The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Alexander VII (1655-1667)
Consistory of February 15, 1666 (V)

(31) 1. SPINOLA, Giulio (1612-1691)

Birth. May 13, 1612, Genoa. Eldest of the nine children of Senator Giovambatista Spinola and Isabella Spinola. Of the Signori of Isola and Majorica. Uncle of Cardinal Giambattista Spinola, iuniore (1695). Other cardinals of the various branches of the Spinola family were Agostino Spinola (1527); Filippo Spinola (1583); Orazio Spinola (1606); Agustín Spínola (1621); Giandomenico Spinola (1626); Giambattista Spinola, seniore (1681); Niccolò Spinola (1715); Giorgio Spinola (1719); Giovanni Battista Spinola (1733); Girolamo Spinola (1759); Ugo Pietro Spinola (1831).

Education. Obtained a doctorate in law in 1636; and another one in theology.

Early life. In the pontificate of Pope Urban VIII (1623-1644) was governor of some cities in Umbria, in the Patrimony, and Marca, where he was also commissary. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Commissary of the pontifical army.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Laodicea, January 14, 1658. Consecration, February 10, 1658, church of S. Giorgio dei Genovesi, Naples, by Girolamo Buoncompagni, archbishop of Bologna. Nuncio in Naples, October 4, 1658. Nuncio in Austria, July 10, 1665.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of February 15, 1666; published in the consistory of March 7, 1667. Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Received the red hat and the title of S. Martino ai Monti, July 18, 1667. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. Transferred to the see of Nepi e Sutri, June 2, 1670. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI. Transferred to the see of Lucca, November 8, 1677. Legate a latere in Poland. Opted for the title of S. Crisogono, November 13, 1684. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, February 28, 1689. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII; had to leave the conclave because of illness on September 24. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, October 29, 1689. Resigned the government of the see of Lucca for reasons of health on November 25, 1690; retired to Rome. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII; had to leave the conclave because of a serious illness, February 21, 1691.

Death. March 11, 1691, Rome, during the conclave. Exposed and buried in the church of S. Andrea al Quirinale, Rome, next to Cardinal Giambattista Spinola, iuniore (1).

Bibliography. Nicolai, Umberto. I vescovi di Lucca. Lucca : Tipografia Ricchielli, 1966, p. 26-27, no. 90; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, p. 133-134; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 921.

Links. Biography, in Italian, under "Giulio I"; his engraving by Alber Clouwet, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; his tomb in S. Andrea al Quirinale, Requiem Datenbank; and his tomb in S. Andrea al Quirinale, with its inscription.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D    ·    O    ·    M    ·
OSSA
IULIJ SPINVLÆ
S · R · E · CARDIN ·
OBIIT ANNO SAT ·
MDCXCI
SEDE VACANTE

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(32) 2. ROBERTI, Carlo (1605-1673)

Birth. 1605 (1), Rome. Of a patrician family.

Education. Studied philosophy and theology.

Early life. Papal prelate. Governor of several cities in the Papal States. Governor of Romagna in the pontificate of Pope Urban VIII (1623-1644); later, vice legate. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Relator of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta. Commissary general of Rome during the epidemic in the pontificate of Pope Alexander VII (1655-1667).

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tarso, with dispensation for not having yet been ordained to the priesthood, December 2, 1658. Consecrated, December 8, 1658, Rome, by Cardinal Giulio Rospigliosi. Nuncio in Savoy, December 24, 1658. Superintendent general of the principality of Masserani, January 10, 1659. Nuncio extraordinary to France to bring the fascie for the new dauphin, son of King Louis XIV. Nuncio ordinary in France, April 26, 1664.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of February 15, 1666 ; published in the consistory of March 7, 1667. Participated in the conclave of 1667 which elected Pope Clement IX. Received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Aracoeli, July 18, 1667. Legate in Romandiola, August 22, 1667. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X.

Death. February 14, 1673, near 6 p.m., Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Andrea della Valle, Rome, where the funeral took place on February 16, 1673, and buried in the chapel of S. Sebastiano, in that same church.

Link. His engraving by Girolamo Rossi and Aubertus Cluet, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin.

(1) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 177, which indicates that he died in 1673 at 68 years of age. Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, says that he died in 1673 im 63 Jahre seines Alter, therefore, according to this souce he must have been born in 1610.

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(33) 3. VISCONTI, Vitaliano (1618-1671)

Birth. 1618, Milan.

Education. University of Bologna, Bologna (doctorate in law).

Early life. Member of the College of Juris consults of Milan, 1644. Entered the ecclesiastical state and moved to Rome. Governor of the cities of Fano, Spoleto, Viterbo, and Perugia. Envoy of Pope Alexander VII to bring the fascie to the Infant of Spain, first son of King Felipe IV. Auditor of the Tribunal of the Sacred Roman Rota, 1660. Auditor of causes of the Apostolic Palace. Accompanied Cardinal Flavio Chigi in his legation a latere to Paris as datary of the mission.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Efeso, with dispensation for not having yet received the presbyterate, August 11, 1664. Consecrated (no information found). Nuncio in Spain, August 16, 1664.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of February 15, 1666; published in the consistory of March 7, 1667. Did not participate in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Received the red hat and the title of S. Agnese fuori le mura, March 18, 1669. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Monreale, June 2, 1670.

Death. September 7, 1671, Monreale. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Monreale.

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(34) 4. CARACCIOLO, seniore, Innico (1607-1685)

Birth. March 7, 1607, Naples. Of the noble family of the dukes of Airola. His first name is also listed as Innigo. Son of Francesco Caracciolo, 2nd duke of Airola, and Isabella Guevara, duchess of Bovino. Uncle of Cardinal Innico Caracciolo, iuniore (1715). Other cardinals of the family were Marino Ascanio Caracciolo (1535); Niccolò Caracciolo (1715); Giovanni Costanzo Caracciolo (1759); Diego Innico Caracciolo (1800); and Filippo Giudice Caracciolo, Orat. (1833).

Education. Initial studies in Naples under the Jesuits (literature); later, studied philosophy and law.

Early life. Went to Rome and occupied several minor posts in the Roman Curia. In the pontificate of Pope Urban VIII 1623-1644), he was named protonotary apostolic; referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace; cleric of the Apostolic Chamber and president of the Annona. Judge of the Fabric of St. Peter's, relator of the S.C. of Good Government and voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature in the pontificate of Pope Clement X. Pope Alexander VII named him one of the four nuncios before Queen Christina of Sweden; legate in Ferrara (1); and auditor of the Apostolic Chamber. Dean of the Clerics of the Apostolic Chamber.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of February 15, 1666; published in the consistory of March 7, 1667.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Naples, March 7, 1667. Consecrated (no information found). Participated in the conclave of 1667, which elected Pope Clement IX. Received the red hat and the title of S. Clemente, July 18, 1667. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. He celebrated diocesan synods in 1669, 1672, 1676 and 1680. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI.

Death. January 30, 1685, Naples. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Naples in a marble monument in the form of a tabernacle supported by four columns, designed by Pietro Ghetti (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 179-181; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1967, pp. 35, 41 and 254; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturæ a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), pp. 278 and 285; Zigarelli, Daniello Maria. Biografie dei vescovi e arcivescovi della chiesa di Napoli con una descrizione del clero, della cattedrale, della basilica di s. Restituta e della cappella del tesoro di s. Gennaro. Napoli: Tipografico di G. Gioja, 1861, pp. 180-187.

Link. His genealogy, A4 B5 C3.

(1) This is according to Zigarella, Biografie dei vescovi e arcivescovi della chiesa di Napoli, p. 180; and Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 180; Christoph Weber, Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809 (Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) p. 252, does not list him among the occupants of the post.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Zigarella, Biografie dei vescovi e arcivescovi della chiesa di Napoli, p. 187: INNICVS . S. R. E. CARDINALIS. CARRACCIOLVS . EX . DVCIBVS . AIROLÆ . ARCHIEPISCOPVS . NAEPOLITANVS . VIVIS . MORTALITTATI . SVÆ . MONVMENTVM . POSVIT . ANNO . DOMINI . MDCLXXVIII .

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