The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Clement X (1670-1676)
Consistory of May 27, 1675 (VI)

(15) 1. MARESCOTTI, Galeazzo (1627-1726)

Birth. October 1, 1627, Vignanello, diocese of Città Castellana. Of a noble and ancient Roman family of Scottish origin. His last name is also listed as Mariscotti.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law. Received the clerical tonsure and the minor orders, July 6, 1653.

Early life. Referendary of the tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Governor of the city of Fano. Governor of the city of Ascoli. Protonotary apostolic. Inquisitor in Malta. Received the subdiaconate, September 8, 1662; diaconate, September 10, 1662. Assessor of the Supreme S. C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, May 26, 1666.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 29, 1662.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Corinto, February 27, 1668. Consecrated, March 4, 1668, church of Ss. Sisto e Domenico, by Cardinal Pietro Vidoni, bishop of Lodi, assisted by Giacomo de Angelis, former archbishop of Urbino, and by Carlo de Vecchis, titular archbishop of Atena. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, March 4, 1668. Nuncio extraordinary in Austria. Nuncio in Poland, March 10, 1668. Nuncio in Spain, August 13, 1670.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 27, 1675; received the red hat and the title of S. Bernardo alle Terme, March 23, 1676. Legate in Ferrara, March 23, 1676. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI. Transferred to the see of Tivoli, with personal title of archbishop, September 4, 1679. Opted for the title of Ss. Quirico e Giulitta, September 22, 1681. Ceased as bishop of the diocese, November 21, 1685 (1). Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 3, 1687 until May 17, 1688. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. Pro-prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, May 10, 1692 to December 1695. Pro-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, July 4, 1698 until November 24, 1698. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, June 21, 1700. Secretary of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, 1700-1716. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI; the French presented a veto against his election to the papacy. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, April 30, 1708. Cardinal protoprete. Because of his advanced age, resigned all his posts in May 1715. Did not participate in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Did not participate in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII.

Death. July 3, 1726, at 6 p.m., in his Roman palace. Transferred the following evening to the church of Santissimo Nome di Gesù, Rome, where the cappella papalis took place on July 5, 1726, with the participation of Pope Benedict XIII. That night the funeral vigil was sung and then he was buried in his family's tomb in that same church.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 230-231; Del Re, Nicola. "I cardinali prefetti della sacra congregazione del concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), pp. 122-123.

Webgraphy. His episcopal lineage, in English; and his engraving by Giovanni Battista Gaulli and Alber Clouet, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin.

(1) According to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, V, 380, on November 22, 1685, the process of information in the Apostolic Datary for the appointment of Andrea Aquino, former bishop of Tricarico, to the see of Tivoli was done but he was not promoted and Cardinal Marescotti remained in the diocese until December 1689 when he ceased again.

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(16) 2. CRESCENZI, C.R.S., Alessandro (1607-1688)

Birth. 1607 (1), Rome. Of an ancient and illustrious family. Son of Giovanni Battista Crescenzi and Anna Massimi. His middle name was Agostino. Relative of Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi (1542). Nephew of Cardinal Pier Paolo Crescenzi (1611).

Education. Entered the Orders of the Clerics Regular of Somasca (2). (No further educational information found).

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tremoli, July 13, 1643. Consecrated, July 26, 1643, Rome, by Cardinal Alessandro Cesarini, iuniore. Transferred to the see of Ortona e Campli, June 13, 1644. Transferred to the see of Bitonto, August 26, 1652. Named nuncio in Savoy by Pope Innocent X (1644-1655) until 1658. Resigned government of the diocese, May 14, 1668. Prefect of the Cubiculi of His Holiness, December 23, 1670. Promoted to the titular patriarchate of Alexandria, January 19, 1671.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 27, 1675; received the red hat and the title of S. Prisca, July 15, 1675. Transferred to the see of Recanati-Loreto, with personal title of patriarch, February 24, 1676. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI. Resigned government of the diocese, January 9, 1682. Named by the pope camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, April 9, 1685 at the death of Cardinal Girolamo Gastaldi, until March 18, 1686, when he was reappointed until March 3, 1687.

Death. May 8, 1688, near 2 a.m., of an apoplexy, in his Roman palace. Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, where the funeral took place on May 10, 1688, and buried in that church.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 231-233; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. 6 v. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 284.

(1) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, V, 9, which indicates that he died at 81 in 1688. Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, indicates that he was born in 1603.
(2) According to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 231, he initially had planned to enter the Order of the Friars Minor Capuchins but his temperamento troppo gracile, e delicato, l'obbligò a passare alla Congregazione Somasca.

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(17) 3. ROCCI, Bernardino (1627-1680)

Birth. August 21, 1627, Rome. Son of Antonio Rocci and Pulcheria Maffei. The family was originally from Cremona and Milan. Nephew of Cardinal Ciriaco Rocci (1629). Grand-nephew of Cardinal Pompeio Arrigoni (1596)

Education. Studied in Rome and in Ferrara. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Priesthood. Ordained to the priesthood (no date found). Accompanied his uncle to the nunciatures in Switzerland and Austria. Governor Fermo and other cities of the Papal States. In the pontificate of Pope Urban VIII (1623-1644), he was named secretary of the S.C. of Ecclesiastical Immunity and of the S.C. of Rites; consultor of the S.C. of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition; corrector of the Apostolic Penitentiary; and referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Commissary apostolic of the Marca in 1657. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, November 22, 1661. Nuncio before the viceroy of Naples, June 16, 1665; governor and administrator of the archdiocese of Naples during its vacancy, 1666-1667. Prefect of the Apostolic Palace, 1668.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Damasco, April 9, 1668. Consecrated, April 22, 1668, Rome, by Cardinal Giulio Gabrielli, assisted by Emilio Altieri, bishop of Camerino, and by Carlo de Vecchis, titular archbishop of Atena. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, May 9, 1668. Governor of Castelgandolfo for a triennium, March 25, 1671; governorship prorogated for another triennium, March 20, 1674.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 27, 1675; received the red hat and the title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, July 15, 1675. Transferred to the see of Orvieto, with personal title of archbishop, February 24, 1676. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI. Legate in Ferrara.

Death. November 2, 1680, at 7 p.m., in his villa near Frascati. The funeral took place in Frascati and his remains later were transferred to Rome and buried in the tomb of his ancestors in the church of S. Maria di Monserrato.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 233-235.

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(18) 4. SPADA, Fabrizio (1643-1717)

Birth. March 17, 1643, Rome (1). Of the marquises of Castelviscardo. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Bernardino Spada (1626). Nephew of Cardinal Giambattista Spada (1654). Nephew of Cardinal Fabrizio Verallo (1608), on his mother's side.

Education. Studied at the University of Perugia, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on April 21, 1664.(2).

Early life. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Commendatario of the monastery of S. Maria d'Attilia, diocese of S. Severino.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 22, 1669.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Patras, with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age, August 8, 1672. Named nuncio in Savoia on August 12, 1672. Consecrated, August 14, 1672, Rome, by Cardinal Gasparo Carpegna, assisted by Alessandro Crescenzi, titular Latin patriarch of Alexandria, and by Bernardino Rocci, titular archbishop of Damasco. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, August 15, 1672. Named nuncio in France on January 3, 1674.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 27, 1675; received the red hat and the title of S. Callisto, March 23, 1676. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI. Legate in Urbino, March 17, 1686. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, May 17, 1688 until January 24, 1689. Opted for the title of S. Crisogono, May 23, 1689. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. Secretary of State, July 14, 1691 until September 27, 1700; and also, prefect of the S.C. of Good Government. Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica from 1698. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI. Prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, December 4, 1700. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, April 30, 1708. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, February 19, 1710. Secretary of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, 1716 until his death.

Death. June 15, 1717, at 10 p.m., in the Roman palace of his family. Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, where the funeral took place on June 17, 1717, and buried in the chapel of S. Carlo in that church.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 235-236.

Webgraphy. His engraving by Girolamo Rossi, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; his portrait by Ceccarini; and his tomb in S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome.

(1) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, V, 309. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 235, indicates that he was born in Brisighella.
(2) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, V, 309. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 235, indicates that he obtained the doctorate at La Sapienza University, Rome.

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(19) 5. ALBERIZZI, Mario (1609-1680)

Birth. December 29, 1609, Salve, diocese of Brindisi. Son of Giovanni Alberizzi, prince of Vetrana, and Giulia Farnese. His last name is also listed as Albrizzi, Albrizj, Alberici, Albericius and Albericci. Of the princes della Veterana. Nephew of Cardinal Odoardo Farnese (1591), on his mother's side. Relative of Cardinal Taddeo Luigi dal Verme (1695).

Education. He went to Rome to study; obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law; and a master's in theology.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1638. Governor of the city of Ancona, 1646-1650; in time of famine, he sold his possessions to help the poor. Secretary of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, May 7, 1657 to August 1664. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, September 16, 1657; canon theologian, May 30, 1669. Voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace, 1659. Secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, 1664. Consultor of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Neocesarea, January 19, 1671; he retained the canonicate of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Consecrated, January 25, 1671, Rome, by Cardinal Federico Borromeo, assisted by Alessandro Crescenzi, patriarch of Alessandria, and by Giacomo Altoviti, patriarch of Antioch. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, February 2, 1671. Nuncio in Austria, February 17, 1671 until 1675.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 27, 1675; received the red hat and the title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, March 23, 1676. Transferred to the see of Tivoli, with personal title of archbishop, June 22, 1676. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI. Resigned government of the diocese, September 4, 1679.

Death. September 29, 1680, at 5 a.m., Rome. Exposed in the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, where the funeral took place on October 1, 1680, and in the afternoon, buried in the chapel of Beata Vergine Maria in that basilica. He left his library to the S.C. of Propaganda Fide.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, , 236-238; Katterbach, Bruno. Referendarii utriusque Signaturæ a Martino V ad Clementem IX et Praelati Signaturae Supplicationum a Martino V ad Leonem XIII. Città del Vaticano 1931. (Studi e Testi 55), p. 280; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 9, 46 and 284; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, p. 138-140; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 116 and 448; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), II, 394.

Webgraphy. His portrait by Albert Clouwet, Museo di Roma, Rome.

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(20) 6. HOWARD OF NORFOLK, O.P., Philip Thomas (1616-1694)

Birth. September 21, 1629 (1), Arundel House, London, England. Also known as the Cardinal of Norfolk, he was the third son of Henry Frederick Howard, third earl of Arundel and Surrey, head of the House of Norfolk, and Elizabeth, daughter of Esmé Stuart, duke of Lennox. He was related to the king of England. His great-grandfather, Philip Howard, died in the Tower of London in 1595 and was canonized by Pope Paul VI in 1970. Another member of the family promoted to the cardinalate was Edward Henry Howard of Norfolk (1877).

Education. Fellow commoner at St. John's College, Cambridge, for a brief time. Entered the Order of Preachers (Dominicans), Cremona, June 28, 1645; took the name Thomas; completed the novitiate with the Oratorians of Rome; professed in the basilica of S. Clemente, Rome, October 19, 1646.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1652, Rennes, France. Returned to England in 1655. Founded the Dominican priory of Bornhem, Flanders, with a college for English youths attached to it; first prior and master of novices. He also founded at Vilvorde a convent of nuns of the Second Order of St. Dominic, now at Carisbrooke. When Oliver Cromwell died, he acted as secret messenger of Prince Charles Stuart, future King Charles II. After the Restoration, took an active part in the negotiations for the marriage of the king and Princess Caterina de Braganza. One of the few who attended the royal wedding, according to the Catholic rite, celebrated privately in Winchester. Named chaplain of the queen, residing in the court. Grand almoner of the queen with residence in Whitehall Palace, 1665.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Elenopolis, May 16, 1672. Granted the exercise of episcopal faculties in England, May 17, 1672. Protestant pressure forced him to leave England and reside in the Dominican priorate of Flanders, 1674.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 27, 1675; received the red hat and the title of S. Cecilia, March 23, 1676. Participated in the conclave of 1676, which elected Pope Innocent XI. Opted for the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, September 25, 1679. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 24, 1689. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, 1689. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII.

Death. June 17, 1694, 6:30 a.m., in the Dominican priorate of S. Sabina, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, where the funeral took place, and buried in the afternoon, in the choir of that same church (2). The executors of his will were Cardinal Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni, Francesco Nerli, seniore, Galeazzo Marescotti, and Fabrizio Spada. A monument of white marble with the arms of the Howards honors his memory and is the object of interest of the English who visit Rome.

Bibliography. Baxter, Dudley. England's cardinals. With an appendix showing the reception of the sacred pallium by the archbishops of Canterbury and Westminster. London : Burns & Oates, 1903, pp. 62-65; Bellenger, Dominic Aidan, and Stella Fletcher. Princes of the Church. A history of the English cardinals. Gloucestershire : Sutton Publishing, 2001, pp. 96-102; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 238-242.

Webgraphy. Biography by Wilfrid Lescher, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his portrait by Jan Van der Bruggen, after François Duchatel, National Portrait Gallery, London; his portrait by James T. Nairn, University of St. Andrews, The Public Catalogue Foundation, BBC; his engraving by Albert Clouet (Clouwet, Clowet), National Portrait Gallery, London; his tomb in S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is according to the biographical entry in The Catholic Encyclopedia, linked above, and Bellenger, Princes of the Church, p. 96. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, V, 9, indicates that he died when he was 62 years and 9 months old.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from the website of his tomb, linked above:

D.     O.     M.
PHILIPPO THOMAE HOWARD DE NORFOLCIA ET ARUNDELIA
S R E PRESBYTERO CARD TIT S M SUP MINERVAM
EX SAC FAMILIA FR PRAED
S MARIAE MAIORIS ARCHIPRESBYTERO
MAGNAE BRITANNIAE PROTECTORI
MAGNO ANGLIAE ELEEMOSINARIO
PATRIAE ET PAUPERUM PATRI
FILII PROV ANGLICANAE EIUSD ORDINIS
PARENTI ET RESTAURATORI OPT
HAERED INSCRIPTI MOERENTES PP
ANNUENTIBUS S R E CARD
PALUTIO DE ALTERII FRANC NERLIO
GALEATIO MARESCOTTO FABRITIO SPADA
SUPREMI TESTSAM EXECUTORIBUS

VIRTUTIS LAUS AGTIO

OB XIV KAL IUL
A R S MDCXCIV
AETATIS SUAE LXIV

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