(1) 1. ROSPIGLIOSI, Giacomo (1628-1684)
Birth. 1628, Pistoia. His first name is also listed as Jacopo. Of a patrician family. Roman noble. Son of Camillo Rospigliosi and Lucrezia Cellesi. Nephew of Pope Clement IX. Brother of Cardinal Felice Rospigliosi (1673). Cousin of Cardinal Carlo Agostino Fabroni (1706). Uncle of Cardinal Antonio Banchieri (1726). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Flavio Chigi, iuniore (1753).
Education. Studied with the Jesuits in Salamanca, Spain (doctorate in utroque iure both canon and civil law, 1649).
Early life. Went to Rome in 1643 and accompanied his uncle Giulio Rospigliosi, titular archbishop of Tarso, future Pope Clement IX, to his nunciature in Spain; in charge of the affairs of the nunciature while the nuncio visited Saragossa for a long time to tend to some grave matters. Master of chamber in the court of Cardinal Flavio Chigi, nephew of Pope Alexander VII. Sent to S. Quirico, Tuscany, in special mission before the French ambassador to solve the incident between the Corsican soldiers and the ambassador's family. Sent to Paris in special mission before the French king to explain the motives for the legation a latere of Cardinal Flavio Chigi to France. At the death of Pope Innocent X (January 7, 1655) received the charge of delivering the oration De eligendo pontifice at the opening of the conclave. Internuncio in Flanders. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature. Protonotary apostolic participantium, October 28, 1667.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 12, 1667; received the red hat and the title of S. Sisto, January 30, 1668. Named cardinal nipote. Granted dispensation for not having yet received the minor orders at the moment of his promotion to the cardinalate, December 12, 1667. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica. Superintendent general of the affairs of the Apostolic See, December 16, 1667. Prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, December 20, 1667. Granted permission to receive the sacred orders outside Ember days, January 7, 1668. Governor of the city of Fermo, January 10, 1668 for a triennium. Governor of the city of Tivoli and of the territory of Capranica, for a triennium, January 24, 1668. Legate in Avignon, January 30, 1668 until 1670. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. Abbot of Nonantola. Opted for the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, May 16, 1672. Legate a latere for the opening and closing of the Holy Door at the patriarchal Liberian basilica for the Jubilee of 1675. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 8, 1680 until January 13, 1681.
Death. February 2, 1684, near 8 p.m., in his house next to the church of S. Lorenzo in Lucina. Exposed in the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, where the funeral took place on February 4, 1684, and buried in the tomb of the canons in that same basilica.
Bibliography. Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), 131, 246, 404 and 875.
(2) 2. MEDICI, Leopoldo de' (1617-1675)
Birth. November 16 (al. 6), 1617, Florence. Youngest son of Grand Duke Cosimo II of Tuscany and Maria Maddalena of Austria. Brother of Cardinal Giancarlo de' Medici (1644). Brother of Ferdinando II and Cosimo III of Tuscany, Giovanni Carlo, and Matthias. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Ferdinando de' Medici (1563). Nephew of Cardinal Carlo de' Medici (1615).
Education. Studied with Galileo Galilei and Famiano Michelini. Had great interest in the sciences and passionately promoted scientific research.
Early life. Together with his brother Ferdinando, founded the Accademia del Cimento (1657-1667) to recover and develop the Galilean heritage in the new climate of the Counter-Reformation. Directed the publication of Saggi di naturali esperienze. Governor of Siena.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 12, 1667; received the red hat and the deaconry of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, April 9, 1668. On December 12, 1667, he was granted dispensation for not having yet received the minor orders at the moment of his promotion to the cardinalate. Abbot commendatario of S. Stefano di Carrara, 1667. He left Florence for Rome after his promotion and the Accademia closed forever shortly after. On January 7, 1668 and November 21, 1674, he was granted permission to receive the sacred orders outside Ember days and without time intervals between them. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin, May 14, 1670. Thanks to his activism, he became the center of a network of epistolar reports with the major European scientist of the time. Among the objects in his personal collection were the lenses and the telescopes of Galileo, the giovilabio and other instruments of the Accademia. At his death, they became part of the Medicean collection of the Galleria degli Uffizi, and today they are preserved in Museo di Storia della Scienza, Florence.
Death. November 10, 1675, near 3 a.m., Florence. Buried in the tomb of the grand dukes in the church of S. Lorenzo, Florence.
Bibliography. Fileti Mazza, Miriam ; Medici, Leopoldo de'. Eredità del cardinale Leopoldo de' Medici : 1675 - 1676 . Pisa : Scuola normale superiore, 1997. (Strumenti e testi / Centro di Ricerche Informatiche per i Beni Culturali ; 4). Responsibility: Centro di Ricerche Informatiche per i Beni Culturali; Accademia della Crusca. Miriam Fileti Mazza.
Links. Portrait and brief biographical data, in Italian; The Medici family, in English; his genealogy, D2 G9 H1 I8; and two portraits, bust, and brief biographical data, in Italian.
(3) 3. CHIGI, Sigismondo (1649-1678)
Birth. 1649, Rome. Son of Augusto Chigi and Francesca Piccolomini di Triana. Nephew of Pope Alexander VII (1655-1667). Cousin of Cardinal Flavio Chigi, seniore (1657). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Flavio Chigi, iuniore (1753). Great-great-grand uncle of Cardinal Flavio III Chigi (1873).
Education. Educated by his uncle.
Early life. Knight of the Sovereign Order of Malta at a young age; grand prior of the order in Rome in the pontificate of Pope Alexander VII (1655-1667).
Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 12, 1667; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Domnica, May 19, 1670. Granted dispensation for not being a cleric, not having yet received the minor orders, being only 18 years old (the canonical age was 22), and having a cousin in the Sacred College of Cardinals, at the moment of his promotion to the cardinalate, December 12, 1667. Participated in the conclave of 1669-1670, which elected Pope Clement X. Opted for the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, May 19, 1670. Legate in Ferrara for a triennium, April 17, 1673. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI.
Death. April 30, 1678, at 1 p.m., in his Roman palace in piazza Colonna. Exposed in the church of S. Maria del Popolo, Rome, where the funeral took place on May 2, 1678, and buried in the tomb of his family in the Chigi chapel in that church.
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