The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Innocent X (1644-1655)
Consistory of March 2, 1654 (VIII)

(34) 1. SPADA, Giambattista (1597-1675)

Birth. August 28, 1597, Lyon, France, of parents originally from Lucca (1). Of a patrician family. Nephew of Cardinal Bernardino Spada (1626). Uncle of Cardinal Fabrizio Spada (1675). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Orazio Filippo Spada (1706).

Education. When he was very young, he went to Rome in 1606 to be educated by his uncle Giambattista Spada, consistorial lawyer.

Early life. Consistorial lawyer, 1618. Lawyer of the Apostolic Chamber, and del Fisco, as coadjutor of his uncle, 1622. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, January 12, 1624. Secretary of the S.C. of Good Government, 1624-1629. Relator of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta, 1627; secretary, 1629. Secretary of the S.C. of Health, 1630. Governor of Rome, January 13, 1635 until September 16, 1643; resumed the post on December 22, 1643 because of the absence of his successor Msgr. Francesco Vitelli. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Secretary of State (?) of Pope Urban VIII (1623-1644), replacing Cardinal Francesco Adriano Ceva. In the pontificate of Pope Innocent X (1644-1655), consultor of the S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace, rector of La Sapienza University. President of Romagna, 1645.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular patriarch of Constantinople, August 3, 1643 (2). Consecrated, August 23, 1643, church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, by Cardinal Marco Antonio Franciotti, assisted by Ranuzio Scotti, bishop of Borgo San Donnino, and by Giovanni Battista Scannarolo, titular bishop of Sidon. Assistant to the Pontifical Throne, October 24, 1643. President of the province of Romagna at the end of 1644.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 2, 1654, with dispensation for having an uncle in the Sacred College of Cardinals; received the red hat and the title of S. Susanna, March 23, 1654. Legate in Ferrara for a triennium, June 22, 1654. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Opted for the title of S. Marcello, January 27, 1659. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 11, 1666 until January 1667. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X; he exited the conclave on February 3, 1670 because of illness, before the new pope had been elected. Opted for the title of S. Crisogono, September 25, 1673.

Death. January 23, 1675, near 1 p.m., Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, where the funeral took place on January 25, 1675, and buried in the church of S. Croce de' Lucchesi, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 106-108; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, p. 102; Sardi, G. "Il cardinale Giovanni Battista Spada e il conclave del 1670." Atti della Reale Accademia luchese di scienze, lettere ed arti, XXXVI (1925), pp. 185-342; Spada, Giovanni Battista ; Bonadonna Russo, Maria Teresa. Racconto delle cose più considerevoli che sono occorse nel governo di Roma di Giovanni Battista Spada. A cura di Maria Teresa Bonadonna Russo. Roma : Società romana di storia patria, 2004. (Miscellanea della Società romana di storia patria ; 49; Variation: Miscellanea della Società romana di storia patria (Rome, Italy : 1948) ; 49).

Webgraphy. His engraving by Giuseppe Maria Testana, Museo di Roma, Rome; and another engraving by Aubertus Cluet.

(1) This is according to Del Re, Monsignor governatore di Roma, p. 102; Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1558, indicates that he was born on August 27, 1597, in Lucca.
(2) Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1558, erroneously states that he was bishop of Rimini and later, in 1655, of the suburbicarian see of Palestrina. In the latter see he is confused with Cardinal Bernardino Spada, who occupied it from 1655 until 1661.

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(35) 2. CAFFARELLI, Prospero (1592/1593-1659)

Birth. 1592/1593, Rome. Of an ancient and illustrious family. Second child of Alessandro (or Curzio) Caffarelli, conservatore of Rome in 1608, and Pantasilea (Panta) Astalli. The other children were Fausto (archbishop of S. Severina and nuncio in Savoy), Pierto (conservatore of Rome in 1648), Gianandrea (infantry captain) and Francesco Antonio (killed in the battle of Lützen in 1631). He was related to Pope Paul V.

Education. Studied at the Jesuit Collegio Romano.

Early life. Papal prelate. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, 1611-1628. Governor of several cities and provinces in the Papal States. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber; later, auditor general of that chamber.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 2, 1654; received the red hat and the title of S. Callisto, March 23, 1654. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII.

Death. August 14, 1659, near 4 a.m., in the Roman palace where he resided. Buried in the tomb of his ancestors in the chapel of S. Lodovico Bertrando, church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, without any inscription. He left all his possessions to the sacristy of the patrairchal Vatican basilica.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 108-109; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), III, 157.

Webgraphy. Biography by Piero Treves, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 16 (1973), Treccani; his engraving, Araldica Vaticana.

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(36) 3. ALBIZZI, Francesco (1593-1684)

Birth. October 24, 1593, Cesena. Of a family originally from Florence. Fourth of the five children of Tomaso (Maso) Albizzi and Francesca Funetti. He was baptized on the following October 25. The other siblings were Lorenza, who died in childhood; Cléofa, who became a Clarisse nun; Nicolò, a knight of S. Stefano who later became a Jesuit priest; and Giustina, who also became a Clarisse nun. When his brother Nicolò decided to enter the ecclesiastical state, Francesco was destined to perpetuate his lineage. His last name is also listed as degli Albizzi. Great-grandfather of Cardinal Carlo Leopoldo Calcagnini (1743) (1).

Education. In 1605 he went to Forli and spent a long time with his grandfather Giovanni Battista Albizzi, a distinguished lawyer; then, he was sent to the University of Bologna to study law; and obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law on January 31, 1611, when he was seventeen years old. He was received in Cesena as a hero.

Early life. In 1611, he received a chair of civil law at the local university; and the following year, one in canon law. On January 9, 1614, he married Violante Martinelli in the parish church of S. Severo (2). They had five children: Giustina, Laura, Giovanni Battista (governor of the army of Ferrara, Bologna and Romagna), Carlo (vicar of the nunciature in Naples) and Vincenzo (canon of the patriarchal Liberian basilica). Besides, teaching, he also practiced civil law as a defender of public privileges. In 1615, during the pilgrimage to Loreto of the parish of S. Maria in Boccacuattro, he pronounced a discourse in that shrine; and he also preached at the cathedral of Cesena. He was appointed vice-gerent of the archdiocese of Ravenna. After her death on July 8, 1623, at twenty nine, he entered the ecclesiastical state.

Sacred orders. He received all the minor orders, the subdiaconate and the diaconate without the canonical interval after having obtained dispensation.

Priesthood. Ordained probably in the second half of 1724. He left Carlo Seta in charge of his temporal affairs; and his small children under the care of Isabella Ghisetti; and went to Rome at the end of 1624, saying that he wanted to earn the indulgences of the Jubilar Year. He entered the Roman prelature in 1626 and was sent to Naples as auditor general of the nunciature; and later to the nunciature in Spain in 1628; he returned to Rome in 1634. Returned to Rome and was named assessor of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, July 18, 1635. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, August 30, 1636. Accompanied Cardinal Marzio Ginetti in his legation to Cologne, 1636-1637. Secretary of the Special Commission for Dutch Affairs, 1637. Secretary of the Special Commission for Irish affairs, 1637. Secretary of the congregations for the cause of Cornelius Jansens, bishop of Ypres. Datary of the the Apostolic Penitentiary, September 10, 1741. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, September 23, 1643.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 2, 1654; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Via, March 23, 1654. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 1667 until January 16, 1668; and January 16, 1668 until January 14, 1669. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. Opted for the title of Ss. Quattro Coronati, August 24, 1671. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, January 8, 1680. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, December 1, 1681. He published several literary works. As assessor of the Holy Office and as cardinal, he was a relentless anti-Janssenist. On October 4, 1684, he submitted his voluminous testament to Msgr. Giuseppe Maria Belleti, notary of the tribunal of the auditor of the Apostolic Chamber (3).

Death. Thursday October 5, 1684, at 9 p.m., Rome (4). Buried on October 7, 1684, in the pavement of the lateral chapel of S. Alberto in the church of S. Maria in Traspontina, Rome. A small stone with the insciprtion Ossa Francisci card. Albizzi was placed on his tomb.

Bibliography. Beltrami, Giuseppe. Notizie su prefetti e referendari della Segnatura Apostolica desunte dai brevi di nomina. Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1972, p. 74, no. 175; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 109-111; Ceyssens, Lucien. "Le cardinal François Albizzi (1593-1684). Son autobiographie et son testament." In Bulletin de l'Institut historique belge de Rome, 45 (1976), 895-897; Ceyssens, Lucien. Le cardinal François Albizzi (1593-1684). Un cas important dans l'histoire du jansénisms. Romae : Pontificium Athenaeum Antonianum, 1977. (Spicilegium Pontificii Athenaei Antoniani ; 19; Variation: Spicilegium Pontificii Athenaei Antoniani ; 19); Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 31, 46 and 59; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturæ a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), p. 307; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 45, 48, 50 and 58; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 25; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), II, 397; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 460-461, no. 453.

Webgraphy. Biography by Alberto Monticone, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 2 (1960)m Treccani; biography, in German, historicum.net; his epitaph, S. Maria in Traspontina, Rome; his engraving and portraits, Araldica Vaticana; his bust by Domenico Guidi, S. Maria in Traspontina, Rome; La Cappella Albizzi, in Italian, Homolaicus.

(1) One of the cardinal's sons, Giovanni Battista, was the father of Violante degli Albizzi, who was the mother of Cardinal Carlo Leopoldo Calcagnini.
(2) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 109 and Weber, Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte, I, 25; but the inscription of his epitaph, linked above, written nearly a century after his death, says that her first name was Francesca.
(3) In the testament, he asked sculptor Domenico Guidi to make a marble bust in his memory with the inscription deprecamini pro anima Francisci Albitti. The bust was made but not placed in his tomb; it is in the Albani museum.
(4) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoirs Aevi, IV, 31, but the inscription of his epitaph, written nearly a century after his death, indicates that he died on October 3.

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(37) 4. ACQUAVIVA D'ARAGONA, iuniore, Ottavio (1609-1674)

Birth. September 23, 1609, Naples. Neapolitan patrician. Third of the six children of Giosia Acquaviva, 12th duke of Atri, and Margherita Ruffo, of the princes of Scilla. The other siblings were Francesco (13th duke of Atri), Alberto, Isabella, Fabrizio and Maria. His first name is also listed as Ottaviano and his last name as Aragonia. Grand nephew of Cardinals Giulio Acquaviva d'Aragona (1570) and Ottavio Acquaviva d'Aragona, seniore (1591). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Francesco Acquaviva d'Aragona (1706). Other cardinals of the family are Giovanni Vincenzo Acquaviva d'Aragona (1542), Troiano Acquaviva d'Aragona (1732), and Pasquale Acquaviva d'Aragona (1770).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. He went to Rome during the pontificate of Pope Urban VIII. Chamberlain of honor of His Holiness. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government. Governor of Jesi, 1638 until March 1639. Governor of Orvieto, June 1640 until May 1643. Governor of Ancona, May 1643 until September 1644. Secretary of the S.C. of Waters. Voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1642. Governor of Viterbo, 1652 until March 2, 1654. Abbot of Santa Maria di Properzano.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 2, 1654; received the red hat and the title of S. Bartolomeo all'Isola, March 23, 1654. Continued for a while as governor of Viterbo. Legate in Romagna, June 22, 1654 until 1657. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Opted for the title of S. Cecilia, March 18, 1658. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 14, 1669 until January 19, 1671. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X; left the conclave on February 27, 1670.

Death. September 26, 1674, Rome, of a ruptured artery caused by the doctor who was extracting blood. Exposed and buried in his title, S. Cecilia (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 111-113; Forcella, Vincenzo. Iscrizioni delle chiese e d'altri edificii di Roma dal secolo XI fino ai giorni nostri. 14 v. in 7. Roma : Tip. delle scienze matematiche e fisiche, 1869-1884, II, 37, no. 111; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, IV, 31 and 40; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), p. 307; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 116, 276, 368, 432 and 440.

Webgraphy. The Acquaviva cardinals by Thomas Shahan, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his genealogy, in Italian, GeneAll; his engraving and partial epitaph, Araldica Vaticana; his tomb in the church of S. Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome, The Australian National University; and another view of his tomb, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is part text of his epitaph, taken from Forcella, Iscrizioni delle chiese e d'altri edificii di Roma dal secolo XI fino ai giorni nostri, II, 37, no. 111:

IESV CHRISTO CRUCIFIXO
OCTAVIVS DE AQVAVIVA ARAGONIA
TIT · S · CÆCILIÆ PRESB · CARDINALIS
OBIIT XXVI SEPT · ANNO MDCLXXIV
ÆTAT LXVI

This is the rest of the incription, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta

HVMILE HOC NVDI NOMINIS NUDOQUE LAPIDE
POSITVM MONVMENTVM
VT IPSE TESTAMENTO PRAESCRIPSERAT
NE MODESTIAE GORIAM MINVERENT
AB OMNIBVS LAVDIBVS ATQUE ORNAMENTIS
SERVARVNT INTACTVM
LVD. FERNANDES DE PORTO CARRERO DECIVS AZZOLINVS
S.R.E. CARDINALES
AC IOANNES PAVLVS OLIVA
SOC. IESV PRAEPOSITVS GENERALIS
EXECVTORES TESTAMENTARII

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(38) 5. PIO, iuniore, Carlo (1622-1689)

Birth. April 7, 1622, Ferrara. Son of Ascanio Pio di Savoia and Eleonora Mattei. Nephew of Cardinal Carlo Emanuele Pio, seniore (1604).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. He went to Rome in 1639. Traveled throughout Europe in 1641. Joined the army of Ferrara with the rank of colonel of regiment to defend his sovereign. Captured by the Florentines in Moncessino. After the war, returned to Rome. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, 1650. Treasurer general of His Holiness, 1652; paid for the post, according to the custom of the time (price was 25,000 doppie).

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 2, 1654; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Domnica, March 23, 1654. Legate in Urbino for a triennium, June 22, 1654; ceased in 1655 when he was promoted to the episcopate. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ferrara, August 2, 1655. Consecrated, September 5, 1655, cathedral of Ferrara, by Cardinal Giambattista Spada, assisted by Carlo Nembrini, bishop of Parma, and by Giacomo Teodoli, archbishop-bishop of Forlì. Resigned the government of the diocese before February 26, 1663. Opted for the deaconry of S. Eustachio, February 11, 1664. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Opted for the order of priests and the title of S. Prisca, November 14, 1667. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 19, 1671 until January 15, 1672. Opted for the title of S. Crisogono, January 28, 1675. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI. Prefect of the S.C. of Good Government in the pontificate of Pope Innocent XI. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, December 1, 1681. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, February 15, 1683.

Death. February 13, 1689, at 10 a.m., suddenly, Rome. Transferred to the church of Santissimo Nome di Gesù, Rome, February 15, at 2 a.m.; the funeral took place on February 16. Buried, February 17, at 2 a.m., in that same church in the tomb of his uncle Cardinal Carlo Emmanuele Pio.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 113-115.

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(39) 6. GUALTERIO, Carlo (1613-1673)

Birth. 1613, Orvieto. Son of Raffaele III Gualterio, gonfaloniere of Orvieto, and Plautilla Antoniani, niece of Cardinal Silvio Antoniani (1599). The family was ascribed to the nobility of Orvieto. Grand-uncle of Cardinal Filippo Antonio Gualterio (1706). Great-grand-uncle of Cardinal Luigi Gualterio (1759). He was related to Olimpia Maidalchini Pamphili, of whom he was a close collaborator. His last name is also listed as Gualtieri.

Education. At the suggestion and with the help of Cardinal Giambattista Pamphilj, future Pope Innocent X, he studied law.

Early life. By the influence of Cardinal Pamphilj, he was named consistorial lawyer; and later, advocate of the poor. After the election to the papacy of Innocent X, he was placed in charge of the relations between the Pamphilj house and the Apostolic Chamber. The beginning of Carlo's Roman activities took place under the shadow of the powerful Olimpia, of whose policy, together with Decio Azzolini, he was sensitive interpreter. It was thanks to the zeal of both that Olimpia could liquidate the newly elected Cardinal nipote Camillo Pamphili Astalli, in whose person she had perceived a threat to her personal interests; Gualterio and Azzolini, after intercepting a private letter from the cardinal nipote addressed to the Spanish court in which he revealed the plans of the pope and Olimpia to conquer Naples, were able to put him in a bad light before the pontiff. Once he was removed from office and stripped of the title of cardinal nephew, they enjoyed the division of the personal property of the deposed prelate. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Rector of La Sapienza University, Rome.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 2, 1654; received the red hat and the title of S. Pancrazio, pro illa vice deaconry, March 23, 1654.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Fermo, with dispensation for not having yet received the presbyterate, October 5, 1654. Consecrated, December 27, 1654, church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, by Cardinal Francesco Barberini, assisted by Carlo Azzolini, former bishop of Bagnoregio, and by Marcello Anania, bishop of Nepi e Sutri. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. By his support to the new pope during the conclave, Cardinal Gualterio was able to free himself from the patronage of Olimpia Maidalchini, which had become too pressing. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Opted for the deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria, November 14, 1667. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin, March 12, 1668. Resigned the government of the diocese before April 30, 1668; succeeded by his nephew Giannotto Gualterio. Opted for the order of cardinal priests outside consistory, December 25, 1668. Opted for the title of S. Eusebio, January 15, 1669. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals from January 15, 1672 until January 1, 1673.

Death. January 1, 1673, at 1 p.m., suddenly, of an apoplexy, after having gone to confession and while preparing to celebrate mass, Rome. Transferred to Orvieto and buried in the tomb of his family in that cathedral.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 115-117; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 31, 47, 51 and 188 ; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 45, 53 and 58; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 506.

Webgraphy. Biography by Valentina Gallo, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 60 (2003), Treccani; Correspondence of Cardinals Gualterio in the British Library, London, England (type "Gualterio" in "Name").

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(40) 7. AZZOLINI, iuniore, Decio (1623-1689)

Birth. April 11, 1623 (1), Fermo. Of a minor noble family. Fifth of the fourteen children of Pompeo Azolini and Giulia Ruffo. His first name is also listed as Dezio. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Decio Azzolini, seniore (1585)

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Ripantransone; and at the University of Fermo, where he earned doctorates in philosophy, theology and civil and canon law; he also studied political science, oratory, Roman and Greek literature, poetry and antiquities.

Early life. His father and uncle had held high offices in the secretariat of State. Went to Rome and was named secretary of Giovanni Giacomo Panciroli, titular patriarch of Constantinople, nuncio in Spain and future cardinal. Conclavist of Cardinal Panciroli in the conclave of 1644; had the opportunity to meet and know Cardinal Giovanni Battista Pamphili, future Pope Innocent X (1644-1655).

Priesthood. Ordained, probably, in his early years in Rome, around the mid-1640s (no further information found). Secretary of the Cipher, 1644. Chamberlain of honor of His Holiness. Pro-secretary of State, September to December 1651. Secretary of Briefs to the Princes, of the S.C. Consistorial and of the Sacred College of Cardinals, June 17, 1653.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of March 2, 1654; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Adriano, March 23, 1654. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. For his diplomatic skills and vast knowledge of the arts, he was assigned to introduce Queen Christina of Sweden after her arrival in Rome (2). Secretary of State, June 25, 1667 until December 9, 1669. Opted for the deaconry of S. Eustachio, March 12, 1668. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, December 22, 1681. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, February 15, 1683. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, November 13, 1684. In three conclaves, he headed the so called "flying squadron", a group of cardinals not committed to any of the monarchs, and with great ability had two of its candidates elected to the pontificate, Cardinals Fabio Chigi in 1655 and Giulio Rospigliosi in 1667.

Death. June 8, 1689, of dropsy, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome; and buried in the common tomb of the Fathers of the Oratory in that church.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 117-120; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 31 and 50; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, III, 315; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 45, 48, 50 and 53; Rodén, Marie-Louise. Church politics in seventeenth-century Rome: Cardinal Decio Azzolino, Queen Christina of Sweden, and the Squadrone Volante. Stockholm : Almqvist & Wiksell International, 2000. (Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis. Stockholm studies in economic history ; 60); Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 65.

Webgraphy. Biography by Gaspare De Caro, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 4 (1962), Treccani; biographical data and bust by Gianlorenzo Bernini, Windweaver; biographical entry, in Italian, under "AZZOLINI Decio Juniore", Araldica Vaticana; his portrait; another biography, in German, Dr. Klaus Koniarek; his tomb in S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, Requiem Datenbank; his epitaph, Requiem Datenbank; and his arms on his tomb, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is according to Rodén, Church politics in seventeenth-century Rome, p. 36; Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste and to Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, but Alphonse Feillet in his notes to the Mémoires of Cardinal de Retz says that he was born on February 11, 1623.
(2) He became a faithful friend and loyal advisor to the queen in political and financial affairs. On behalf of the pope, the cardinal administered Christina's finances but he could not prevent her incurring debts due to her complex life-style. At his recommendations, the queen arranged and restructured her art collection and obtained valuable paintings, sculptures and rare manuscripts to complete it. The relationship between Cardinal Azzolini and Christina never went further than a very good friendship. Later, when after the death of King Karl X Gustav of Sweden, the cardinal's responsibilities toward the queen's affairs were extended by the pope, they became alienated. But the friendship never dissolved and at her death on April 19, 1689, Christina named the cardinal her sole heir. Cardinal Azzolini lived only seven weeks after the queen's death and dedicated this time to prepare her funeral. Christina had requested a simple funeral without pomp. She wished to be buried in the rotunda of the Pantheon but the cardinal decided against the last desire of the former queen and arranged to bury her in the crypt of St. Peter's basilica. She was the first foreign monarch and the only woman on record to have been buried there. He said that burying her anywhere else would be "... a scandal and an infinite dishonor for Rome." After the death of the cardinal, the library and the works of art had to be sold in order to finance the debts. Christina's books and works of art are today scattered in museums and libraries over Europe. Only her manuscripts collection remained complete and is in the Vatican library as "Codices Reginenses Graeci et Latini". These approximately 2000 documents represent one period of Roman history, which is still called today by Italian historians "Il seicento di Christina".

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