The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Clement X (1670-1676)
Consistory of December 22, 1670 (I)

(1) 1. BORROMEO, iuniore, Federico (1617-1673)

Birth. May 29, 1617, Milan (1). Of the family of the counts d'Arona. Cousin of Cardinal Giberto Borromeo, seniore (1652). Other cardinals member of the family were Carlo Borromeo (1560); Federico Borromeo, seniore (1587); Giberto Bartolomeo Borromeo (1717); Vitaliano Borromeo (1766); and Edoardo Borromeo (1868).

Education. Studied letters and theology (1623); obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law (before 1635). Received the clerical habit, 1628. Went to Rome in 1635.

Sacred orders. Received the minor orders in Riva; the subdiaconate, March 28, 1644; and the diaconate, Riva, March 29, 1644.

Early life. He went to Rome in 1635 and was named chamberlain of His Holiness. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Governor of the city of Ascoli, 1643. Governor of Benevento, 1646-1648. Inquisitor in Malta, October 25, 1652. Secretary of the S.C. of Religious Immunity.

Episcopate. Elected titular patriarch of Alexandria, October 19, 1654. Consecrated, November 30, 1654, church of S. Andrea della Valle, Rome, by Cardinal Francesco Peretti, archbishop of Monreale, assisted by Giovanni Battista Poppa, aarchbishop of Benevento, and by Giovanni Battista Scannarolo, titular bishop of Sidon. Declined promotion to the see of Como, 1665. Nuncio in Switzerland, November 28, 1654 until August 20, 1665. Governor of Rome, February 17, 1666 until February 26, 1668. Nuncio in Spain, February 25, 1668 until July 1670. Named secretary of State, May 1670; occupied the post until his death.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 22, 1670; granted dispensation for having a cousin in the Sacred College of Cardinals, on that same day. Received the red hat and the title of S. Agostino, February 23, 1671. Opted for the title of S. Agnese fuori le mura, August 8, 1672. Abbot of Pertica, Pavia; S. Dionigi, Milan; and S. Angelo in Vultu, Melfi.

Death. February 18, 1673, at 9 a.m., in his room of secretary of State, in the Quirinale Palace, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome, where the funeral took place; and buried near the main altar of that church (2).

Bibliography. Biaudet, Henry. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes jusqu'en 1648. Helsinki ; Suomalainen tiedeakatemia, 1910, pp. 30, 38 and 235; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 203-205; Fink, Urban. Die Luzerner Nuntiatur 1586-1873 : Zur Behördengeschichte und Quellenkunde der päpstlichen Diplomatie in der Schweiz. Luzern ; Stuttgart : Rex Verlag, 1997. (Collectanea Archivi Vaticani ; Bd. 40) (Luzerner Historische Veröffentlichungen ; Bd. 32); Martinelli, Raffaello. Le Lapidi di San Carlo al Corso : catechesi in immagini. Roma : Arciconfraternità dei SS. Ambrogio e Carlo, 2007. (Arciconfraternità dei SS. Ambrogio e Carlo; Variation: Arciconfraternita dei SS. Ambrogio e Carlo), p. 175.

Webgraphy. His tomb, church of S. Carlo al Corso, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is according to Fink, Die Luzerner Nuntiatur 1586-1873, p. 196, and the Dictionnaire Historique de la Suisse, linked above. Hierarchia Catholic Medii et Recentioris Aevi, V, 7, indicates that he was 56 an., 8 fere m. (fifty-six years and almost eight months) when he died. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 204, indicates that he died in 1673 in etá di anni cinquantasette, (at the age of fifty-seven); Biaudet, Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes jusqu'en 1648, p. 235, indicates that he was born in 1616.
(2) This is the text of the inscription in his sarcophagus in the crypt of that church, taken from Martinelli, Le Lapidi di San Carlo al Corso : catechesi in immagini, p. 174:

OSSA
FEDERICI BORROMEO
S·R·E·CARD·
OB·XIX·FEBR· M·DC·LXXIII

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(2) 2. MASSIMI, Camillo (1620-1677)

Birth. 1620, Rome. Of the illustrious family of the marquises of Arsoli Romani. His last name is also listed as Massimo.

Education. Sapienza University, Rome (doctorate); frequented Museo dell'Angeloni, center of antiquarian science.

Early life. Papal prelate at a young age. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, 1651.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular patriarch of Jerusalem, December 15, 1653. Consecrated, January 4, 1654, church of San Silvestro al Quirinale, Rome by Cardinal Fabio Chigi, assisted by Giulio Rospigliosi, titular archbishop of Tarso and by (no name found). Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, January 8, 1654. Nuncio in Spain, January 16, 1654 until 1656. Tried to achieve the peace between France and Spain without the participation of the Venetian ambassador; Venice presented its protest to the pope, and he was recalled from that nunciature. Resided in Roccasecca, in semi-exile, from 1658 until the end of the pontificate of Pope Clement IX in 1669. The Sacred College of Cardinals named him governor of the conclave of 1669-1670. Prefect of the cubiculi of His Holiness, 1670.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 22, 1670; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Dominca, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, February 23, 1671. Opted for the title of S. Eusebio, January 30, 1673. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI. Opted for the title of S. Anastasia, October 19, 1676. Superintendent of the fabric of palazzo Altieri, he helped increase the supply of archeological and numismatic materials. Notable collector of coins, manuscripts and books, at the time of his death he had collected 2553 coins, some very valuable for their rarity and historical value. He was considered one of the most knowledgeable experts on Greek and Roman coins and his opinion was sought by other antiquarians of his time.

Death. September 12, 1677, at 3 p.m., in his Roman palace next to Quatrro Fontane. Exposed in the church of S. Andrea della Valle, Rome, where the funeral took place on September 14, 1677, and buried in his family's sepulchre in the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome.

Bibliography. Beaven, Lisa. "'É cortesi, erudito, e disinvolto ai pari di qualunque altro buon corteggiano?' : Cardinal Camillo Massimo (1620-1677) at the court of Pope Clement X" in Cutler, Lucy C. "Representing an apernative empire at the court of Cardinal Federico Borromeo in Habsburg Milan" in The possessions of a Cardinal : politics, piety, and art, 1450-1700. Edited by Mary Hollingsworth & Carol M. Richardson. University Park, Pa. : Pennsylvania State University Press, 2010, p. 309-327; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 205-206.

Webgraphy. His portrait by Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez, in "Velázquez, The Complete Works".

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(3) 3. CARPEGNA, Gasparo (1625-1714)

Birth. May 8, 1625, Rome. Of the family of the counts of Carpegna. Relative of Cardinal Ulderico Carpegna (1633), who belonged to another branch of the family. His first name is also listed as Gaspare and his last name as Carpineo.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Priesthood. Ordained to the priesthood (no date found). Papal prelate. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, May 5, 1658. Secretary of the S.C. of Waters. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota December 10, 1664. Consultor of the S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition in the pontificate of Pope Clement X. Datary of His Holiness.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Nicea, retaining the posts of auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota and papal datary, June 16, 1670. Consecrated, June 22, 1670, church of S. Silvestro in Capite, Rome, by Cardinal Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni, archbishop of Ravenna, assisted by Stefano Ugolini, titular patriarch of Constantinople, and by Francesco Marini, bishop of Molfetta. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, July 1670.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 22, 1670; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Portico Campitelli, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, February 23, 1671. Opted for the title of S. Pudenziana, March 18, 1671.Vicar general of Rome, August 12, 1671. Opted for the title of S. Silvestro in Capite, November 14, 1672. Prefect of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, January 10, 1675. Prefect of the S.C. of Rites. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 13, 1681 until January 12, 1682. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, October 19, 1689. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, January 27, 1698. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI.

Death. April 6, 1714, at 3 a.m., in his Roman palace. Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, where the funeral took place on April 9, 1714, and buried in the tomb of his family in the chapel dell'Incoronazione, in that same church.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 206-208.

Webgraphy. His episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; his engraving by Alber Clouet; and another engraving by the same artist, Museo di Roma, Rome.

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