(14) 1. WARTENBERG, Franz Wilhelm von (1593-1661)
Birth. March 1, 1593, Münich, Bavaria. Eldest son of Duke Ferdinand of Bavaria and his morganatic wife Maria Pettenbeckin. He is also listed as Francesco Guglielmo di Vatembergh.
Education. Studied at the Jesuit St. Ignatius School, Ingolstadt, from 1601 to 1608; he was destined for the priesthood at an early age; received the ecclesiastical tonsure in 1604; then, attended Collegio Germanico, Rome, from 1608 to1614, where he studied philosophy, theology and canon law.
Early life. Provost of the collegiate church of Altöttingen, 1604. In 1614, his cousin, Duke Maximilian of Bavaria, named him president of the Clergy Privy Council (Geistlicher Rat). In charge of the governmental affairs of his cousin Elector Ferdinand, archbishop of Cologne in 1621. Accompanied the elector to the Diet of Ratisbon in 1622. Provost of the cathedral church of Regensburg. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Freising. Received the subdiaconate, May 25, 1634; diaconate, June 4, 1634.
Priesthood. Ordained, November 29, 1636, Regensburg, by Albert von Törring, bishop of Regensburg.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Osnabrück by its cathedral chapter, October 27, 1625. Preconized by the pope on January 27, 1627 (1). By apostolic brief of September 13, 1629, he was granted permission to accede to the see of Minden when its cathedral chapter consented. Commissioned to execute the Edict of Restitution of 1629 in Lower Saxony. Provost of the collegiate church of Bonn. Elected bishop of Verden, retaining the see of Osnabrück and with right to accede to the see of Minden, by apostolic brief of June 26, 1630. In 1632, he inaugurated Karls-Universität, which he had founded and was not yet finished. Elected bishop of Minden, 1633 (2). In 1633, the see of Osnabrück fell to the Swedish forces and he had to turn it over to Gustavus of Wasaburg, an illegitimate son of King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. Consecrated, December 8, 1636, Regensburg, by Nuncio Malachia Malatesta Baglioni, bishop of Pesaro, assisted by Adalbert Torring, bishop of Regensburg, and by Anton Wolfradt, bishop of Vienna. In 1641, he traveled to Rome. Elected bishop coadjutor of Regensburg (Ratisbon or Ratisbona), with right of succession, by its cathedral chapter with the consensus of its bishop, November 9, 1642. Preconized, December 15, 1642. Represented the Catholic electors in the proceedings of the Peace of Westphalia from March 15, 1643 to 1648; the peace was signed on October 24, 1648 (3). Vicar apostolic of the diocese of Bremen, May 4, 1645. His other sees were taken over by Protestants but he retained the jurisdiction over the spiritual affairs. Succeeded to the see of Regensburg, April 12, 1649. Chief of the imperial delegation sent by Emperor Ferdinand III to Regensburg.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 5, 1660; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title.
Death. December 1, 1661 (4), Regensburg. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Regensburg.
Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 147-149; Hausberger, Karl. "Wartenberg, Franz Wilhelm" in Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1648 bis 1803 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz, unter Mitwirkung von Stephan M. Janker. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1990, pp. 558-561; Schwaiger, Georg. Kardinal Franz Wilhelm von Wartenberg als Bischof von Regensburg (1649-1661). München ; K. Zink, 1954. (Münchener theologische Studien. I. Historische Abteilung; Bd. 6); Wartenberg, Franz Wilhelm von. Diarium Wartenberg. Edited by Joachim Foerster. Münster, Westfalen : Aschendorffsche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1987-1988. 2 vols. (Acta Pacis Westphalicae.; Serie III; Abt. C; Diarien; Bd. 3). Vol. 1. 1644-1646 -- Vol. 2. 1647-1648; Wartenberg, Franz Wilhelm von. Politische correspondenz des Grafen Franz Wilhelm von Wartenberg, Bischofs von Osnabrück, aus den Jahren 1621-1631. Edited by Hermann Forst. Leipzig : S. Hirzel, 1897.
Links. Biography by Michael Ott, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his portratit and biography, in English, Wikipedia; portrait and biography, in German, muenster.de; his engraving and biography by Christine van den Heuvel, in German, Internet-Portal zur Westfälischen Geschichte; his portrait, engravings, arms and biography, in German, Wikipedia; description of his engraving, in English, The British Museum, London; In Osnabrück umstritten: Bischof Franz Wilhelm von Wartenberg starb vor 350 Jahren, in German, Osnabrücker Zeitung; Guerra de los Treinta Años, in Spanish, El Rincón del Vago; Politische correspondenz des grafen Franz Wilhelm von Wartenberg edited by Hermann Forst, (Leipzig : S. Hirzel, 1897).
(1) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 267. The Catholic Encyclopedia, linked above, indicates that he received papal approval on April 25, 1626.
(2) The see of Minden was suppressed in 1648 in the Peace of Westphalia and became part of the territory of the prince of Brandenburg.
(3) One of the provisions of the peace treaty was that for the diocese of Osnabrück a Catholic bishop and a Protestant bishop, from the house Braunschweig Lueneburg, would alternate in its government.
(4) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 33. Dictionnaire des Cardinaux, col. 1640, indicates that he died on November 21, 1661.
(15) 2. VIDONI, seniore, Pietro (1610-1681)
Birth. November 8, 1610, Cremona. Of a patrician family. Eldest of the three children of Cesare Vidoni, marquis of S. Giovanni in Croce, and Costanza di Pessa, noblewoman from Cremona. The other siblings were Paolo (decurione in 1653) and Margherita. Nephew of Cardinal Girolamo Vidoni (1626). Relative of Cardinal Pietro Vidoni, iuniore (1816).
Education. Studied in several Italian universities and obtained a doctorate in utroque iure both canon and civil law, at La Sapienza University, Rome, in 1631.
Early life. Went to Rome at a young age. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Siganture of Justice and of Grace, November 1634. Governor of Tivoli from February 1635 until February 1636. Governor of Sabina from March 3, 1636 until February 1637. Governor of Rimini from April 1, 1637 until October 30, 1638. Governor of Orvieto from 1639 until February 1640. Governor of Spoleto for only four months until April 1640. Vice-legate of Romagna until December 1640. Vice-governor of Fermo from October 6, 1641 until November 1644.
Sacred orders. (No information found).
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Lodi, July 13, 1644. Consecrated, October 9, 1644, church of S. Andrea della Valle, Rome, by Cardinal Giambattista Maria Pallotta, assisted by Ranuzio Scotti, bishop of Borgo San Donnino, and by Patrizio Donati, bishop of Minori. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, May 28, 1652. Nuncio in Poland, May 28, 1652 until April 5, 1660.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 5, 1660; received the red hat and the title of S. Callisto, July 4, 1661. Legate in Bologna, April 17, 1662; June 6, 1665 is the last date in which he was documented in his post. Protector of the kingdom of Poland and of the Order Camaldolese. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Resigned government of the diocese, June 16, 1669. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X; Spain presented the veto against his election (1). Opted for the title of S. Pancrazio, March 13, 1673; he was not present in the consistory and Cardinal Carlo Carafa della Spina opted for him. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 28, 1675 to February 24, 1676. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI.
Death. January 5, 1681 (2), Rome. Exposed and buried in the Carmelite church of S. Maria della Vittoria, next to his uncle's tomb, without any funeral memorial.
Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 149-150; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 158 and 171; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 34, 41 and 216; Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 267; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturæ a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), p. 305; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XCIX, 246-247; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 49 and 58; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 964; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 156, 245, 322, 353, 367, 375, 388, 403, and 971.
Links. Brief biographical entry, in Italian, Wikipedia; his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church.
(1) This is according to Giancarlo Zizola, Il conclave. Storia e segreti. L'elezione papale da San Pietro a Giovanni Paolo II, (Rome : Newton, 1993), p. 124; Frederic Baumgartner, Behind locked doors. A history of the papal elections (New York : Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), p. 160, says that Spain declared that it was not going to exclude anybody.
(2) This according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 34. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinal della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 150, indicates that he died in 1681 and that he was 71 years old. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1614, indicates that he died on January 5, 1680 at 71 years of age, and that he had been born on November 8, 1610. This source also says, erroneously, that he was named archbishop of Monreale in 1670.
(16) 3. BARBARIGO, Gregorio (1625-1697)
Birth. September 16, 1625, Venice. Of the noble family of the doges of Venice Marcantonio Barbarigo (1485-1486) and Agostino Barbarigo (1486-1502). Eldest child of Venetian Senator Giovanni Francesco Barbarigo and Lucrezia Lion (or Leoni), who died on March 19, 1631, of the plague; the father brought home his cousin Franchesina Lippomani to look after the children. His baptismal name was Gregorio Giovanni Gasparo. The other siblings were Elena, Pietro and Antonio. His last name is also listed as Barbadico and Barbadigo. Uncle of Cardinal Giovanni Francesco Barbarigo (1719). Relative of Cardinal Marcantonio Barbarigo (1686). Another cardinal of the family was Angelo Barbarigo (1408).
Education. The father occupied himself with the formation of Gregorio, marked from the beginning with the intense practice of prayer; he also instructed the child in philosophy and mathematics, while preceptors taught him Latin and Greek; and he also received the rudiments of music. He attended the University of Padua, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on September 25, 1655; obtaining the degree had been a recommendation from Cardinal Fabio Chigi, future Pope Alexander VII.
Early life. In 1643, accompanied Venetian ambassador Aloise Contarini to Münster for the negotiations to prepare the Peace of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years' War; and which was signed on October 24, 1648. There he became acquainted with Archbishop Fabio Chigi, nuncio in Cologne, and also a participant in the negotiations. Then, he went to Holland and Flanders; and finally, to Paris. After five years, in July 1648, he returned to Venice and continued his studies in Padua. In 1650, he was elected member of Collegio dei Savi and initiated his political career, which he did not find satisfying. In the winter of 1653, he went to Rome to ask advise to Cardinal Chigi, who recommended him not to retire as a hermit but to follow the ecclesiastical career; and begin by obtaining a doctorate in law.
Priesthood. After a period of reflection, decided to become a priest and was ordained on December 21, 1655, by Gian Francesco Morosini, patriarch of Venice. Left Venice for Rome at the end of February 1656, called by Pope Alexander VII. Named domestic prelate of His Holiness. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, April 21, 1656. On June 9, 1665, he was given a canonicate in the cathedral chapter of Padua, without the requirement of residence. In 1656, at the request of Pope Alexander VII, he organized the assistance to the Romans in the Trastevere area who had been stricken by the plague.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Bergamo, July 9, 1657. Consecrated, July 29, 1657, church of S. Marco, Rome, by Cardinal Marcantonio Bragadin. Took possession of the diocese on the following September 2, through his procurators, Rodolfo Roncalli, archdeacon; and Giovanni Battista Lavezzali, vicar capitular; arrived in the diocese on March 27, 1658. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, September 14, 1657. He reorganized the seminary; and thoroughly inspected the 279 parishes of the diocese.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 5, 1660; received the red hat and the title of S. Tommaso in Parione, June 21, 1660. He was in Rome from February 1663 to January 1664, called by the pope to examine several curial matters. Transferred to the see of Padua, March 24, 1664; he took possession through his procurator Archpriest Galeazzo Mussato, on April 24; he entered the diocese on the following June 22; the diocese had 320 parishes and 314 Christian doctrine schools. He transferred the seminary to the former monastery of Vanzo, improving it and promoting the study of Latin and Greek; reorganized its curriculum; and in 1684, established beside the seminary a typography for the printing of Scholastic and Classic works, as well as those of the Fathers of the Church; the press was equipped with Greek, Arab, Syrian, Armenian and Persian characters; he printed pamphlets for Christians living in Moslem areas; he generously aided Orthodox leaders. The seminary became a model for similar institutions in the 18th century. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Celebrated a diocesan synod on April 20, 1667. Did not participate in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI. The pope kept him in Rome for three years as a counselor in difficult questions and entrusted to him the supervision of the Catholic teachings in the city. He also worked for the reunification with the Oriental Churches. Opted for the title of S. Marco, September 13, 1677. Celebrated a diocesan synod from September 1 to 3, 1683. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. In 1690, he wrote Regulæ Studiorum for ecclesiastical studies. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII.
Death. June 18, 1697, Padua. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Padua.
Sainthood. On July 11, 1716, the acts of his life were sent to the S.C. of Rites; on July 3, 1723, the nihil obstat to proceed with the cause of beatification was given. The body of the cardinal was exhumed in the cathedral of Padua on May 25, 1725, by Bishop Giovanfrancesco Barbarigo, his nephew, and found intact. He was beatified by Pope Clement XIII on July 6, 1761; the new blessed was an ancestor of that pope's mother, Vittoria Barbarigo. There was an appeal to Pope Pius X in 1911 for his canonization; one of the signatories was Father Giuseppe Roncalli, future Pope John XXIII, who, during his seminary days, had the blessed as a model; on February 28, 1912, Pope Pius X declared him a candidate for canonization. Canonized by Pope John XXIII on May 26, 1960. His feast is celebrated on June 18.
Bibliography. Barbarigo, Gregorio: L'itinerario biografico di Gregorio Barbarigo dal contesto familiare all'episcopato : lettere ai familiari, 1655-1657. Padova : Istituto per la storia ecclesiastica padovana, 1996. (San Gregorio Barbarigo ; 2; Variation: San Gregorio Barbarigo ; 2). Note: Letters published for the first time; Barbarigo, Gregorio. Lettere di Gregorio Barbarigo a Cosimo III de' Medici : [1680-1697]. A cura di Pierantonio Gios; con un saggio introduttivo di G. Greco. Padova : Istituto per la storia ecclesiastica padovana, 2003. (San Gregorio Barbarigo, fonti e ricerche ; 5; Variation: San Gregorio Barbarigo, fonti e ricerche ; 5); Barbarigo, Gregorio. Lettere di Gregorio Barbarigo ai familiari, 7 : 1680-1687. A cura di Nicola Brunoro. Padova : Istituto per la storia ecclesiastica padovana, 2000. (San Gregorio Barbarigo, fonti e ricerche ; 4; Variation: San Gregorio Barbarigo, fonti e ricerche ; 4); Bellinati, Claudio. S. Gregorio Barbarigo, Un vescovo eroica, 1625-1697. Padova : Libreria Gregoriana, 1960; Beltrami, Giuseppe. Notizie su prefetti e referendari della Segnatura Apostolica desunte dai brevi di nomina. Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1972, p. 85, no. 206; Billanovich, Liliana. Fra centro e periferia : vicari foranei e governo diocesano di Gregorio Barbarigo vescovo di Padova, 1664-1697. Padova : Istituto per la storia ecclesiastica padovana, 1993. (San Gregorio Barbarigo, fonti e ricerche ; 1); Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 151-153; Il Cardinale Gregorio Barbarigo e gli studi scientifici del seminario di Padova nel secolo XVIII : Catalogo di opere scientifiche stampate nella Tipografia del seminario dal 1684 ad oggi. Corporate author: Seminario di Padova. Padova : Tip. del Seminario, 1929. Note: "In occasione della Ia Esposizione nazionale di storia della scienza--Firenze 1929." Other title: Cardinale Gregorio Barbarigo e gli studi scientifici del seminario di Padova nel secolo XVIII.; Catalogo di opere scientifiche stampate nella Tipografia del seminario dal 1684 ad oggi; Dentella, Lorenzo. I vescovi di Bergamo. (Notizie storica). Bergamo : Editrice Sant'Alessandro, 1939, p. 375-395; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 34, 50, 113, and 276; Giovannucci, Pierluigi. Il processo di canonizzazione del card. Gregorio Barbarigo. Roma : Herder, 2001. (Italia sacra ; 66); Gregorio Barbarigo : patrizio veneto, vescovo e cardinale nella tarda Controriforma (1625-1697) : atti del convegno di studi, Padova, 7-10 novembre 1996. 2 v. A cura di Liliana Billanovich, Pierantonio Gios.. Padova : Istituto per la storia ecclesiastica padovana, 1999. (San Gregorio Barbarigo, fonti e ricerche ; 3); Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, IV, 99-100; Pampaloni, Pio ; Barbarigo, Gregorio. Gregorio Barbarigo alla corte di Roma (1676 - 1680) : lettere familiari e di governo. Padova : Istituto per la Storia Ecclesiastica Padovana, 2009 (San Gregorio Barbarigo; 6; Variation: San Gregorio Barbarigo; 6); Paschini, Pio. "Barbarigo, Gregorio, beato." Enciclopedia Cattolica. 12 vols. Città del Vaticano : Ente per l'Enciclopedia cattolica e per il Libro cattolico, 1948-1954, II, col. 817-891; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, p. 47; Serena, Sebastiano ; Barbarigo, Gregorio. S. Gregorio Barbarigo e la vita spirituale e cultuale nel suo Seminario di Padova; lettre e saggi editi dagli amici in memoria. Padova, Editrice Antenore, 1963. (Miscellanea erudita, 11-12). Notes: Documents (p. 196-550) in Italian or Latin consist chiefly of letters written by Saint Gregorio Barbarigo./ "Scritti di Sebastiano Serena": p. xix-xxiv./ Includes bibliographical references. Contents: "L'opera data dal cardinale Beato Gregorio Barbarigo nel Seminario di Padova agli studi della lingua e della letteratura latina", p. 1-56; "Il cardinale Gregorio Barbarigo e gli studi scientifici nel Seminario di Padova nel secolo XVIII", p. 57-77; "Il cardinale Beato Gregorio Barbarigo e le scienze matematiche", p. 78-98; "Il Beato Gregorio Barbarigo cardinale vescovo di Padova e Cosimo III de Medici granduca di Toscana", p. 99-136; "Il cardinale Gregorio Barbarigo e l'Oriente", p. 137-171; "Lettere inedite del Beato Gregorio Barbarigo e Giulio Giustinian", p. 172-294; "Lettere del Beato Gregorio Barbarigo a Marco Antonio Ferrazzi prefetto degli studi nel Seminario di Padova (1687-1693)", p. 295-360; "Quaranta due lettere del cardinale Beato Gregorio Barbarigo a Giovanni Pastrizio", p. 361-431; "Lettere del cardinale Beato Gregorio Barbarigo al rettore del suo Seminario Sebastiano De Grandis (1674-1697)", p. 432-550; Walsh, Michael J. The cardinals : thirteen centuries of the men behind the papal throne. Grand Rapids, Mich. : W.B. Eerdmans Pub., 2011, p. 101-104; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 98; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3), II, 435; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 463-464.
Links. Biography by Gino Benzoni, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 59 (2003), Treccanni; images and biography by Domenico Agasso, in Italian, Santi e Beati; biography Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon; portrait and biography by Liliana Billanovich, in Italian, Collegio Universitario "Gregorianum", Padua; images and biography, in Spanish, EWTN; portrait and biography, in Spanish, ACI Prensa; portrait and biography, in Spanish, Catholic.net Inc.; mural of his beatification by Domenico Corvi, 18th century, church of S. Marco, Rome, iccd immagini, Fototeca Naziomale, Italy; his portraits and engraving, Araldica Vaticana; and his portrait by Carlo Ceresa, San Giovanni Bianco, province of Bergamo, Italy.
(17) 4. ARAGÓN, Pascual de (1626-1677)
Birth. 1626, in the Palau de la Riera, Mataró, diocese of Barcelona, Spain. Of an illustrious house related to the royal family. Youngest of the nine children of Enrique de Aragón-Córdoba-Cardona y Enríquez de Cabrera, sixth duke of Cardona and fifth of Segorbe, viceroy of Navarra and Catalonia, and his second wife, Catalina Fernández de Córdoba y Figueroa. The other siblings were Luis, Pedro Antonio, Antonio (cardinal in 1647), Vicente, Ana Catalina, and another two girls who died in infancy. He was baptized on April 11, 1626 and received the names Pacual Agustín Alejandro Luis Ramón Antonio Enrique Vicente Nicolás Francisco Pedro Tomás; his godparents were his eldest brother, Luis, count of Ampurias, and Lucrecia de Moncada, marchioness of Ariza. His last name is also listed as de Aragonia; as d'Aragona; and as Aragón-Córdoba-Cardona y Fernández de Córdoba.
Education. Educated at home by Dr. Don Francisco Dou, later bishop of Gerona (reading, writing, Christian doctrine, grammar, rhetoric and basic philosophy). University of Salamanca (canon and civil law); rector (1), November 5, 1638 until May 27, 1639; obtained a licentiate in canons, May 1639. Entered Colegio San Bartolomé, University of Salamanca, December 13, 1642. Bachiller in law, March 11, 1649; licentiate in law, March 30, 1649.
Early life. Archdeacon of Los Pedroches, Córdoba, from October 1633 to September 1646. Public professor at the University of Toledo. Knight of the Order of Alcántara, 1646. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Toledo, August 1647; resigned the canonship, 1648. Archdeacon of Talavera, from August 25, 1648. Archdeacon of Castro del Río, Córdoba, until 1651, succeeding his brother. Major chaplain of the Epiphany of the church of San Andrés, Toledo, 1649. Archdeacon of Castro, Córdoba; resigned archdiaconate, 1651. Professor of Instituta at Colegio de Santa Catalina de Toledo, November 1649. Promotor fiscal of the Inquisition, January 1651. Abbot of San Vicente, Toledo, 1651. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Toledo again, February 1652. From January 25, 1653, regent of Catalonia in the Supreme and Royal Council of Aragón. Chaplain major of the Royal Chapel de Reyes Nuevos, cathedral of Toledo, May 1554.
Priesthood. Ordained, 1655, by Cardinal Baltasar Moscoso y Sandoval, archbishop of Toledo. Protector and benefactor of the Capuchin nuns of Toledo.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 5, 1660; received the red hat and the title of S. Balbina, November 21, 1661. Protector of Spain, June 1661. Named interim ambassador of Spain before the Holy See in October 1661; this temporariness lasted because of his intervention, as mediator, in the conflict between France and the pope because of the Corsican Guard incident; he occupied the post effectively only between April 1662 and August 1664. Dean of Jaén, 1663?; and archdeacon major of Gerona. Viceroy of Naples, 1664. Supreme inquisitor of all the Spanish kingdom, October 15, 1665; did not occupy the post because he was still in Italy when promoted to the archdiocese of Toledo; resigned the post in 1666. Named counselor of State on January 15, 1666. Ambassador plenipotentiary of Spain before the Holy See to negotiate the peace among the Christian princes and advance the war against the Turks. Nominated to the metropolitan and primatial see of Toledo by King Carlos II of Spain.
Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Toledo, February 1, 1666. Consecrated, February 28, 1666, parish of S. Vitale, Pozzuoli, by Gabriel Adarzo Santander y Martínez de Viaín, O. de M., archbishop of Otranto, assisted by Benedicto Sánchez Herrera, bishop of Pozzuoli, and by José Caballero, bishop of Monopoli. He was granted the pallium on March 1, 1666. Did not participate in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Did not participate in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. As archbishop of Toledo, he was member of the Council of Regency instituted while King Carlos II was a minor; in 1675, resigned the council and returned to Toledo (2). Did not participate in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI. In November of 1676, he negotiated with Don Juan José de Austria, natural son of King Felipe IV of Spain, who aspired to govern; and between December 1676 and January 1677, he led the transition between the fall of Don Fernando de Valenzuela, royal favorite and minister, and the rise to power of Juan José de Austria, including the banishment of Queen Mariana de Austria to Toledo. President of the Council of Aragón and counselor of State in March 1677. Despite the positions he held, he seems not to have had a particular interest in politics, and his interventions in the same, arising from office, were not prominent.
Death. September 28, 1677 (3), at 4 p.m., in Madrid. Buried in the church of the convent of the Capuchins nuns, Toledo. In June 1680, a large marble gravestone with an inscription in Spanish was placed above his tomb (4). Following the custom of the Church of Toledo, a white marble tablet, with the cardinal's arms, and a distich in golden letters, was placed on the wall at the entrance of the sacristy (5). On February 10, 1910, his bones were placed in an urn of Novelda stone and placed again under the marble gravestone. Present in the ceremony were the members of the religious community; the auxiliary bishop of Toledo, Prudencio Melo y Alcalde; and the dean of the cathedral chapter of Toledo, Monsignor Narciso Esténaga y Echevarría (6). The pectoral cross, the episcopal ring and the pins of the pallium were given to the nuns of the convent for their preservation.
Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 153-154; Cristofori, Francesco. Cronotasi dei cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Tipografia de Propaganda Fide, 1888, p. 125; Esténaga y Echevarría, Narciso de. El Cardenal Aragón (1626-1677), estudio histórico. 2 vols. Paris : Imprentas E. Desfossés, 1930-1932; Finestres y Monsalvo, Jaime; Guitert y Fontseri, Joaquin. Historia del Real Monasterio de Poblet, llustrada con disertaciones curiosas sobre la antigüedad de su fundación : catálogo de abades y memorias cronológicas de sus gobiernos, con las de papas, reyes y abades generales de Císter tocantes a Poblet. Barcelona : Editorial Orbis, 1947-1955. 6 vols; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 34, 40 and 339; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1500-1699). Españoles obispos en españa, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 34), p. 201; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, II, 270.
Links. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; Limpieza de sangre del Cardenal Aragón by Mario Arellano Gracía, in Spanish, Real Academia de Bellas Artes y Ciencias Históricas de Toledo; La correspondencia del cardenal D. Pascual de Aragón a las Madres Capuchinas by Juan Nicolau Castro, in Spanish, Real Academia de Bellas Artes y Ciencias Históricas de Toledo; his engraving by Aubertus Cluet, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; his drawing, Panorámica Cazorlense; his engraving, Órdenes de Caballería de Santiago, Calatrava, Alcántara y Montesa; three engravings, Araldica Vaticana; his engraving, WorthPoint Corporation; Apoteosis de la Virgen con Felipe IV, Mariana de Austria, el príncipe Carlos y Pascual de Aragón by Pietro del Po, (fig. 3), Catedral de Toledo, Camarín de la Virgen, Imágenes Celestiales de la Casa de Austria, ReligiónenLibertad.com; El poder de un testimonio visual. El retratode Felipe IV y Pascual de Aragón, de Pietro del Po (1662) by Diana Carrió Invernizzi, Universitat de Barcelona; "Boccato di cardinale". Algo más sobre don Pascual de Aragón y el y el convento de capuchinas de Toledo by Miguel Hermoso Cuesta, Universidad Complutense de Madrid.
(1) The university had the custom of naming rector one of its students from the most illustrious families of the kingdom.
(2) Queen Mother Mariana de Austria wanted to introduce into the governing board established by King Felipe IV during the minority of King Carlos II his confessor, Fr Johann Eberhard Nidhard, S.J., future cardinal. Therefore, when Archbishop Moscoso of Toledo died, at the same time as King Felipe, the queen mother promoted Cardinal Aragón to archbishop of Toledo, asking him to resign the office of grand inquisitor, with the excuse of not reducing the number of members of that Council of Regency. The cardinal agreed, with some reluctance. In addition, he was appointed minister of State. At first, until 1668, the cardinal's position was to mediate between the queen and Don Juan José de Austria, natural son of King Felipe IV, but his dislike for Father Nidhard made him turned increasingly to his adversary, Juan José. But his intervention in the fall of the Jesuit, in February 1669, was minor, and although the cardinal did not oppose it, he tried that it would occur without violence. Although he continued as a member of the council of regency, his role was not dominant and his relationship with the queen remained within conventional limits until the ministry of Fernando de Valenzuela made him retire in 1675.
(3) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 34. The same source, IV, 339, says that he died in November 1677.
(4) This is the text of the epitaph, taken from Esténaga y Echevarría, El Cardenal Aragón (1626-1677), estudio histórico, II, 246:
(18) 5. MANCINI, Francesco Maria (1606-1672)
Birth. October 20, 1606, Rome. From a family of the Roman nobility. Son of Paolo Macini, consevatore of Rome, and Vittoria Capocci, Roman noblewoman. In 1634, his brother Lorenzo was married to Geronima, the sister of Cardinal Jules Raymond Mazarin (1641).
Education. Studied at Collegio Romano, obtaining a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.
Early life. Entered the Roman prelature in 1633. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1638. Governor of Terni, 1636 to 1637. Governor of Sabina, 1637. Governor of Norcia e Montagna, October 1637 to November 1638. Governor of Todi, until December 1638. While in Todi, he was named auditor of the cardinal camerlengo, Antonio Barberini, occupying the post from 1639 untl 1644. Voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace. In charge of the abbeys of Saint-Martin, diocese of Laon, Maison-de-Dieu, diocese of Clermont, Saint-Lucien, diocese of Beauvais, and Saint-Pierre-du-Mont, diocese of Chalons, of which Cardinal Jules Mazarin was the abbot. In 1654, he was charged with resolving the difficult situation of the nunciature in Spain, which was the center of a grave diplomatic conflict. Secretary of the S.C. of Good Government from 1657 to 1660. He was promoted to the cardinalate at the instance of King Louis XIV of France.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of April 5, 1660; received the red hat and the deaconry of Ss. Vito e Modesto, April 19, 1660. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. Opted for the order of priests and the title of S. Matteo in Via Merulana, May 14, 1670.
Death. June 28 or 29, 1672, near 4 a.m., in Marino, fief of the house of Colonna, diocese of Albano. Buried in the parish church of S. Barnaba, Marino without a memorial. In the side of the epistle of the chapel of S. Giacomo, in the church of S. Maria in Araceli, Rome, which he had embellished, a monument with his bust was built.
Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 154-155; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalvm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque Clementem IX P. O. M. Alphonsi Ciaconii Ordinis Prædicatorum & aliorum opera descriptæ : Cum vberrimis notis. Ad Augustino Oldoino Societatis Iesv recognitæ, & ad quatuor tomus ingenti vdique rerum accessione productæ. Addiis pontificum recentiorum imaginabus, & cardinalium inisignibus, plurimisque aenis figuris, cum indicibus locupletissimis . Romae. MDCLXXVII Cura, et Svmp. Philippi, et Ant. De Rvbeis. Svperiorvm Permissv., IV, col 750-751; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 34 and 54; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturæ a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), p. 294; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XLII, 101; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, p. 49; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 315, 375, 394, 411 and 753.
Links. Biography by Stefano Tabacchi, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 68 (2007), Treccani; his tomb and cenotaph, church of S. Maria in Aracoeli, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.
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