The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Alexander VII (1655-1667)
Consistory of January 14, 1664 (IV)
Celebrated in Rome

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(19) 1. BONCOMPAGNI, Girolamo
(1622-1684)

Birth. March 23, 1622, Isola, diocese of Sora. Of the noble family of the dukes of Sora from Bologna. His last name is also listed as Buoncompagni. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Filippo Boncompagni (1572). Nephew of Cardinal Francesco Boncompagni (1621) and uncle of Cardinal Girolamo Boncompagni, archbishop of Bologna (1695).

Education. Received his initial education under his uncle Cardinal Francesco Boncompagni, archbishop of Naples. Fluent in Latin and Greek, studied the classics and antiquities. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Went to Rome in 1642. Papal prelate, 1647. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Secretary of the S.C. of Rites, October 2, 1648.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Bologna, with dispensation for not having yet received the priesthood and being younger than the canonical age of 30 years, December 11, 1651. Consecrated, Sunday, February 4, 1652, in the church of the monastery of S. Marta, Rome, by Cardinal Niccolò Albergati-Ludovisi, former archbishop of Bologna, assisted by Ranuzio Scotti, former bishop of Borgo San Damiano, and by Carlo Carafa, bishop of Aversa. Prefect of the Apostolic Palace and governor of Castelgandolfo, June 8, 1660 until 1664.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 14, 1664; received the red hat and the title of S. Pietro e Marcellino, February 11, 1664. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI.

Death. January 24, 1684, in the evening, Bologna. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Bologna, in front of the chapels of the Relics and of S. Rocco; his nephew, Cardinal Giacomo Boncompagni (1695), was later buried next to him. The news of his death reached Rome on January 29, 1684.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 155-157; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 233; Meluzzi, Luciano. I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna. Bologna : Grafica Emiliana, 1975, (Collana storico-ecclesiastica; 3), pp. 448-454.

Link. His genealogy, H8, I8.

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(20) 2. BONELLI, Carlo (1612-1676)

Birth. 1612, Rome. Of the marquises of Cassano. Great-great-grand-nephew of Pope St. Pius V (1566-1572). Grand-nephew of Cardinal Michele Bonelli, O.P. (1566).

Education. Studied at the University of Perugia, where he obtained a doctorate in law.

Early life. Privy chamberlain of Pope Urban VIII. Prelate of the S.C. of Good Government. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1639. Governor of several cities in the Papal States. Governor of Rome and vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, April 15, 1655 until October 18, 1656.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Corinto, October 16, 1656. Consecrated (no information found). Nuncio extraordinary before King Felipe IV of Spain to establish the peace among the Christian princes, October 27, 1656; remained as ordinary nuncio until 1664.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 14, 1664; received the red hat and the title of S. Anastasia, April 15, 1665. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. Did not participate in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI; died in his Roman residence during its celebration.

Death. August 27, 1676, at 1 a.m., in his residence in Piazza Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, during the sede vacante. Exposed and buried in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 157-158; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Rome. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, p. 107; Ruggero, Cristina. "Decorum, Varietas Magnificentia. Rômische Kardinalsgrabmäler des Barock." in Joachim Poeschke, Praemium virtutis (3 vols. M|nster : Rhema, 2002-2008. (Symbolische Kommunikation und gesellschaftliche Wertesysteme ; Bd. 2, 9). I, 299-320.

Links. His engraving, Araldica Vaticana; and his tomb in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Ruggero, "Decorum, Varietas Magnificentia. Rômische Kardinalsgrabmäler des Barock", Praemium virtutis, III, 320:

D.     O.     M.
CAROLO S.R.E. PRESB. CARD. BONELLO
B. PII V PONT. MAX. SORORIS ABNEPOTI
MICHAELIS CARD. BONELLI FRATRIS NEPOTI
SVB ALEXANDRO VII VRBIS GVBERNATORI
MOX DIFFICILLIMIS EVROPAE MOTIBVS
AD PHILIPPVM IV HISPANIARVM REGEM
NVNTIO AD PACEM PERTRACTANDAM
EXTRA ORDINEM MISSO
POSTEA ORDINARIO CONFIRMATO
DEMVM IN EADEM LEGATIONE
CARDINALI RENVNCIATO
IISDEM EGREGIIS ARTIBVS
QVIBVS PVRPVRAM MERITVS FVERAT
IN EA APVD CIVES ET EXTEROS APPRIME CLARO
MICHAEL DVX SALICIS ET ANTONIVS V. S. REF
FRATRIS FILII
TUMVLO QVEM SIBI VIVENS EXTRVXERAT
MORENTES (sic) INCIDI CURARVNT
OBIIT AN. SAL. MDCLXXVI AET. SVAE LXV

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(21) 3. PICCOLOMINI, Celio (1609-1681)

Birth. 1609, Siena. Eldest child of Alessandro Piccolomini and Lucreazia Ugurgieri. The other siblings were Girolamo and two other children. Of the same family of Popes Pius II and Pius III; and Cardinals Giovanni Piccolomini (1517); Enea Silvio Piccolomini (1766); and Giacomo Piccolomini (1844).

Education. Studied at the University of Siena, where he obtained a doctorate in law.

Early life. Went to Rome and practiced law. Civil lieutenant of the auditor of the Apostolic Chamber in the pontificate of Pope Urban VIII (1623-1644). Delegate of Cardinal Alessandro Bichi to the King of France to inform him about the state of the treaty of peace of Italy. Privy chamberlain of Pope Alexander VII. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, Rome. Corrector libellorum supplicationem. Secretary of Memorials.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Cesarea, October 16, 1656. Consecrated, Sunday, October 29, 1656, patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Giulio Sacchetti, assisted by Carlo de Vecchi, bishop of Chiusi, and by Francesco Ruccini, bishop of Pistoia e Prato. Nuncio extraordinary in France to promote the peace with Spain and to obtain support for Hungary in the war against the Turks. Ordinary nuncio in France, October 27, 1656 until August 1663. Because of the incident between the family of the French ambassador in Rome and the Corsican soldiers, had to abandon Paris and go to Cambrai where he was harassed by the populace.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 14, 1664; received the red hat and the title of S. Pietro in Montorio, February 11, 1664. Legate in Romandiola, April 21, 1664. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Siena, March 18, 1671. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI.

Death. May 24, 1681, Siena. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of cathedral of Siena, in front of the altar of S. Caterina da Siena, in the tomb of the Avveduti family.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 158-160; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 238; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), IV, 771.

Link. His engraving, Arladica Vaticana.

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(22) 4. CARAFA DELLA SPINA, Carlo (1611-1680)

Birth. April 21/22, 1611, Rome. Of the Neapolitan family of the princes della Rocella. Second son of Girolamo Carafa, marquis of Castelvetere, and Diana Vittori Borghese, niece of Pope Paul V (1605-1621). Grand-nephew of Pope Paul V. Nephew of Carlo Carafa, bishop of Aversa (1616-1644). Brother of Cardinal Fortunato Ilario Carafa della Spina (1686) and of Gregorio Carafa, grand master of the Sovereign Order of Malta. His last name is also listed as Caraffa and Carrafa (in his oath of faith, he signed as Carafa). Other cardinals of the family were Filippo Carafa della Serra (1378); Oliviero Carafa (1467); Gianvincenzo Carafa (1527); Carlo Carafa (1555); Diomede Carafa (1555); Alfonso Carafa (1557); Antonio Carafa (1568); Decio Carafa (1611); Pier Luigi Carafa, seniore (1645); Pierluigi Carafa, iuniore (1728); Francesco Carafa della Spina (1773); Marino Carafa di Belvedere (1801); and Domenico Carafa della Spina (1844).

Education. Seminario Romano, Rome (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law) (1).

Early life. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Vice-legate in Bologna. Received the clerical tonsure, June 1644.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Aversa, with dispensation for not having yet received the sacred orders, July 13, 1644. Consecrated, December 27, 1644, Rome, by Cardinal Marco Antonio Franciotti; his co-consecrators are unknown. Nuncio before the Swiss Catholics, January 18, 1653. Nuncio in Venice, October 31, 1654. Nuncio in Austria, August 13, 1658 until 1664.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 14, 1664. Legate in Bologna, April 22, 1664. Received the red hat and the title of S. Susanna, April 13, 1665. Ceased as bishop of Aversa before June 6, 1665. Declined promotion to the metropolitan see of Naples. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Via, May 27, 1675. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, February 24, 1676 until January 11, 1677; confirmed by the pope for another term, January 11, 1677 to January 10, 1678. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI.

Death. October 19, 1680, near 5 a.m., Rome. Exposed and buried in the church of Santissimo Nome di Gesù, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 160-162; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 180; Fink, Urban. Die Luzerner Nuntiatur 1586-1873 : Zur Behördengeschichte und Quellenkunde der päpstlichen Diplomatie in der Schweiz. Luzern ; Stuttgart : Rex Verlag, 1997. (Collectanea Archivi Vaticani ; Bd. 40) (Luzerner Historische Veröffentlichungen ; Bd. 32); Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, 130-132.

Links. Biography, in German; and portrait and brief biographical data in Italian, in I Carafa, dinastia di feudatari per Castelvetere; and his engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) According to Dizionario Storico della Svizzeralinked and Biographisch-Bibliographischen Kirchenlexikons, both linked above, he entered the Order of the Clerics Regular Theatine in 1629 . None of the other sources consulted mention that he joined that order.

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(23) 5. LITTA, Alfonso (1608-1679)

Birth. September 19, 1608, Milan. Of a patrician family. Second child of Pompeo Litta, second marquis of Gambolò, and Lucia Cusani, of the marquises of Ponte. His baptismal name was Alfonso Michele. Nephew of Cardinal Agostino Cusani (1588), on his mother's side. Great-great-grand-uncle of Cardinal Lorenzo Litta (1801).

Education. In his early youth he thought of becoming a Capuchin friar but had to abandon the idea because of his fragile health. Studied at the University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain (canon law); and at the University of Bologna, Bologna (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, 1628).

Sacred orders. Received the minor orders from Cardinal Federico Borromeo, seniore, archbishop of Milan.

Early life. Admitted to the Collegio d'avvocati of Milan, 1628. Persuaded by Cardinal Federico Borromeo, he moved to Rome. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1630. Prelate of the S.C. of the Sacra Visita of all the Roman tribunals, 1632. Secretary of the Congregation delle Inibizioni and of the non gravetur, 1633. Governor of Rimini, April 1636 until March 1637. Abbot commendatario of S. Giulio di Dulzago, diocese of Novara, and of S. Giovanni d'Appiano, archdiocese of Milan. Governor of Orvieto, April to October, 1637. Governor of Spoleto November 1638 to August 1639. Governor of Camerino, September 6, 1639 until March 1643; he became friend of the local bishop, Emilio Altieri, future Pope Clement X. Vice-legate in the three legations, Bologna, Ferrara and Romagna, March 27, 1643 until December 26, 1643. Commissary general of the papal army, December 26, 1643. Vice-legate in Bologna, 1644, to assist the legate, Cardinal Antonio Barberini, iuniore, nephew of Pope Urban VIII. Governor of Ascoli, 1645. Governor of Campagna e Marittima, 1646 until March 1648. Governor of della Marca d'Ancona, 1648.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1648.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Milan, retaining the abbey of S. Giulio di Dulzago, June 17, 1652. Consecrated, June 24, 1652, church of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome, by Cardinal Giulio Roma, assisted by Giovanni Battista Spada, titular patriarch of Constantinople, and by Carlo Carafa, bishop of Aversa. He sent his first pastoral letter to the faithful of Milan the following September 26; and made the solemn entrance in the archdiocese on November 17 of the same year. He celebrated two diocesan synods, one in May 1658, and another one in May 1669; and also celebrated thirteen minor synods.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of January 14, 1664 (1); published in the consistory of February 15, 1666; received the red hat and the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, May 5, 1666. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. In 1675, he went to Rome, despite his poor health, to celebrate the Jubilee Year and obtain the indulgences. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI.

Death. August 28 (2), 1679, near 7 p.m., Rome. He was provisionally buried in the church of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome, with modest pomp. A solemn funeral was celebrated in Bologna by the Archconfraternity of S. Maria della Morte, of which the cardinal was a member. Later, his remains were transferred to Milan and buried in the tomb he had built for himself in the chapel of the Cocifisso in the metropolitan cathedral of Milan (3).

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1138; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 163-166; Cazzani, Eugenio. Vescovi e arcivescovi di Milano. Nuova ed./ a cura di Angelo Majo, 2. ed. Milano : Massimo : NED, 1996. Note: Originally published 1955, now enlarged and updated, p. 239-242; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, IV, 34, 42 and 237; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturae a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), p. 293; Majo, Angelo. Storia della chiesa ambrosiana. 5 vols. 2nd ed. Milano : NED, 1983-1986, III, 81-83; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XXXIX, 23-24; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 123, 155, 174, 182, 251, 322, 353, 367, 388, and 738.

Links. Biography by Umberto Benigni, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography by Gian Vittorio Signorotto, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 65 (2005), Treccani; and his engraving, portraits and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Serie cronologica dei vescovi di Milano (III-XXI secolo), in Italian, archdiocese of Milan.

(1) The Catholic Encyclopedia, linked above, erroneously indicates that he was created a cardinal in 1640.
(2) This is according the Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 34; and Cazzani, Vescovi e arcivescovi di Milano, p. 242. The Catholic Encyclopedia, linked above, says that he died on August 22, 1679, and Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1138, indicates that he died on August 8 of that year.
(3) Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1138, says that he was buried in the church of S. Carlo Borromeo.

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(24) 6. CORSINI, Neri (1614-1678)

Birth. 1614, Florence. Son of Filippo Corsini and Maddalena Machiavelli. His first name is also listed as Nereo and as Nerio. Uncle of Pope Clement XII. Uncle of Cardinal Giambattista Patrizi (1715), on his mother's side. Grand-uncle of Cardinal Neri Maria Corsini (1730). Great-grand-uncle of Cardinal Andrea Corsini (1759).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber and president delle strade, October 14, 1647.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Damietta, with dispensation for not having yet received the presbyterate and retaining his post in the Apostolic Chamber, August 12, 1652. Consecrated, Sunday, September 1, 1652, church of S. Maria degli Angeli, Rome, by Cardinal Fabio Chigi, bishop of Imola, assisted by Ranuzio Scotti, former bishop of Borgo San Damiano, and by Carlo Carafa della Spina, bishop of Aversa. In the same ceremony were consecrated Francesco Caetani, titular archbishop of Rodi, and Giantommaso Castaldi, bishop of Brugnato. Nuncio in France (1). Treasurer general of the Apostolic Chamber, 1660.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of January 14, 1664; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, March 15, 1666. Legate in Ferrara, May 10, 1667 until May 7, 1770. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. Transferred to the see of Arezzo, with personal title of archbishop, February 8, 1672. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI. Ceased as bishop of Arezzo, March 7, 1677.

Death. September 19, 1678, Bagni S. Cassiano, Florence. Exposed and buried in the chapel of S. Andrea Corsini, his ancestor, in the church of S. Maria del Carmine, Florence. The news of his death reached Rome on September 21, 1678.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 166-167; Combaluzier, Fernand. "Sacres épiscopaux à Rome de 1565 à 1662. Analyse intégrale du Ms. «Miscellanea XIII, 33» des Archives Vaticanes." Sacris Eruduri, XVIII (1967-1968), p. 234; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), III, 301; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 252 and 599.

Links. His portrait by Giovanni Battista Gaulli - Baciccia, Palazzo Corsini, Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica, Rome, iccd immagini, Fototeca, Beni Culturale; and his engraving, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) According to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 166, he was named archbishop of Damietta and nuncio in France. While on his way to Paris, he stopped in Avignon to calm down the tumult between the nobility and the people that was affecting that city. He succeeded to the satisfaction of both parties. Nuncio Corsini had been named to replace Nicolò Guidi di Bagno, who had been recalled to Rome by Pope Innocent X because of suspicions that he was too deferent to Cardinal Giulio Mazzarino. The French court was upset because it had not been notified before the appointment. Nuncio Corsini was detained in a monastery in Marseille and Nuncio Bagno was asked to continue in his post by the king. The pope distrusted the latter so much that in rarissimi casi valevasi dell'opera e ministero di lui. The situation lasted until the end of 1656.

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(25) 7. NINI, Giacomo Filippo (1629-1680)

Birth. 1629, Siena. Of a patrician family. His first name is also listed as Jacopo.

Education. Studied in Rome.

Early life. In 1652, in Siena, met Cardinal Fabio Chigi, future Pope Alexander VII, on his return from his nunciature in Cologne, and Cardinal Chigi took him to Rome, where he was educated. Worked in the secretariat of State under Cardinal Chigi.

Priesthood. Ordained to the priesthood. Canon of the patriarchal Liberian basilica. Secretary of Memorials, 1656. Abbot commendatario of S. Cristoforo di Bergamo, Acqui, province of Milan. Prefect of the Apostolic Palace and of the Cubiculi of His Holiness, 1664-1666.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Corinto, April 28, 1664. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of January 14, 1664; published in the consistory of February 15, 1666; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria della Pace, March 15, 1666. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 9, 1679 to January 8, 1680.

Death. August 11, 1680, Rome. Buried on August 12, 1680, in the tomb of the canons in the patriarchal Liberian basilica.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 173-174; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 35, 45 and 165; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, p. 58.

Link. His engraving by Giovanni Battista Gaulli and F. Spierre.

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(26) 8. PALUZZI ALTIERI DEGLI ALBERTONI, Paluzzo (1623-1698)

Birth. June 8, 1623, Rome. Eldest of the two sons of Antonio Paluzzi degli Albertoni, second marquis of Rasina, and Laura Carpegna. He took the last name Altieri when adopted as a nephew by Pope Clement X (1670-1676) on the day of his election to the papacy (1). Uncle of Cardinals Lorenzo Altieri (1690) and Giambattista Altieri, iuniore (1724). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Vincenzo Maria Altieri (1777). He is also listed as Paluzzo Altieri degli Albertoni.

Education. Studied at the University of Perugia, Perugia (doctorate in law).

Early life. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber at the end of the pontificate of Pope Urban VIII (1623-1644). Auditor general of the Apostolic Chamber in the pontificate of Pope Alexander VII (1655-1667).

Sacred order. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of January 14, 1664; published in the consistory of February 15, 1666; received the red hat and the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, March 15, 1666.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Montefiascone e Corneto, March 29, 1666. Consecrated, May, 2, 1666, in the church of S. Silvestro in Capite, Rome, by Cardinal Ulderico Carpegna, assisted by Stefano Ugolini, titular archbishop of Corinto and by Giovanni Tommaso Pinelli, bishop of Albenga. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. Cardinal nipote of Pope Clement X. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Ravenna, May 19, 1670. Legate in Avignon, May 19, 1670. Legate in Urbino, 1673-1677. Prefect of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, August 2, 1671 until his death. Governor of Tivoli. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, August 4, 1671 to June 29, 1698. Pro-prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, November 1671 to December 1672. Vicar general of Rome for a few months in 1671; he had acted as vicar general since 1667; the position had been vacant since 1640 when its occupant, Pro-vicar Antonio Barberini, seniore, O.F.M.Cap., resigned. Secretary of Apostolic Briefs. Ceased as archbishop of Ravenna before February 19, 1674. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 10, 1678 to January 9, 1679. Opted for the title of S. Crisogono, December 1, 1681. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, November 13, 1684. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, February 28, 1689. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, August 8, 1691. Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, 1693. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, January 27, 1698. Sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Death. June 29, 1698, suddenly, when he was going to sit at the table, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Campitelli, Rome; and buried in the chapel of S. Giovanni Battista, that he had built in that same church (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 167-170; Del Re, Niccoló. "I cardinali prefetti della sacra congregazione del concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), p. 120-121; Di Castro, Daniela ; Gabriele, Reina. Roma, Palazzo Altieri : Le stanze al piano nobile dei cardinali Giovanni Battista e Paluzzo Altieri. Parma : Franco Maria Ricci 1999. (Grand tour ; 17); Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 43..

Links. His episcopal lineage, in English; his bust by Lorenzo Merlini; and his epitaph in his tomb in the church of S. Maria in Campitelli, Rome.

(1) Gaspare Albertoni, nephew of the cardinal, married Laura Caterina Altieri, niece of Emilio Altieri (Pope Clement X) and sole heiress of the family. With the marriage, the last name, the arms, and the wealth of the House of Altieri went to the House of Paluzzi, which from then on was denominated Altieri thus securing the survival of that last name. The Altieri family was related by blood to the Albertonis. Clement X not only raised Cardinal Paluzzi to cardinal nipote (the last one in the history of the papacy) but also adopted him as a nephew.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from the photograph linked above:

PALVTIVS MISERATIONE DIVINA
EPISCOPVS PORTVEN CARDINALIS DE ALTERIIS
SANCTF ROMANF ECCLESIF CAMERARIVS
OBIIT IN DOMINO DIE XXIX IVNII MDCXCVIII
FTATIS SUF ANNORVM LXXV

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(27) 9. RASPONI, Cesare Maria Antonio (1615-1675)

Birth. 1615, Ravenna. Son of Francesco Rasponi and Clarice Vaini. His father died when he was 5 years old. His mother took him and his brother Guido Paolo to Rome. His family was related to the Barberini family of Pope Urban VIII (1623-1644).

Education. Seminario Romano, Rome (Greek, Hebrew, moral philosophy and archeology); University of Bologna, Bologna (civil law).

Early life. Canon of the basilica of S. Lorenzo in Damaso. Canon of the patriarchal Lateran basilica and auditor of Cardinal Francesco Barberini, and later, of Cardinal Flavio Chigi, future Pope Alexander VII. Sent to France to solve some problems concerning the chapter of the Abbey of Clairac. Abbreviatore del Parco maggiore. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Relator of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta. When Pope Urban VIII died and the Barberinis fell into disgrace, he went to France. In Paris, he befriended the queen and Cardinal Giulio Mazzarino, who asked him to stay in France and offered him a generous pension. Secretary of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta, March 10, 1654. Consultor of the S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition. Secretary of the Congregation for Health in the pontificate of Pope Alexander VII; worked strenuously during the epidemic that afflicted Rome. His diplomatic talent shone during the grave dispute between the Holy See and France in 1662.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of January 14, 1664; published in the consistory of February 15, 1666; received the red hat and the title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, March 15, 1666. Legate a latere in Urbino, for a triennium, March 7, 1667. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Moved to Ravenna in 1668. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. Resigned legation and returned to Rome.

Death. November 21, 1675, near 6 a.m., Rome. Buried in the tomb of his mother in the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 170-172; Ruggero, Cristina. "Decorum, Varietas Magnificentia. Rômische Kardinalsgrabmäler des Barock." in Joachim Poeschke, Praemium virtutis (3 vols. M|nster : Rhema, 2002-2008. (Symbolische Kommunikation und gesellschaftliche Wertesysteme ; Bd. 2, 9). I, 299-320.

Links. His genealogy; two engravings, Araldica Vaticana; and his tomb in the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Ruggero, "Decorum, Varietas Magnificentia. Rômische Kardinalsgrabmäler des Barock", Praemium virtutis, III, 319-320:

D    O    M
CAESARIS S R E CARDINALI
RASPONO
FRANCI: ET CLARICIS VAINÆ
FILIO
QUI APOSTOLICUS LEGATUS
BELLO COMPOSITO
AB URBE FAME AC PESTE DEPULSA
INTER TERRARUM NEGOTIA NACTUS OTIA
LATERANENSIS BASILICÆ
ERUDITISSIMAM SCRIPSIT HISTORIAM
ANNALIUM IPSE MATERIA
OMNIBUS VIRTUTE CHARUS
PURPURAM AB ALEXANDRO VII ACCEPTAM
DECENNIO ORNATAM
CUM VITA EXUIT
AN MDCLXXV MENSE NOVEMB DIE XXI QUANTUM RES CATHOLICA DEBEAT
HÆRES EX ASSE RELICTUM HOSPITIUM
AB HÆRESI AD ORTODOXAM FIDEM
ROMÆ CONVERTENDORUM
GRATO HOC ORNATU SEPULCRI
QUOD ILLE VIVENS SIBI MATRIQ(ue) POSUERAT
TESTATUM VOLUIT POSTER1TATI.

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(28) 10. CONTI, Giannicolò (1617-1698)

Birth. 1617, Poli, Rome. His family gave the Church Popes Innocent III; Gregory IX; and Alexander IV. Uncle of Pope Innocent XIII. Nephew of Cardinal Carlo Conti (1604). Uncle of Cardinal Bernardo Maria Conti, O.S.B.Cas. (1721). Other cardinals of the family were Giovanni dei conti di Segni (1200); Ottaviano dei conti di Segni (1205); Lucido Conti (1411) (pseudocardinal); Giovanni Conti (1483); and Francesco Conti (1517).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Papal prelate. Commissary of the army in the legations of Bologna, Ferrara and Ravenna. President delle Marche. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature, 1652. Vice-legate in Avignon, 1655-1659. Governor of Rome, November 20, 1662 until February 15, 1666.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of January 14, 1664; published in the consistory of February 15, 1666; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Traspontina, March 15, 1666.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ancona, March 29, 1666. Consecrated (no information found). Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI. Participated in the conclaves of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, retaining the administration of Ancona, August 8, 1691.

Death. January 20, 1698, Ancona. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Ancona.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 172-173; Fascioli, Giuseppe. Memorie storiche di Poli : con molte notizie inedite della celebre famiglia Conti di Guadagnolo, San Gregorio da Sassola, Casape, Gallicano, San Giovanni in Camporazio, Faustiniano, San Vittorino, Corcollo, Passerano, Lunghezza, Osa, Morra, Anticoli-Corrado, Saracinesco, Sambuci, e di altri castelli ora diruti.. Rome : Vera Roma, 1896, pp.194-196.

Link. His engraving and portrait, Araldica Vaticana.

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(29) 11. CELSI, Angelo (1600-1671)

Birth. 1600, Rome.

Education. Studied canon and civil law.

Early life. Papal prelate. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government; named secretary by the Sacred College of Cardinals during the sede vacante of 1644. Auditor of the Tribunal of the Sacred Roman Rota, March 13, 1645. Secretary of the S.C. of Good Government, June 13, 1663. Consultor of the S.C. of the Roman and universal Inquisition.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of January 14, 1664; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, February 11, 1664. Prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, 1664 until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1667. Opted for the deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria, May 14, 1668. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670.

Death. November 6, 1671, Rome. Exposed and buried in the tomb of his family in the church of Santissimo Nome di Gesù, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 162-163; Re, Nicola del. "I cardinali prefetti della sacra congregazione del concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), p. 120.

Link. His engraving by Giovanni Battista Gaulli and Aubertus Cluet.

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(30) 12. SAVELLI, Paolo (1622-1685)

Birth. 1622, Rome. Son of Bernardino Savelli and Maria Peretti, of the family of Pope Sixtus V (1585-1590). Members of this ancient and distinguished family included Pope Honorius IV (1285-1287); and Cardinals Bertrando Savelli (1216); Giovanni Battista Savelli (1480); Giacomo Savelli (1539); Silvio Savelli (1596); and Domenico Savelli (1853). Grand-nephew of Cardinal Giulio Savelli (1615); nephew of Cardinal Fabrizio Savelli (1647), and, on his mother's side, of Cardinal Francesco Peretti di Montalto (1641).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. At a very young age demonstrated his inclination for the ecclesiastical state. Abbot commendatario of Chiaravalle, Milan. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of January 14, 1664; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria della Scala, February 11, 1664. Legate in Romandiola, 1664-1667. Participated in the conclave of 1667. Opted for the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, January 14, 1669. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670. Opted for the deaconry of S. Nicola in Carcere, May 14, 1670. Participated in the conclave of 1676. Opted again for the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, May 23, 1678. Archmandrite commendatario of S. Salvatore de Messina from 1682 until his death. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin, November 15, 1683.

Death. September 11, 1685, near 1 a.m., Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Aracoeli, Rome, and buried on September 14, 1685, in his family's chapel in that church.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 162-163.

Link. The Savelli family by Norbert M. Borengässer, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon; two engravings and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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