trivulzio, protodeacon of S. Maria in Via Lata. Took possession of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, May 9, 1655.

Death. May 22, 1667, Rome. Exposed and buried in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 87-90; Montanari, Tommaso. "Alessandro VII." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, 336-348.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English; his episcopal lineage, in English; portrait, arms and biographical information, in English; his cardinalitial creation by Pier Leone Ghezzi, Museo di Roma, Rome; his portrait by Arnold van Westerhout, Museo di Roma, Rome; his engraving by Matthäus Merian; and his tomb in St. Peter's Basilica, Rome, also by Bernini.

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(24) 4. LOMELLINI, Giovanni Girolamo (1607-1659)

Birth. 1607 (1), Genoa. Nephew on his mother's side of Cardinal Antonmaria Sauli (1587). Another cardinal of the family was Benedetto Lomellini (1565).

Education. Studied in Rome and later at the University of Perugia, Perugia (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law).

Early life. Papal prelate, 1633. Vice-legate in Ferrara, Bologna, and Romagna, 1636-1643. Commissary general of the papal army in the war with Parma. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, 1643. Governor of Rome, January 16, 1644 until October 19, 1647. Treasurer general of His Holiness, October 1647.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 19, 1652; received the red hat and the title of S. Onofrio, March 12, 1652. Legate in Bologna, August 26, 1652; occupied the post for six years. Declined promotion to the see of Todi, 1654. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII.

Death. April 4, 1659, Rome. Exposed and buried in the church of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 90-91; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, p. 105.

Webgraphy. His engraving by Giuseppe Testana.

(1) This is according to Del Re, Monsignor governatore di Roma, p. 103. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 30, indicates that he died at 49 in 1649, thus having been born in 1600; and Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 91, says that he was 52 when he died in 1659, coinciding with the year given by Del Re.

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(25) 5. OMODEI, seniore, Luigi (1608-1685)

Birth. December 8, 1608, Milan. Of the family of the famous jurisconsult Sigonrello Omdei, Milanese who flourished ca. 1330. Seventh child of Carlo Omodei, first marquis of Piovera and Milanese patrician, and Beatrice Lurani. His baptismal name was Luigi Alessandro. Uncle of Cardinal Luigi Omodei, iuniore (1690). His last name is also listed as Homodei; as Hamadei; as Amodei; and as Amadei.

Education. Studied in Parma; and at the University of Perugia, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Went to Rome. Protonotary apostolic participantium, July 30, 1627. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1638. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, 1642; dean, 1644. Provisor general of the fortresses of the Papal State. Commissary general of the Papal State in the pontificate of Pope Innocent X. General of the papal troops in the second Castro war, 1649.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 19, 1652; received the red hat and the title of S. Alessio, March 12, 1652. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Legate in Urbino, August 2, 1655 until 1658. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 16, 1662 until January 15, 1663. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, October 19, 1676. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, September 13, 1677. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, January 8, 1680. Cardinal protoprete.

Death. April 26, 1685, near 10 a.m., Rome. Exposed and buried in the church of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 91-93; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), p. 292; Martinelli, Raffaello. Le Lapidi di San Carlo al Corso : catechesi in immagini. Roma : Arciconfraternità dei SS. Ambrogio e Carlo, 2007. (Arciconfraternità dei SS. Ambrogio e Carlo; Variation: Arciconfraternita dei SS. Ambrogio e Carlo), p. 61; Spiriti, Andrea. "Luigi Alessandro Omodei e la riqualificazione di S. Carlo al Corso." Storia dell'Arte LXXXIV (1995), 269-282; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 417 and 805-806.

Webgraphy. Biography by Andrea Spiriti, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 79 (2013), Treccani; his engraving by Jacopo Piccino, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; another engraving by Giuseppe Testana, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Martinelli, Le Lapidi di San Carlo al Corso : catechesi in immagini, p. 61:

D. O. M.
ALOYSUS TIT S. LAURENTI IN LUCINA
PRESBYTER CARDINALIS HOMODEUS
SEPULCHRUM SIBI AD PROSPECTUM BENEFICENTISSIMI CORDIS
S. CAROLI ELEGIT
UT CUMULATE ACCEPTA BENEFICIA
ET MORTUUS TESTARETUR
OBIT XXVI APRILS AN DNI MDCLXXXV
AETATIS SUAE ANNORUM LXXVI
MENS IIII DIES XIX

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(26) 6. OTTOBONI, Pietro Vito (1610-1691)

Birth. April 22, 1610, Venice. Of a noble family. Youngest of the nine children of Marco Ottoboni, chancellor of the Republic of Venice, and Vittoria Tornielli. Grand-uncle of Cardinals Giambattista Rubini (1690); Pietro Ottoboni (1689); and Pietro Priuli (1706).

Education. University of Padua, Padua (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, 1627).

Early life. Went to Rome during the pontificate of Pope Urban VIII (1623-1644). Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Governor of the cities of Terni, Rieti, Città di Castello, and Spoleto. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota for fourteen years.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 19, 1652; received the red hat and the title of S. Salvatore in Lauro, March 11, 1652.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Brescia, December 7, 1654. Consecrated, December 27, 1654, church of S. Marco, Rome, by Cardinal Marcantonio Bragadin, bishop of Vicenza. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Opted for the title of S. Marco, November 15, 1660. Resigned the government of the diocese of Brescia before June 9, 1664. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Datary of His Holiness in the pontificate of Pope Clement IX. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI. Grand inquisitor of Rome and secretary of the Holy Office in the pontificate of Pope Innocent XI (1). Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, September 13, 1677. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, January 8, 1680. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, December 1, 1681. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Frascati, February 15, 1683. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, November 10, 1687. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Participated in the conclave of 1689 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope on October 6, 1689. Took the name Alexander VIII. Crowned, October 16, 1689, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Francesco Maidalchini, protodeacon of S. Maria in Via Lata. Took possession of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, October 28, 1689.

Death. February 1, 1691, Rome. Exposed and buried in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 93-94; Del Re, Niccolò. Mondo vaticano. Passato e presente. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, p. 106-107; Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, pp. 288-289; Petrucci, Armando. "Alessandro VIII". Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, 389-383.

Webgraphy. Biographyby John Bertram Peterson, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography by Armando Petrucci, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 2 (1960), Treccani; biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; his portrait medallion, The J. Paul Getty Museum; his tomb in St. Peter's Basilica, Rome, The Australian National University.

(1) This is according to Kelly, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes, p. 288; neither Del Re, La Curia romana, p. 107, nor Petrucci, "Alessandro VIII", Enciclopedia dei papi, mentioned it.

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(27) 7. CORRADI, Giacomo (1602-1666)

Birth. 1602, Ferrara.

Education. Studied at the University of Ferrara, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Professor of law at the University of Ferrara. Practiced law in Ferrara. Invited by Pope Urban VIII to go to Rome. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 19, 1652; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Traspontina, March 12, 1652.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Iesi, April 21, 1653. Consecrated, May 1, 1653, Quirinale Palace, Rome, by Cardinal Fabio Chigi, bishop of Imola, assisted by Annibale Bentivoglio, titular archbishop of Tebe, and by Giovanni Battista Scannaroli, titular bishop of Sidon. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Datary of His Holiness, April 10, 1655. Resigned the government of the see before April 24, 1656. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 15, 1663 until January 14, 1664.

Death. January 17, 1666, near 6 a.m., Villa Mattei, near S. Maria in Domnica, Rome. Exposed and buried in his title.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 94-96; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 234.

Webgraphy. His engraving by Giuseppe Testana.

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(28) 8. SANTACROCE, Marcello (1619-1674)

Birth. June 7, 1619, Rome. Son of Valerio and Elena Maria Santacroce. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Prospero Santacroce (1565). Nephew of Cardinal Antonio Santacroce (1629). Uncle of Cardinal Andrea Santacroce (1699).

Education. Studied theology, Greek and Latin; and obtained a doctorate in law in Rome.

Early life. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, August 14, 1639. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Prelate of the S.C. of Good Government. Commissary to bring the peace among the people of Rieti. Vice-legate in Bologna. Commissary general of the three legations, Bologna, Ravenna and Ferrara. Called to Rome two years later and assigned to the prelates of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta. Commissary general of the papal fleet. Abbot of S. Spirito di Sonnone, Gaeta.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 19, 1652; received the red hat and the title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, March 12, 1652.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tivoli, October 14, 1652. Consecrated, October 28, 1652, church of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome, by Cardinal Fabio Chigi, assisted by Giovanni Battista Spada, titular patriarch of Constantinople, and by Ranuzio Scotti, former bishop of Borgo San Donnino. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 12, 1655 to January 11, 1666. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Supreme President of the Tribunal of Health, 1656. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X.

Death. December 19, 1674, near 8 p.m., Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Carlo ai Catinari, Rome, where the funeral took place on December 22, 1674, and buried in the church of his family, S. Maria in Publicolis, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 96-98.

Webgraphy. His tomb in the church of S. Maria in Publicolis, Rome.

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aldobrandinib3.jpg

(29) 9. ALDOBRANDINI, Baccio
(1613-1665)

Birth. August 20, 1613, Florence. Son of Senator Silvestro Aldobrandini and his first wife, Fiammetta Arrighetti. Half-uncle of Cardinal Alessandro Aldobrandini (1730). The family gave the Church Pope Clement VIII; and Cardinals Giovanni Aldobrandini (1570); Pietro Aldobrandini (1593); Silvestro Aldobrandini, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1603); and Ippolito Aldobrandini, iuniore (1621).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Went to Rome, where Cardinal Ippolito Aldobrandini became his protector and benefactor. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness. Foriere maggiore. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. After the marriage of Camillo Pamphilj, nephew of Pope Innocent X, with Olimpia Aldobrandini, was promoted to the cardinalate.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 19, 1652; received the red hat and the title of S. Agnese in Agone, March 12, 1652. Transferred to the title of S. Agnese fuori le mura when his original title was suppressed, October 5, 1654. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Opted for the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, April 1, 1658.

Death. January 21, 1665, near 11 p.m., Rome. Exposed and buried in his title.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 98-99; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 32.

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(30) 10. HESSEN-DARMSTADT, O.S.Io.Hieros., Friedrich von
(1616-1682)

Birth. February 28, 1616, Darmstadt, Germany. He was the 12th child of Landgrave Ludwig V von Hessen-Darmstadt. Converted to Catholicism from Lutheranism, 1636.

Education. Entered the Order of St. John of Jerusalem.

Early life. Grand prior of his order in Germany from 1647. Prefect of the galleys of Malta. Traveled throughout Italy, Spain and Germany. Admiral of the Oriental fleet and the galleys of Spain. Prefect of Sardinia.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 19, 1652. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Aquiro, May 31, 1655. Legate, together with Cardinal Carlo de' Medici, before Queen Christina of Sweden, who had converted to Catholicism and arrived in Rome, November 29, 1655. Opted for the deaconry of S. Cesareo in Palatio, March 30, 1661. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Opted for the deaconry of S. Eustachio, November 14, 1667. Opted for the deaconry of S. Nicola in Carcere, March 12, 1668. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, wbhich elected Pope Clement X. Opted for the deaconry of S. Agata in Suburra, May 14, 1670.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Breslau by its chapter, September 3, 1671; named administrator of Breslau for six months, October 16, 1671; preconized, March 21, 1672. Consecrated, February 5, 1673, church of S. Ignazio, Rome, by Cardinal Federico Sforza, assisted by Alessandro Crescenzi, titular patriarch of Alexandria, and by Egidio Colonna, titular patriarch of Jerusalem. Did not participate in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI.

Death. February 19, 1682, Breslau. Exposed and buried in the chapel of Sankt Elizabeth in the cathedral of Breslau.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 99-100.

Webgraphy. His genealogy, A5 B2 C5, Genealogy EU.

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(31) 11. IMPERIALI, Lorenzo (1612-1673)

Birth. February 21, 1612, Genoa. His last name is also listed as Imperiale. Uncle of Cardinal Giuseppe Renato Imperiali (1690). Great-grand-uncle of Cardinals Giuseppe Spinelli (1735) and Cosimo Imperiali (1753).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Went to Rome during the pontificate of Pope Urban VIII (1623-1644). Vice-legate in Bologna. Governor of the cities of Fano and Ascoli. During the absence of Cardinal Antonio Barberini, legate in Ferrara, acted in his place. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber. Governor of the province of the Patrimony and of the State of Castro as commissary general delle armi. Sent by Pope Innocent X (1644-1655) to Fermo to put down the uprising that had cost the life of its governor, 1648. Governor of Rome, January 29, 1653 until April 29, 1654.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of February 19, 1652; published in the consistory of March 2, 1654; received the red hat and the title of S. Crisogono, March 23, 1654. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Legate in Ferrara, April 23, 1657. Governor of Rome again, July 14, 1660 until October 1662; because of the incident between the duke of Crécquy, ambassador of France, and the Corsican troops, was transferred as legate to the newly erected legation in the province of the Marches, November 3, 1662; later, resigned his legation and went to Paris to explain his conduct to the French king. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Innocent XI.

Death. September 21, 1673, near 5 p.m., Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Agostino, Rome, where the funeral took place on September 23, 1673, and buried on the right side of the chapel of S. Tommaso da Villanuova, in that same church (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 102-104; Ruggero, Cristina. "Decorum, Varietas Magnificentia. Rômische Kardinalsgrabmäler des Barock." in Joachim Poeschke, Praemium virtutis (3 vols. M|nster : Rhema, 2002-2008. (Symbolische Kommunikation und gesellschaftliche Wertesysteme ; Bd. 2, 9). I, 299-320.

Webgraphy. His tomb in S. Agostino, Rome, The Australian National University.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Ruggero, "Decorum, Varietas Magnificentia. Rômische Kardinalsgrabmäler des Barock", Praemium virtutis, III, 319:

LAVRENTIO IMPERIALI S.R.E. TIT. S. CHRYSOG. PRESB. CARDINALI
CVIVS SINGVLAREM IN REBVS AGENDIS PRVDENTIAM
IN LEGALIBVS DISCIPLINIS PERITIAM
CONSTANS LIBERTATIS ECCLESIASTICAE ATQVE IVSTITIzE TVENDÆ STVDIVM
ALIAQVE PRAECLARISSIMA IN ECCLESIAM MERITA
VRBANVS VIII CAMERÆ APOSTOLICHE CLERICATV
INNOCENTIVS X POST FIRMANOS TVMVLTVS EIVS OPERA SEDATOS
PRIMVM VRBIS REGE MOX PVRPVRA
ALEXANDER VII FERRARDE AC PICENI LEGATIONIBVS
ATQVE ITERVM VRBIS PRÆFECTVRA
CLEMENS IX AVGVSTINIANÆ FAMILDE PATROCIN'IO ET VNIVS EX SVPREMIS
INQVISITORIBVS MVNERE
CLEMENS X COLLATIS ETIAM IN PROPINQVOS HONORIBVS
PROBAVERE
OBBIT FAMA NVNQVAM PERITVRA
ANNOS NATVS LXI MENSES VII ANNO DNI MDCLXXIII
IOSEPH RENATVS IMPERIALIS CAM. APOST. CLERICVS PRONEPOS
ET DOMINICVS IMPERIALIS LATIANI MARCHIO NEPOS
EX ASSE FIN POSVERVNT

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(32) 12. BORROMEO, seniore, Giberto (1615-1672)

Birth. September 28, 1615, Milan. Of the counts of Arona. Eldest of the three children of Carlo Borromeo, count of Arona, and Isabella d'Adda. The other siblings were Renato and Vitaliano. Nephew of Cardinal Carlo Borromeo (1560). Cousin of Cardinal Federico Borromeo, iuniore (1670). Uncle of Cardinal Giberto Bartolomeo Borromeo (1717). Uncle of Cardinal Gaetano Stampa (1739), on his mother's side. Great-grand-uncle of Cardinal Vitaliano Borromeo (1766). Other cardinals of the family were Federico Borromeo, seniore (1587); and Edoardo Borromeo (1868). His first name is also listed as Ghiberto; as Gilberto; and as Girberto.

Education. Initial studies at the Jesuit school in Brera, in 1634; then, at the University of Pavia, where he obtained a docorate in theology in 1636; he had become patron of the institution in 1631, succeeding Federico Borromeo, iuniore, future cardinal.

Early life. Went to Rome in 1637 and entered to papal court. Vice-legate and commissary of the province of the Patrimony and of the territory of Ferrara. Named minister and councilor of Cardinal Camillo Pamphilj by Pope Innocent X. Secretary of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta, May 2, 1650.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of February 19, 1652; published in the consistory of March 2, 1654; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, March 23, 1654. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Legate in Romandiola, April 23, 1657. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 14, 1664 until January 12, 1665. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X.

Death. January 6, 1672, near 9 p.m., Nettuno, diocese of Albano. Exposed in the church of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome, where the funeral took place on January 8, 1672, and buried in that same church.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 104-106; Martinelli, Raffaello. Le Lapidi di San Carlo al Corso : catechesi in immagini. Roma : Arciconfraternità dei SS. Ambrogio e Carlo, 2007. (Arciconfraternità dei SS. Ambrogio e Carlo; Variation: Arciconfraternita dei SS. Ambrogio e Carlo), p. 57; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 130.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian, Magazzeno Storico Verbanese.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Martinelli, Le Lapidi di San Carlo al Corso : catechesi in immagini, p.57:

D. O. M.
GIRBERTO BORROMEO MEDIOLANENSI TIT SS. IOANNIS ET PAULI
S.R.E. PRESBITERO CARDINALI
QUI EGREGIAS DOTES GENERIS INGENIIQUE PRAESTANTISSIMI
SACRAE OMNIS ET PROFANAE LITERATURAL ACCESSIONE
CUM ILLUSTRIORES REDDIDISSET
AD SACRAM PURPURAM
PER VARIOS GRAVISSIMORUM MUNERUM GRADUS EVECTUS
APOSTOLICAE SEDI
MAGNO REIPUBLICAE CHRISTIANAE COMPENDIO
PRAECIPUAM IN ARDUIS NEGOTIS
SAPIENTIAM SOLERTAM CONSTANTIAM INTEGRITATEM PROBAVIT
CUMQUE EUM VIVERE RATIO RERUM AC TEMPORUM MAXIME
POSCERET
PRAECIPITI MORBO CORREPTUS
OBIIT VI IANVARII AN·M-DC·LXXII AETAT·LVII

And this is the inscription in his sarcophagus, in the crypt of that church, taken from the same source, p. 175:

OSSA
GIBERTI CARD·BORROMEI
OBIIT VI · IANVARII
M·DCC·LXXII

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