The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Alexander VII (1655-1667)
Consistory of April 9, 1657 (I)

chigi57.jpg

(1) 1. CHIGI, seniore, Flavio
(1631-1693)

Birth. May 10, 1631, Siena. Son of Mario Chigi and Berenice della Ciaia, a noblewoman from Siena. Nephew of Pope Alexander VII. Uncle of Cardinal Antonfelice Zondadari (1712). Cousin of Cardinal Sigismondo Chigi (1667). Other cardinals of the family were Flavio Chigi, iuniore (1753); and Flavio III Chigi (1873).

Education. Studied philosophy and law. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iuris, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Accompanied his uncle Cardinal Fabio Chigi in his legation to Germany to negotiate and conclude the peace; the cardinal, either unhappy with his performance or for another reason, made him return to Italy. He continued his studies. Protonotary apostolic supernumerary participant. Granted permission to receive the sacred orders outside Ember days, May 23, 1656. Governor of the city of Fermo for a triennium, June 3, 1656. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, December 1, 1656. Governor of the city of Tivoli, January 28, 1658.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 9, 1657; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria del Popolo, April 23, 1657. Superintendent of the general affairs of the Holy See, April 16, 1657. Prefect of the Congregation of Health (Sanitatibus), April 21, 1657. Legate a latere in Avignon, April 23, 1657 until 1668. Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica. Librarian of the Holy Roman Church, June 21, 1659 until September 19, 1681. Prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, July 28, 1661. Prefect of the Congregation of the Boundaries of the Ecclesiastical State (Confini), November 29, 1661. Legate a latere of His Holiness before the King of France to solve the controversy caused by the incident between the urban militia and the family of the duke of Crécquy, the French ambassador before the Holy See, March 24, 1664 to November 8, 1664. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 16, 1673 until January 15, 1674. Legate a latere for the opening and closing of the holy door of the patriarchal Lateran basilica in the Holy Year of 1675. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, March 18, 1686. Consecrated, March 24, 1686, by Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, October 19, 1689. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII.

Death. September 13, 1693, at 11 p.m., Rome (1). Exposed in the church of S. Maria del Popolo, Rome, and buried in his family's chapel in that church.

Bibliography. Beltrami, Giuseppe. Notizie su prefetti e referendari della Segnatura Apostolica desunte dai brevi di nomina. Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1972, p. 85, no. 207; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 120-122; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 32-33, 36 and 46; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturæ a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), p. 317, no. 2; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 40 and 41; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 131, 246, 404 and 577-578.

Webgraphy. Biography by Enrico Stumpo, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 24 (1980), Treccani.

(1) This is according to Gauchat, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 33. Cardella Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 121, indicates that he died in 1698. The former source, loco cit., says that Acta Camerarii Sacri Colegii S.R.E. Cardinalium, 24, f. 57', expressly indicates that on September 28, 1693, in the option of Cardinal Giacomo Franzoni for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, sedem vacare pero ob. card. Chisii in Cur. Rom.

Cool Archive

(2) 2. MELZI, Camillo (1582-1659)

Birth. December 12, 1590, Milan (1). Of a noble family. Son of Gian Antonio Melzi and Livia Litta. His last name is also listed as Meltio. Uncle of Gianantonio Melzi, his successor as archbishop of Capua.

Education. University of Bologna, Bologna; University of Pavia, Pavia; University of Parma, Parma (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, September 12, 1614).

Early life. Went to Rome. Collaterale del Campidoglio. Civil lieutenant of the auditor of Chamber in the pontificate of Pope Urban VIII (1623-1644); occupied the post for eleven years. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Received the ecclesiastical tonsure.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Capua, February 18, 1636. Consecrated, March 24, 1636, Easter Monday, at the Sistine Chapel, Vatican, by Fausto Poli, titular archbishop of Amansia, assisted by Giovanni Battista Altieri, former bishop of Camerino, and by Celzo Zani, former bishop of Città della Pieve. In the same ceremony was also consecrated Pietro Gaudenzi, bishop of Arbe in Dalmatia. Nuncio in Tuscany, 1639 (2). Nuncio in Austria, 1644-1652. Secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars at the beginning of the pontificate of Pope Alexander VII.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 9, 1657; received the red hat and the title of S. Marcello, April 23, 1657.

Death. January 21, 1659, near 10 p.m., Rome. Exposed and buried in the church of S. Andrea al Quirinale, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 122-124; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 215; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunci apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, 126-127.

Webgraphy. Biography by Massimo Carlo Giannini, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 73 (2009), Treccani.

(1) This is according to his biography in Italian by Giannini, linked above. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 33, says that he was born in 1582. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 123, indicates that he was 79 years old when he died in 1659. Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, says that he was born in 1590.
(2) Other sources indicate that he occupied that nunciature from 1641 to 1643.

Cool Archive

(3) 3. ROSPIGLIOSI, Giulio (1600-1669)

Birth. January 28 (1), 1600, Pistoia. Of an ancient family from Lombardy. Son of Giacomo Rospigliosi and Caterina Rospigliosi. Uncle of Cardinals Giacomo Rospigliosi (1667) and Felice Rospigliosi (1673). Relative of Cardinal Bandino Panciatici (1690). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Antonio Banchieri (1726).

Education. Studied at Seminario Romano (liberal arts, 1617); and at the University of Pisa, (doctorates in theology, philosophy and utroque iure, both canon and civil law, 1623).

Early lie. Professor of philosophy at the University of Pisafrom 1623-1625. Went to Rome and successfully worked in the Roman Curia. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1632. Secretary of the S.C. of Rites. Judge a latere of the legation in Avignon. Canon of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, December 24, 1636; later vicar. Received the honorary citizenship of Rome. Secretary of Briefs to the Princes, 1634-1644. Consultor-canonist of the Sacred Penitentiary, January 4, 1643. Authored several melodramas as well as poetry that achieved certain success in Rome.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tarso, March 14, 1644. Consecrated, March 29, 1644, Easter Tuesday, at the Pius V Chapel, Vatican, by Cardinal Antonio Barberini, assisted by Cezlo Zani, former bishop of Città della Pieve, and by Giovanni Battista Scannaroli, bishop of Sidon. In the same ceremony was also consecrated Nicolò Guidi di Bagno, titular archbishop of Atena. Nuncio in Spain, July 14, 1644 until January 1653. Lived in retirement, 1653 to 1655. Named governor of Rome by the Sacred College of Cardinals during the sede vacante, January 8 until April 15, 1655.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 9, 1657; received the red hat and the title of S. Sisto, April 23, 1657. Secretary of State, April 1655 until May 22, 1667. Participated in the conclave of 1667 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope on June 20, 1667. Took the name Clement IX. Crowned, June 26, 1667, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Rinaldo d'Este, protodeacon of S. Nicola in Carcere.Took possession of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, July 3, 1667.

Death. December 9, 1669. Exposed in the patriarchal Vatican basilica and buried under the pavement of the patriarchal Liberian basilica with a simple epitaph: Clementis IX, Cineres. His successor, Pope Clement X, erected an elegant monument in his memory at the right side of the nave of that basilica, near the door.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 124-126; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 227; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, pp. 106-107; Kelly, J. D. N. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, pp. 284-285; Meloncelli, Raoul. "Clemente IX." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, 348-360; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), 360 and 875.

Webgraphy. Biography by James Loughlin, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography by Luciano Osbat, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 26 (1982), Treccani; his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession & Episcopal Lineages in the Roman Catholic Church; his portrait by Carlo Maratta, The Web Gallery of Art; his portrait by Giovan Battista Gaulli detto "il Baciccio", Ariccia, Palazzo Chigi, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali; his tomb in S. Maria Maggiore, Rome, The Australian National University.

(1) Kelly, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes, p. 284, indicates that he was born on January 27, 1600. All the other sources consulted give January 28 as his date of birth.

Cool Archive

(4) 4. GUIDI DI BAGNO, Nicolò (1583-1663)

Birth. 1583 (1), Mantua. Second child of Fabrizio Guidi di Bagno, marquis of Montebello, and Laura Colonna, daughter of Pompeo Colonna, duke of Zagarolo. Brother of Cardinal Gianfrancesco Guidi di Bagno (1627). Nephew of Cardinal Girolamo Colonna (1627), on his mother's side. He is also listed as Niccolò de' Conti Guidi di Bagno.

Education. Studied physics with passionate interest.

Early life. Married Teodora Gonzaga, of the marquises of Palazzuolo. Took part with the papal troops in the defense of Valtellina in 1624. Named general of the papal troops in Marca d'Ancona by Pope Urban VIII (1623-1644); occupied the post for seven years. After his wife died, he left the military life to enter the ecclesiastical state. Commissary of the papal militia in the three legations, 1644. Nuncio in Tuscany (1644?). Befriended by René Descartes, who highly esteemed his brother Gianfrancesco.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Atene, March 15, 1644. Consecrated, March 29, 1644, Easter Tuesday, at the Pius V Chapel, Vatican, by Cardinal Antonio Barberini, assisted by Cezlo Zani, former bishop of Città della Pieve, and by Giovanni Battista Scannaroli, titular bishop of Sidon. In the same ceremony was also consecrated Giulio Rospigliosi, titular archbishop of Tarso. Nuncio in France, April 23, 1644 until December 1656.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 9, 1657; received the red hat and the title of S. Eusebio, April 23, 1657. Transferred to the see of Senigaglia, with personal title of archbishop, May 28, 1657 (2). Resigned government of the diocese before September 1, 1659.

Death. August 27, 1663, Rome. Exposed and buried in the church of the Capuchins, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 126-127; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 227.

Webgraphy. Biography by Giampiero Brunelli, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 61 (2004), Treccani; his engraving, Araldica Vaticana; his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church.

(1) Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, indicates that he was born in 1584 and that he died in his eightieth year (im dem 80 Jahre seines Alters) in 1663, which is compatible with having been born in that year as long as it was after August so that he would have turned 79 but not yet 80, thus would have been in his eightieth year.
(2) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 99, but the same source, IV, 312, indicates that he was transferred on May 28, 1658. The list of previous bishops of the diocese of Senigaglia indicates that he occupied the see from 1657 to 1658.

Cool Archive

(5) 5. BUONVISI, Girolamo (1607-1677)

Birth. May 12, 1607, Lucca. Of a noble and illustrious family, son of Lodovico Buonvisi and Caterina, also Buonvisi. Uncle of Cardinal Francesco Buonvisi (1681). His last name is also listed as Bonvisi.

Education. Studied umane lettere in Lucca; then, he studied at Collegio Tolomei, Siena, where he became friend of Fabio Chigi, future Pope Alexander VII; completed his theological studies in Siena.

Early life. Went to Rome in the Pontificate of Pope Urban VIII and became familiare of Cardinal Antonio Barberini, iuniore, O.S.Io.Hieros., under whose protection he became cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, and later its dean; prefect of the Annona on October 12, 1643; governor of Borgo in 1644, because of his work during the flood of the Tiber; and president of the papal army; as such, in 1629, he went with Cardinal Barberini to Bologna, during the attempt of the cardinal to establish a truce between the powers engaged in the second war of succession of Monferrato. He retained the deanship of the Apostolic Chamber after having been promoted to the episcopate. Vice-legate in Ferrara, 1644. Governor of the conclave of 1644, which elected Pope Innocenzo X. After the conclave, he returned to Lucca. Because of the agreements between the new pope and the Barberinis, with the mediation of the French court, Monsignor Buonvisi was promoted to the episcopate.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Laodicea, July 17, 1651 (1). Consecrated, Sunday July 30, 1651, at the church of S. Apollinare, Rome, by Cardinal Marcantonio Franciotti, assisted by Giovanni Battista Spada, titular patriarch of Constantinople, and by Carlo Carafa, bishop of Aversa. Granted faculty to make a will, October 25, 1655. Resigned his post of dean of the Apostolic Chamber and returned to Lucca. Recalled to Rome by Pope Alexander VII in 1655, was named prefect of the Cubiculi of His Holiness.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 9, 1657; received the red hat and the title of S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni, April 23, 1657. Transferred to the see of Lucca, with personal title of archbishop, May 28, 1657. Between May 30 and June 1, 1661, he celebrated a diocesan synod which acts were published in Lucca in the same year; the acts gave detailed precepts on the new benefices, on the beneficiaries, on libraries, on the behavior and functions of the clergy, on the confraternities, on the heretics, on professions of faith, on the functions of parish priests, all in a strict spirit of the Counter-Reformation.. Legate in Ferrara, April 21, 1664; occupied the post until May 7, 1667. During his legation, he served with great care, exercising great munificence, firmness and tact with which he managed to maintain good relations with the Republic of Venice and other neighboring countries; he welcomed to Ferrara, among others, Queen Christina of Sweden, whom he had already met in Rome and Lucca and who highly esteemed him; he also had contacts with other princes and ambassadors. He took care of public works, such as embankments, the River Rhine and the reclamation of land through the digging of a canal that bears his name. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI.

Death. February 21, 1677, Lucca. Exposed and buried in the basilica of S. Frediano, Lucca. without any funeral memorial. The funeral oration was delivered by Amedeo Saminiati on May 5, 1677 at Accademia degli Oscuri, Lucca.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre .... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 557; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 127-128; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 233; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, VI, 166; Nicolai, Umberto. I vescovi di Lucca. Lucca : Tipografia Ricchielli, 1966, p. 26, no. 89; Saminiati, Amedeo. Orazione funerale per la morte dell'eminmo cardinale Girolamo Bonvisi... detta dall'illustriss... Amedeo Saminiati,... nell'essequie celebrate dall'Accademia de gl'oscuri, il... 5 maggio 1677. Lucca : J. Paci, 1677; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 164, 251, 252 and 515.

Webgraphy. Biography by Marisa Trigari, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 15 (1972), Treccani; his engraving, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his engraving, Wikipedia.

(1) Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 557, indicates that he was later titular archbishop of Tessalonica and of Trebisonda as well as nuncio in Cologne. No other source mentioned this information.

Cool Archive

(6) 6. PAOLUCCI, Francesco (1581-1661)

Birth. August 1581, Forlì. Of the counts of Calboli. Second of the four children of Giovanni Paolucci and Bernardina Maseri; the other children were Lucrezia Ginevra, Giuseppe and Ludovica. Uncle of Cardinal Stefano Agostini (1681). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Fabrizio Paolucci (1697)

Education. Educated by Cesare Baronio; became very close friends. Studied literature and later, in 1605, law.

Early life. As an only child, he was destined for matrimony against his wish. At twelve he went to Rome called by his uncle Fabrizio Paolucci, who was bishop elect of Città della Pieve, and who entrusted him to the curia of Cardinal Cesare Baronio. Defended causes in the Roman Curia with great success and recognition. Auditor of the camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church in the pontificate of Pope Paul V (1605-1621). Declined several offers of promotion to the episcopate made by Pope Gregory XV (1621-1623). Papal prelate. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, April 20, 1626. Secretary of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, 1627; occupied the post for thirty years. Declined several offers of promotion to the episcopate made by Pope Urban VIII (1623-1644). Consultor of the S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition. Examiner of bishops. Secretary of the S.C. of Ecclesiastical Immunity (?). The same pope planned to create him a cardinal but died before the promotion.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 9, 1657; received the red hat and the title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, April 23, 1657. Prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, April 9, 1657 until July 9, 1661.

Death. July 9, 1661, Rome. Exposed and buried in front of the main altar of the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 129-130; Pecci, Giuseppe. La casa da Calboli; saggio storico-genealogico. Rome : Treves, 1934, pp. 146-148; Re, Nicola del. "I cardinali prefetti della sacra congregazione del concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), p. 119; Rossetti, Gaetano. Vite degli uomini illustri forlivesi. Forlì : Tip. di M. Casali, 1858, pp. 331-341.

Webgraphy. His tomb in the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, The Australian National University.

Cool Archive

(7) 7. PANNOCCHIESCHI D'ELCI, Scipione (1600-1670)

Birth. 1600, Siena. Of the noble family of the counts d'Elci. Son of Orso, count d'Elci, Tuscan ambassador before the Spanish court. He is also listed as Scipione d'Elci; and his last names as Pagnocescus, Pannuchiescus, D'Elce, Ylci, Ilcio and Delci. Grand-uncle of Cardinal Raniero d'Elci (1737). Great-grand-uncle of Cardinal Francesco d'Elci (1773).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Master of chamber of Ferdinando II of Tuscany. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1624. Governor of Spoleto, June 1627 until May 1628. Governor of Ancona, June 1628 until January 1629. Received the subdiaconate, April 29, 1629; diaconate, May 1, 1629. Domestic prelate of His Holiness.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 3, 1629. Governor of Fermo, September 23, 1629 until January 1631.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Pienza, July 28, 1631. Consecrated (no information found). Promoted to the metropolitan see of Pisa, March 3, 1636. Nuncio in Venice, December 6, 1646 until October 3, 1652. Nuncio in Austria, August 24, 1652 until March 7, 1658.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of April 9, 1657; published in the consistory of April 29, 1658; received the red hat and the title of S. Sabina, May 6, 1658. Legate in Urbino, 1658 to 1662. Resigned government of the archdiocese before August 27, 1663. Legate in Romagna or Bologna, 1663 (1). Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X; he was forced to leave because of ill health on March 24, 1670.

Death. April 12, 1670, near 5 a.m., in his residence in Piazza Agone, Rome, during the sede vacante. Exposed in the church of S. Sabina and buried in his family's chapel, S. Caterina da Siena, in that church.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 130-131; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 33, 49 and 280; Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 254; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturæ a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), p. 297; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, p. 128-129; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 116, 245, 387, and 622.

Webgraphy. His tomb in the church of S. Sabina, Rome, The Australian National University.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 131, indicates that he was legate in Romagna and Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, says that he was legate in Bologna.

Cool Archive

(8) 8. FARNESE, Girolamo (1599-1668)

Birth. September 30, 1599, Parma. Of the dukes of Latera.

Education. Studied at the University of Parma.

Early life. Chamberlain of honor of Pope Paul V (1605-1621). Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Abbot commendatario of S. Lorenzo, Novara.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Patra, April 11, 1639. Consecrated, Easter Tuesday, April 26, 1639, at the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome, by Giovanni Battista Scannaroli, titular bishop of Sidonia, assisted by Tommaso Carafa, former bishop of Volturara, and by Giovanni Battista Altieri, former bishop of Camerino. Nuncio in Switzerland, 1639-1643. Secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, 1643 or 1644. Governor of Rome and vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, October 7 (or 11), 1650. Prefect of the Apostolic Palace and governor of Castelgandolfo, July 16, 1655.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of April 9, 1657; published in the consistory of April 29, 1658; received the red hat and the title of S. Agnese fuori le mura, May 6, 1658. Legate in Bologna, 1658-1662. Acting-prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature in the absence of Cardinal Flavio Chigi. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX.

Death. February 18, 1668, Rome. Exposed and buried in the church of Santissimo Nome di Gesù, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 131-135; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 222; Fink, Urban. Die Luzerner Nuntiatur 1586-1873 : Zur Behördengeschichte und Quellenkunde der päpstlichen Diplomatie in der Schweiz. Luzern ; Stuttgart : Rex Verlag, 1997. (Collectanea Archivi Vaticani ; Bd. 40) (Luzerner Historische Veröffentlichungen ; Bd. 32).

Webgraphy. His engraving by Jean Marie Morand and Giuseppe Testana; and his portrait by Teodor van Inerle, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

Cool Archive

(9) 9. BICHI, Antonio (1614-1691)

Birth. March 30, 1614, Siena. Son of Firmano Bichi and Onorata Mignanelli, uterine sister of Pope Alexander VII (1655-1667). Other cardinals of the family were Metello Bichi (1611); Alessandro Bichi (1633); Carlo Bichi (1690); and Vincenzo Bichi (1731).

Education. Studied at the University of Siena.

Early life. Professor of law, University of Siena. Called to Rome as auditor of Cardinal Fabio Chigi, accompanied him to his nunciature extraordinary in Cologne. Internuncio in Borgogna; obtained the obedience to the pope of Duke Charles de Lorraine. Internuncio in Flanders, 1642-1652.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Montalcino, December 11, 1652. Consecrated, December 8, 1652, church of S. Ignazio, Rome, by Cardinal Niccolò Albergati-Ludovisi, assisted by Ranuzio Scotti, former bishop of Borgo San Donnino, and by Filippo Casoni, bishop of Borgo San Donnino. Transferred to the see of Osimo, March 6, 1656 (1).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of April 9, 1657; published in the consistory of November 10, 1659; received the red hat and the title of S. Agostino, December 1, 1659. Legate in Urbino, April 17, 1662 until 1667. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Opted for the title of S. Maria degli Angeli, November 14, 1667. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, retaining the administration of Osimo, March 3, 1687. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Did not participate in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII.

Death. February 21, 1691, at 11 p.m., Osimo, during the sede vacante. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Osimo. The news of his death reached the conclave on February 25, 1691, after the morning ballot.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 135-137; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. 6 v. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6)., I, 102; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 417 and 498-499.

Webgraphy. His engraving by Giovanni Battista Gaulli - Baciccio.

(1) Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 536, erroneously indicates that he was also bishop of Carpentras.

Cool Archive

(10) 10. PALLAVICINO, S.J., Francesco Maria Sforza (1607-1667)

Birth. November 28, 1607, Rome. Of the Parma branch of the ancient and noble marquises Pallavicini. Son of Marquis Alessandro Pallavicini and Francesca Sforza. He was baptized with the names Francesco Maria Sforza; the last one was in honor of Sforza Pallavicino, general of the Republic of Venice, who had adopted Marquis Alessandro, leaving him all his wealth and titles (1). An eldest son, he renounced the right of primogeniture and entered the priesthood. His first name is also listed as Pietro Sforza.

Education. Studied at the Jesuit Collegio Romano, Rome, where he earned doctorates in philosophy in 1625, and in theology in 1628.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signatures of Justice and of Grace in the pontificate of Pope Urban VIII (1623-44). Member of Academia dei Lincei, 1629. Friend of Giovanni Ciampoli, secretary of briefs, and of Fabio Chigi, future Pope Alexander VII. Because of his friendship with the former, who fell into disgrace with Pope Urban VIII in 1632, he had to leave Rome. Governor of the cities of Iesi, 1632; and later of Orvieto and of Camerino. Entered the Society of Jesus, June 21, 1637, against his father's wishes. Jesuit novitiate in Rome, 1637-1639. Professor of philosophy, Collegio Romano, 1639-1644; of theology, 1644-1652. Member of the commission to examine the writings of Cornelius Janssen, bishop of Ypres; he refused to condemn Jansenism as a heresy. He was very well regarded in the intellectual circles of Rome, having published numerous works in poetry, literature, theology and ecclesiastical history, especially about the Council of Trent.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of April 9, 1657; published in the consistory of April 29, 1658; received the red hat and the title of S. Salvatore in Lauro, December 6, 1660. Member of the S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, 1661. Confessor of Pope Alexander VII. Did not participate in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX; died during its celebration.

Death. June 5, 1667, at 5:30 a.m., in his room in the Jesuit house of S. Andrea al Quirinale, Rome, during the sede vacante. Exposed and buried in the church of S. Andrea al Quirinale, Rome (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 137-142; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 33 and 49.

Webgraphy. Biography by Johann Peter Kirsch, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his portrait, Italian (Roman) School, 1663, Government Art Collection, Queens Yard, London, The Public Catalogue Foundation, BBC; his tomb in the church of S. Andrea al Quirinale, Rome, The Australian National University.

(1) This is according to Storia del concilio di Trento ed altri scritti di Sforza Pallavicino, ed. by Mario Scotti (Torino : UTET, 2nd edition, 1968), p. 33, who adds that erroneously, some have believed that the name is related to his mother's last name and that the cardinal took it as his own surname to avoid its extinction because she was an only child.
(2) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, taken from the photograph from The Australian National University, linked above:

D        O       M
SFORTIAE PALLAVICINO
SOCIETATE IESV
S ­ R ­ E ­ PRESBYTERO CARDINALI TIT S. SALVATORIS IN LAVRO
DOMVS HAEC PROBATIONIS HAERES M P
OBIIT NONIS IVNII ANNO REP SAL CIƆiƆCLXVII

Top Consistories Catalogs Home

©1998-2015 Salvador Miranda.