The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Innocent XI (1676-1689)
Consistory of September 1, 1681 (I)
Celebrated in Rome

(1) 1. SPINOLA, seniore, Giambattista (1615-1704)

Birth. September 20 (al. 21), 1615, Madrid, Spain. Of an illustrious Genoese family. Fourth of the twelve children of Luca Spinola and Battina Lomellini. The other children were Maria, Giacomo, Giovanni Domenico, Pellina and six children who died issueless. His first name is also listed as Giovanni Battista. Nephew of Cardinal Giandomenico Spinola (1626). Uncle of Cardinals Giovanni Battista Spinola, inuniore (1695); and Niccolò Spinola (1715). Other cardinals of the various branches of the Spinola family were Agostino Spinola (1527); Filippo Spinola (1583); Orazio Spinola (1606); Agustín Spínola (1621); Giulio Spinola (1666); Giambattista Spinola, iuniore (1695); Giorgio Spinola (1719); Giovanni Battista Spinola (1733); Girolamo Spinola (1759); Ugo Pietro Spinola (1831).

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law. Received the diaconate.

Early life. Abbot commendatario of Ss. Pietro e Giovanni di Tarento.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Acerenza e Matera, with dispensation for not having yet received the presbyterate, May 18, 1648. Consecrated, June 14, 1648, patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Giulio Sachetti. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Genoa, November 10, 1664; forced to resign the government of the archdiocese of Genoa, March 16, 1681. Named secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars by Pope Clement X. Governor of Rome and vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, retaining the secretariat of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, October 26, 1675 until September 1, 1681; pro-governor until July 28, 1691.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 1, 1681; received the red hat and the title of S. Cecilia, September 22, 1681. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 8, 1691 until January 9, 1692; reappointed on that day, until he had to resign because of health, March 10, 1692. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. Opted for the title of S. Agnese fuori le mura, February 20, 1696. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, April 7, 1698. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI.

Death. January 4, 1704, at 1 p.m., in the Roman palace where he resided. Exposed in the church of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, Rome, where the funeral took place on March 7, 1704, and buried in the church of S. Salvatore delle Coppelle, Rome, in front of the main altar (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 243-244; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, p. 110; Semeria, Giovanni Battista. Secoli cristiani della Liguria, ossia Storia della metropolitana di Genova, delle diocesi di Sarzana, di Brugnato, Savona, Noli, Albenga e Ventimiglia. 2 vols. Torino, Tipografia Chirio e Mina : 1843, I, 256-266; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 917.

Webgraphy. His tomb, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D · O · M ·
OSSA
IO BAPTISTÆ CARD · SPINOLÆ
TIT · S · M · TRANSTYB ·
VIXIT AN · LXXXVIII
MEN · III DIEBVS XIV
OBIIT DIE IV
IANVARII
MDCCIV

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(2) 2. PIGNATELLI, Antonio (1615-1700)

Birth. March 13, 1615, in a castle near Spinazzola, fief of his family, in the diocese of Basilicata, Naples. Fourth of the five children of Francesco Pignatelli, marquis of Spinazzola, and Porzia Carafa, of the dukes of Andria. The other siblings were Marzio (prince of Mondorvino), Ludovico (a cleric), Fabrizio (a Jesuit, rector of Collegio Romano) and Paola Maria (a nun). Baptized in the parish of Spinazzola. Uncle of Cardinal Francesco Pignatelli, seniore, Theat. (1703). Other cardinals of the family were Francesco Maria Pignatelli, iuniore (1794); Domenico Pignatelli di Belmonte, Theat. (1802); and Ferdinando Maria Pignatelli, Theat. (1839). His last name is also listed as Pignatelli del Rastrello.

Education. Studied at Collegio Romano, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Entered the Roman prelature in the pontificate of Pope Urban VIII (1623-1644). Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Vice-legate in Urbino, August 1643 to January 1644. Governor of Fano, ca. 1645. Inquisitor in Malta, from the end of 1646 until February 1649. Governor of Viterbo (1), April 11, 1650.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Larissa, with dispensation for not having yet received the sacred orders, October 14, 1652. Consecrated, October 27, 1652, church of S. Ignazio, Rome, by Cardinal Marco Antonio Franciotti. Nuncio in Tuscany, October 26, 1652 until 1660. Nuncio in Poland, May 21, 1660 until March 1668. Nuncio in Austria, March 9, 1668 to March 2, 1671. Transferred to the see of Lecce, with personal title of archbishop, May 4, 1671. Secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, June 1673. Prefect of the cubiculi of His Holiness, May 29, 1675; confirmed in that post, October 10, 1676.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 1, 1681; received the red hat and the title of S. Pancrazio, September 22, 1681. Transferred to the see of Faenza, with personal title of archbishop, January 12, 1682. Legate in Bologna, October 2, 1684. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Naples, September 30, 1686; received the pallium, April 28, 1687. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Participated in the conclave of 1691 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected pope on July 12, 1691. Took the name Innocent XII. Crowned, July 15, 1691, by Cardinal Urbano Sacchetti, protodeacon of S. Maria in Via Lata. Took possession of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, April 13, 1692. Issued the bull against nepotism, Romanum decet Pontificem, June 22, 1692, by which he prohibited future popes to promote to the cardinalate more than one papal relative and ordered that pope's income should have a modest ceiling. He was the last pope to wear a beard.

Death. September 27, 1700, Rome. Exposed and buried in the patriarchal Vatican basilica in a simple marble sarcophagus that he had prepared for himself. In 1746, Cardinal Vincenzo Petra ornamented his sepulchre.

Bibliography. Ago, Renata. "Innocenzo XII." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, 394-404; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 244-245; Gauchat, Patritium. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IV (1592-1667). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messaggero di S. Antonio, 1967, p. 216; Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 256; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp.11, 18, 49, 198, 244 and 283; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, pp. 135-137; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 765; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 157, 236, 416, 432 and 844; Zigarelli, Daniello Maria. Biografie dei vescovi e arcivescovi della chiesa di Napoli con una descrizione del clero, della cattedrale, della basilica di s. Restituta e della cappella del tesoro di s. Gennaro. Napoli: Tipografico di G. Gioja, 1861, pp. 188-198.

Webgraphy. Biography by Michael Ott, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; statue and biography, in English (Britannica); biography by Renata Ago, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 62 (2004), Treccani; his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church, in English; his bust in Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, Rome, The Australian National University; and another biography and his portrait, Il sito web Ufficiale del Comune di Spinazzola.

(1) This is according to all the sources consulted except his biography in The Catholic Encyclopedia (see link above), which says that he was governor of Perugia.

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(3) 3. BRANCACCIO, Stefano (1618-1682)

Birth. 1618, Naples. Son of Carlo Brancaccio, royal counselor, and Mariana de Pisa Ossorio. Brother of Emmanuele Brancaccio, bishop of Ariano (1667-1686). His last name is also listed as Brancati. Nephew of Cardinal Francesco Maria Brancaccio (1633). The other five cardinals of the family were: Landolfo Brancaccio (1294); Niccolò Brancaccio, pseudocardinal of Antipope Clement VII (1378); Rinaldo Brancaccio (1384); Luigi Bonito (1408); and Tommaso Brancaccio, pseudocardinal of Antipope John XXIII (1411).

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, 1640.

Early life. Governor of Cesena, 1643; Spoleto, 1644-1646; Camerino, January 29, 1648; Iesi, 1651; Perugia, October 23, 1658. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, 1659. Prelate of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta. Named inquisitor in Malta, December 9, 1654; never occupied the post because as he was preparing to travel to the island, the pope died and he was recalled to Rome. Domestic prelate.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Adrianopoli, May 5, 1660. Consecrated, May 9, 1660, church of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, by Cardinal Francesco Barberini. Nuncio in Tuscany, June 9, 1660. Abbot commendatario of Sant'Angelo de Frigillo, 1662. Nuncio in Venice, July 17, 1666. Secretary of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, 1668-1670. Transferred to the see of Viterbo e Toscanella, with personal title of archbishop, June 2, 1670.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 1, 1681; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria della Pace, September 22, 1681.

Death. September 8, 1682, at 10 p.m., in Viterbo. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Viterbo.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 245-246.

Webgraphy. Biography by Nicholas Weber, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia.

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(4) 4. AGOSTINI, Stefano (1614-1683)

Birth. 1614, Forlì. Fifth of the eight children of Bonamente Agostini and Lucrezia Ginevra Paolucci; the other children were Chiara, Barbara, Simone, Paolo, Giuseppe, Bonamente and Giovanni. Nephew of Cardinal Francesco Paolucci (1657) (1).

Education. Studied at the University of Bologna, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Called to Rome by his uncle. Auditor general of the legation in Bologna. Returned to Rome in the pontificate of Pope Alexander VII, who named him privy chamberlain, secret almoner, and canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Received the subdiaconate and the diaconate. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Domestic prelate of His Holiness. Secretary of the Congregation of Spanish Affairs (?).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Eraclea, with dispensation for having only received the diaconate, December 3, 1669. Consecrated, June 14, 1671, Rome, by Cardinal Cesare Fachinetti, assisted by Mario Fani, titular bishop of Cirene, and by Nicola Lepori, bishop of Saluzzo. Secretary of Memorials.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 1, 1681; received the red hat and the title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, September 22, 1681. Pro-datary of His Holiness.

Death. March 21, 1683, at about 2 a.m., in the Vatican palace. Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, where the funeral took place on March 23, 1683, and buried in the afternoon in that same church.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 246; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 11.

Webgraphy. His tomb in S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 246, indicates that he was a nephew of Cardinal Fabrizio Paolucci, on his mother's side, which seems improbable since Cardinal Fabrizio Paolucci was born in 1651 and was promoted to the cardinalate in 1697.

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buonvisi.jpg

(5) 5. BUONVISI, Francesco
(1626-1700)

Birth. May 16, 1626, Lucca. Son of Vincenzo Buonvisi and Maria Gabrielli. Nephew of Girolamo Buonvisi (1657). His last name is also listed as Bonvisi.

Education. Studied at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on December 14, 1666. Received the clerical tonsure, June 21, 1659.

Early life. Called to Rome by his uncle the cardinal, he was named privy chamberlain of Pope Alexander VII. Canon of the patriarchal Lateran basilica. Accompanied Cardinal Flavio Chigi to Paris. Secretary of the Congregation of Waters. Referendary of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tessalonica, with dispensation for not having yet received the sacred orders, June 16, 1670. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, June 24, 1670. Consecrated, July 6, 1670, church of S. Andrea della Valle, Rome, by Cardinal Carlo Carafa, assisted by Giovanni Spinola, archbishop of Genoa, and by Federico Baldeschi, titular archbishop of Cesarea. In the same ceremony was consecrated Francesco Nerli, iuniore, titular archbishop of Adrianopoli, future cardinal. Nuncio in Cologne, July 16, 1670. Nuncio extraordinary in Poland, November 3, 1672. Nuncio in Poland, July 20, 1673; he worked for the election, May 21, 1674, of Jan Sobieski to the Polish throne. Nuncio in Austria, July 28, 1675 until 1689.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 1, 1681. Did not participate in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Received the red hat and the title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, November 14, 1689. Transferred to the see of Lucca, with personal title of archbishop, September 27, 1690. He introduced in his diocese the devotion of the forty hours (a special forty-hour period of continuous prayer made before the Blessed Sacrament in solemn exposition). Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII.

Death. August 25, 1700, at 5 a.m., Lucca. Exposed in the cathedral of Lucca and buried in the Buonvisi chapel, basilica of S. Frediano, Lucca.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 246-248; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, VI, 166; Nicolai, Umberto. I vescovi di Lucca. Lucca : Tipografia Ricchielli, 1966, p. 27, no. 91; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, p. 141-146.

Webgraphy. Biography by Gaspare De Caro, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 15 (1972), Treccani; engravings, Araldica Vaticana.

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millinis.jpg

(6) 6. MILLINI, Savo
(1644-1701)

Birth. July 5, 1644, Rome. His first name is also listed as Savio and his last name as Mellini and Millinus. Uncle of Cardinal Taddeo Luigi dal Verme (1695). Uncle of Cardinal Mario Millini (1747). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Antonio Casali (1770), on his mother's side. Other cardinals of the family were Giovanni Battista Mellini (1476); and Giovanni Garzia Millini (1606).

Education. La Sapienza University, Rome (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, December 17, 1663). Received the subdiaconate, March 17, 1668; diaconate, March 31, 1668.

Priesthood. Ordained, November 18, 1668. Occupied minor positions in the Roman Curia during the pontificates of Popes Alexander VII and Clement IX. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government, and later its secretary in the pontificate of Pope Clement X. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and Grace. Named nuncio in Spain on June 1, 1675.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Cesarea, June 17, 1675. Consecrated (no information found). Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, June 28, 1675.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 1, 1681; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria del Popolo, August 12, 1686. Transferred to the see of Orvieto, with personal title of archbishop, December 22, 1681. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Opted for the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, December 12, 1689. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 10, 1692 until January 2, 1693. Transferred to the see of Sutri e Nepi May 17, 1694. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI.

Death. February 10, 1701, at 7 p.m., in the Roman palace next to piazza Ss. XII Apostoli, where he resided. Exposed in the church of S. Maria del Popolo, Rome, where the funeral took place on February 12, 1701; and, in the evening, buried in his family's tomb in that church (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 248-250.

Webgraphy. Engravings, Araldica Vaticana; his tomb in S. Maria del Popolo, Rome, Requiem Datenbank; his tomb, The Australian National University.

(1) This is the text of the epitaph, taken from Requiem Dantenbank, linked above:

D    .    O    .    M .
SAVVS S. R. E. PRESBYTER CARDINALIS MILLINVS
QVEM ALEXANDER VII CLEMENS IX ET X
ROMANA IN AVLA CLARIS MVNERIBVS DECORARVNT:
POST OBITAM DECENNIO PONTIFICIAM IN HISPANIA LEGATIONEM
SACRA PVRPVRA ET ECCL. VRBEVET. AB INN. XI DONATVS
QVAM AB ALEX. VIII DIMITTENDI FACVLTATE OBTENTA
AD SVTR. ET NEPES EX INDE VALETVDINIS ERGO TRANSLATVS AB INNOCENTIO XI
TANDEM ET VERA MORTIS PHILOSOPHIA EDOCTVS
INANEM MVNDI GLORIAM VAPORIS INSTAR TRANSIRE
ÆTERNAM VNICE PERMANERE HVIVSQ. AMORE ILLECTVS
DUM MORTEM QVÆ AD CONCVPITAM FŒLICITATEM ADITVM RESERAT PRÆSTOLATV[R]
SEPVLCHRALEM HVNC LAPIDEM EREXIT IN TITVLUM
SVÆ AGNITIONIS ET SPEI. ANNO DNĨ MDCLXXXXIX

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(7) 7. VISCONTI, Federico (1617-1693)

Birth. 1617, Milan. Eldest of the six sons of Federico, alias Carlo, Visconti, count of Carbonara and general treasurer of the state of Milan, and Francesca Perrone (or Perona), countess of S. Martino. The other children were Alessandro, Girolamo (bishop of Vigevano), Pierluca, Gianluigi and Giovanni. Nephew of Bishop Francesco Visconti of Cremona. The Visconti family gave six archbishops to the see of Milan.

Education. Studied at the Jesuit Accademia di Brera, Milan, where he obtained a doctorate in philosophy; then, at the University of Bologna, where he earned a doctorate in jurisprudence.

Early life. After finishing his studies, he went to Rome to start a diplomatic career but his family made him return to Milan. Member of the College of Lawyers of Milan, 1644. Primicerius of the cathedral chapter of Milan, 1646. Went back to Rome and became a consistorial lawyer in the pontificate of Pope Innocent XI. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Vice-governor of Tivoli, around June 1664. Governor of Città di Castello, 1665. Governor of Montalto, July 9, 1666. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, December 12, 1667.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Milan, June 23, 1681, retaining the auditorship of the Sacred Roman Rota under the title of lieutenant. Consecrated, August 10, 1681, church of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome, by Cardinal Gasparo Carpegna, assisted by Egidio Colonna, titular patriarch of Jerusalem, and by Francesco Cassati, titular archbishop of Trapezus. He was granted the pallium on September 22, 1681.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 1, 1681; received the red hat on September 4, 1681; and the title of S. Alessio on September 22, 1681. He zealously conducted pastoral visits to the archdiocese and celebrated a diocesan synod on September 3, 1687. He gave special attention to the liturgy and sacred rites; in 1682, he ordered the canons of the cathedral chapter to devoutly recite the Divine Office and ordered their choral presence; officially introduced the celebration of the feast of Our Lady of Mount Carmel in 1685; published Rituale Sacramentorum in 1687; and reprinted Pontificale Ambrosiano in 1689. The cardinal was also concerned about the seminaries, reopening in 1682 the Seminary of Pollegio, which had been closed by the Swiss authorities in 1673; establishing in 1682 in the Major Seminary weekly circoli on theology, philosophy and logic; and reestablishing in that seminary the chairs of philosophy and theology. He finished the construction of the doors of the façade of the cathedral, before which he arranged the steps and the square; reorganized and outfitted the apartments above the archbishop's palace, used as winter rooms; and made major renovations in the archiepiscopal villa of Groppello. In 1688, he repudiated the unknown astrologers who had greatly impressed the public with threats of great misfortunes. He maintained good relations with the political authorities: on August 7, 1682, he asked the clergy to carefully interpret the right of asylum; and in the following year, he obtained from the Sacred Congregation of Ecclesiastical Immunity the right to remove deserters from the immune locations; also, he urged the faithful to be generous with the offerings to the soldiers who fought against the Turks during the siege of Vienna, July 14, 1683. The cardinal was a zealous guardian of the discipline of nunneries and ordered in 1686 that an examination of vocations were conducted in accordance with the Council of Trent; he also issued decrees for the observation the religious festival in 1684; and restated the provisions of his predecessors on women's fashion in the church in that same year. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Entered the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII; but had to leave because of illness on June 19, 1691; he was absent for the last ballot. He suffered from intermittent fevers.

Death. January 7, 1693, at 4 a.m., archiepiscopal palace of Milan. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Milan, where the funeral took place; buried in front of the altar of the Madonna del'Albero of that cathedral(1). He left a considerable amount in his will for the completion of the statue of Sancarlone of Arona.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 250-251; Cazzani, Eugenio. Vescovi e arcivescovi di Milano. Nuova ed./ a cura di Angelo Majo, 2. ed. Milano : Massimo : NED, 1996. Note: Originally published 1955, now enlarged and updated, p. 242-244; Majo, Angelo. Storia della chiesa ambrosiana. 5 vols. 2nd ed. Milano : NED, 1983-1986, III, 81, 84, 85 and 95; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, CI, 72; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 11, 43 and 263; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), VI, 966; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 209, 298, 404 and 977.

Webgraphy. His engraving, arms, tomb and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his portrait by an unknown artist, Getty Images; Serie cronologica dei vescovi di Milano (III-XXI secolo), in Italian, archdiocese of Milan.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

FEDERICVS
CARDINALIS
VICECOMES
ARCHIEPISCOPVS
MEDIOLANI
OBIIT
SEPTIMO IDVS JAN.
ANNO
MDCXCIII

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(8) 8. GALLI, Marco (1619-1683)

Birth. Como, 1619 (1). His last name is also listed as Gallio and Gallo. Of the family of the counts of Alvito. Relative of Cardinal Tolomeo Gallio (1565).

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life Governor of Ascoli, Perugia, Ancona and Macerata. Referendary of the tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Protonotary apostolic de numero participantium. Secretary of the S.C. of Rites. Secretary of the S.C. of the Index. Prefect of Umbria and della Marca in the pontificate of Pope Alexander VII.

Sacred orders. (No date found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Rimini, January 13, 1659. Consecrated, January 26, 1659, church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, by Cardinal Federico Sforza. Named nuncio in Cologne, October 9, 1659 until 1666. Named vicegerent of Rome, July 1666 until February 1667. Consultor of the S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition. Judge of causes and executor of the decrees of the S.C. of the Apostolic Visit, August 27, 1666. Named nuncio in Naples, February 19, 1668; occupied the post until 1671.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 1, 1681; received the red hat and the title of S. Pietro in Montorio (2), November 17, 1681. The pope intended to appoint him legate in Bologna but Cardinal Galli died before the nomination could take place.

Death. July 24, 1683, of an apoplexy, near 4 a.m., in the Bonelli palace, piazza of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, where he resided. Exposed in the church of S. Maria della Scala, Rome, where the funeral took place on July 26, 1683, and buried in the afternoon in that same church.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 251-252; Del Re, Niccolò. Il vicegerente del vicariato di Roma, Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1976, p. 60.

Webgraphy. His portrait by Giovanni Battista Gaulli - Baciccio, National Gallery, London, England.

(1) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, IV, 95, which indicates that he was 40 years old when elected bishop of Rimini in 1659. Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, indicates that he died at 71 in 1682.
(2) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, V, 11, but Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 252, indicates that he received the title of S. Pudenziana.

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(9) 9. TAJA, Flaminio (1600-1682)

Birth. 1600, Siena. Of a patrician family.

Education. Studied law (no further educational information found).

Early life. Went to Rome and practiced law. Consistorial lawyer in the pontificate of Pope Alexander VII, his fellow citizen. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, and later dean of that tribunal. Regent of the Apostolic Penitentiary. In vain begged the pope not to promote him to the cardinalate.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 1, 1681; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo (1), November 17, 1681.

Death. October 5, 1682, at 4 p.m., Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, where the funeral took place; privately transferred in the afternoon to the church of S. Maria della Pace and buried there.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 252-253.

(1) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, V, 11, but Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali di Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 253, indicates that he received the title of S. Maria della Pace.

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(10) 10. CAPIZUCCHI, O.P., Raimondo (1615-1691)

Birth. November 7, 1615, Rome. His last name is also listed as Capisucco, Capisucchi and Capizzuchi. Other cardinals of the family were Gianroberto Capizucchi (1088); Roberto Capizucchi (1097) (no information found about him); Pietro Capizucchi (1122); Gian Roberto Capizucchi (1126); and Gianantonio Capizucchi (1555).

Education. Joined the Order of Preachers (Dominicans); changed his baptismal name Camillo to Raimondo; professed, 1630.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Became a famous preacher. Secretary of the S.C. of the Index, 1650. Examiner of bishops, 1653. Master of the Sacred Palace, 1654. In the pontificate of Pope Alexander VII, he was accused of incautiously approving, without submitting it to the vicegerent, the printing of a book that did not merit publication because of its mordacity, and forced to resign his post. He returned to his convent demonstrating una heroica fermezza, e cristiana rassegnazione, e sicuro, e tranquillo sul testimonio della propria coscienza (heroic firmness, Christian resignation, and assured and tranquil with the testimony of his own conscience). His conduct brought the admiration of both Pope Alexander VII and Pope Clement IX; the latter offered him several times the promotion to the episcopacy. He humbly declined. Pope Clement X reappointed him master of the Sacred Palace in 1673.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 1, 1681; received the red hat and the title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, September 22, 1681. Together with Cardinals Lorenzo Brancati, O.F.M.Conv., and Michelangelo Ricci, he was asked to judge Spanish mystic and chief representative of the religious revival known as Quietism, Father Miguel de Molinos. Opted for the title of S. Maria degli Angeli, March 3, 1687. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII; left the conclave because of illness at 8 p.m. on April 13, 1691.

Death. April 22, 1691, near midnight, Rome, during the conclave. Exposed in the church of S. Maria del Portico Campitelli, Rome, on April 24, 1691; the funeral took place in that same church, and was buried in the tomb of his family in the chapel of S. Paolo in that church.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 255-256.

Webgraphy. His family monument in S. Maria in Campitelli, Rome, where he built the family chapel; and I Capizzuchi, in Italian.

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(11) 11. DE LUCA, Giovanni Battista (1614-1683)

Birth. 1614, Venosa. Of a humble family.

Education. Studied humanities in Salerno and law in Naples where he obtained a doctorate in 1635.

Early life. Returned to Venosa in 1635 and was vicar capitular of the diocese. Went to Rome in 1645 (or 1654) and entered the ecclesiastical state. Auditor of Ludovisi House. In the pontificate of Pope Innocent XI, he was referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, auditor of His Holiness and secretary of Memorials.

Priesthood. Was ordained at an advanced age (no further information found). Famous as a jurisconsult and man of letters, he published numerous works in law (civil, canon, feudal and municipal), economy, and finance among others.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 1, 1681; received the red hat and the title of S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni, September 22, 1681.

Death. February 5, 1683, near 1 a.m., at the Vatican palace. Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, where the funeral took place of February 8, 1683; transferred in the afternoon to his title, and buried in the church of S. Spirito dei Napoletani, in via Giulia, Roma. In his will, he had expressed his wish to be buried in his title but Cardinal Girolamo Pamphili, his friend and admirer, preferred that other church for his final resting place.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 253-255.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English; and his portrait by Nicolò I Billy, Museo di Roma, Rome.

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(12) 12. BRANCATI, O.F.M.Conv., Lorenzo (1612-1693)

Birth. April 10, 1612, Lauria, diocese of Policastro, Kingdom of Naples. From a noble but not very wealthy family. Son of Marcello Brancati and Dorotea Serubbi. Baptized with the name Giovanni Francesco. His last name is also listed as Brancati di Lauria; and as Brancati de Laurea.

Education. In Lauria, Lawyer Aquilante Vitale, who had abandoned the legal practice, taught him grammar, Christian doctrine, and the practical manner of doing mental prayer and a particular devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary. Entered the ecclesiastical state, against his parents' will because he was the eldest son, received the clerical tonsure in 1628 from the bishop of Policastro, and was assigned to the church of S. Giacopo in that diocese. In 1629, he was stricken with a dangerous illness and made a vow that if he recovered, he would enter the Order of the Friars Minor Conventuals. Entered the order in the convent of Nola, with the help of a cousin of his mother, Father Giovanni F. Serubbi, O.F.M.Conv.; he was not able to enter the novitiate because of a government ban that prevented all religious orders to welcome new members; temporarily returned to his father's house and went through a period of spiritual crisis, laying the Franciscan habit also by suggestion of relatives; in April 1630, he fled from Lauria to return permanently to the convent; in May, he was admitted in the novitiate of Lecce, where he studied Logic under the guidance of Father Antonio da Lecce; and on July 7, 1631 he took his solemn vows and changed his name to Lorenzo; then, in 1632, he was sent to Rutigliano, where he studied physics; and later, 1633 to 1634, to Bari, where he studied philosophy under the guidance of the Jesuit Father Vincent Colella; he was called to Rome by the vicar general of the order to study theology. He arrived in Rome in 1634, after receiving the subdiaconate in Bitetto; because of his uncommon talents, he was proposed by Theologian Father Stefano De Luca for the competition for admission to Collegio di S. Bonaventura, which he surpassed in May 1635; there, he studied under the guidance of Father Master General F. A. Biondi of San Severino, a learned scholar of Scholasticism.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 17, 1636, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Giovanni Battista Scannaroli, titular archbishop of Sidon. In 1637, in the provincial congregation of his order held in Sezze, he obtained the doctorate of Collegio di S. Bonaventura. Regent and professor of philosophy and logic at the Franciscan convent of Aversa in1637. Transferred to Naples in 1639, he was chosen as vice-secretary of the father master general of the order, Giovanni Battista Berardicelli da Larino, whom he accompanied in a pastoral visit to the convents of the Kingdom of Naples. After some months, he was named regent of studies in Florence. Successively, in 1641, he was regent at the Study of Ferrara; and in 1644, of the Study of Bologna, teaching theology. Secretary of his order with the title of provincial of Ireland in 1647; and charge with a mission to solve some differences with the government of the Republic of Venice. Guardian of the convent of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, in 1650. The following year, 1651, when he was going to be named procurator or vicar general, he was not promoted because of the jealousy of the convent of Albano. Named lector of dogmatic theology at La Sapienza University, Rome, 1654, with the support of Cardinal Fabio Chigi; he occupied the post until his promotion to the cardinalate. Advised Pope Alexander VII in the composition of the papal bull on the Immaculate Conception. In 1665 he was named prefect of studies of Collegio Urbano of Propaganda Fide. Pope Clemente IX asked him to combat Jansenism from the pulpit as well as with publishing books; and named him consultor of the S.C. of Indulgences and Sacred Relics. Pope Clement X appointed him first custos (librarian) of the Vatican Library in 1670; and consultor of the SS.CC. of the Apostolic Visit, and of Bishops and Regulars.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 1, 1681; received the red hat on September 4, 1681; and the title of S. Agostino, September 22, 1681. Librarian of the Holy Roman Church, September 19, 1681 until his death. Opted for the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, December 1, 1681. Together with Cardinals Raimondo Capizucchi, O.P., and Michelangelo Ricci, he was asked to judge Spanish mystic and chief representative of the religious revival known as Quietism, Father Miguel de Molinos. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII; King Carlos II of Spain presented the veto against his election to the papacy. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 2, 1693 until his death. After his promotion to the cardinalate, he continued living in his Roman convent of Ss. XII Apostoli. He wrote and published numerous works (1).

Death. November 30, 1693, near 3 a.m., Rome. Exposed in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, where the funeral took place on December 2, 1693, and buried, in the afternoon, in that same church, according to his will. A bust commemorating him was erected in Piazza San Giacomo in Lauria, his native city, in December 2006.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 256-259; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, VI, 93-94; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 12, 44 and 59.

Webgraphy. Biography by Stephen Donovan, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography by Giuseppe Pignatelli, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 13 (1971), Treccani; biography, in Italian, in Giovanni Franchini, Bibliosofia, e memorie litterarie di scrittori francescani conventuali ch'hanno scritto dopo l'anno 1585; raccolte da F. Gianni Franchini.... Modena : Per gli eredi Soliani, stampatori duc, 1693, biography CCXLIV, pp. 387-398; engravings, portraits and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Quarto centenerio del Card Brancati 1, in Italian, You Tube, published on Apr 16, 2012; Quarto centenerio del Card Brancati 2, in Italian, You Tube, published on Apr 16, 2012; Quarto centenerio del Card Brancati 3, in Italian, You Tube, published on Apr 16, 2012; Quarto centenerio del Card Brancati 4, in Italian, You Tube, published on Apr 16, 2012; Quarto centenerio del Card Brancati 5, in Italian, You Tube, published on Apr 16, 2012; Quarto centenerio del Card Brancati 6, in Italian, You Tube, published on Apr 16, 2012.

(1) Among them were Commentaria... in quartum librum sentent. Mag. Ioannis Duns Scoti..., in four volumes: De Sacramentis in genere, de Baptismo et de eucharestia (Romae 1653); De poenitentiae virtute et poenitentiae sacramento (Romae 1656), dedicated to Pope Alexander Alessandro VII; Tomus tertius... de sacramentis confirmationis, ordinis ,extremae unctionis ,matrimonii (Romae 1662); and Tomus quartus... de omnibus novissimis necnon de medio statu animarum, et parvulorum (Romae 1665); Epitome canonum, omnium qui in conciliis generalibus ac provincialibus... continentur... (Romae 1659); Commentaria... in tertium librum sententiarum.., publishing last the : Tomus primus... de Sacrosancto incarnationis divini Verbi mysterio (Romae 1682); and then the others: Tomus secundus... de virtutibus in genere, de quatuor cardinalibus, eorumque speciebus et de virtute heroica (Romae 1668); Tomus tertius... de virtutibus theologicis in genere, de fide propagata et propaganda, de missionariis martyrio, haeresi et poenis haereticorum (Romae 1673); Tomus quartus... de spe, de charitate, donis Spiritus Sancti, beatitudinibus, gratia habituali, de gratiis gratis datis, specialiter de miraculis (Romae 1676); Opuscola octo de oratione christiana eiusque speciebus, in tyronum orantium gratiam edita... (Romae 1685); Opuscola tria de Deo quoad opera praedestinationis, reprobationis, et gratiae actualis... (Romae 1687).Two of his works were published posthumously: Index ad annales card. Baronii... (Romae 1694); and Vita Iesu Christi harmonice composita juxta quatuor Evangelia iussu Innocentii XII (Romae 1695).

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(13) 13. SACCHETTI, Urbano (1640-1705)

Birth. 1640, Florence. Of the marquises of Castelromano. Nephew of Cardinal Giulio Cesare Sacchetti (1626).

Education. Studied law, history and letters; took a study tour of several European countries; University of Pisa, Pisa (doctorate).

Early life. Went to Rome. Protonotary apostolic. President of the Apostolic Chamber, and later, cleric. Commissary general of the army. Auditor of the Apostolic Chamber.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of September 1, 1681; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Nicola in Carcere, September 22, 1681. Granted dispensation for not having yet received the sacred orders at the time of his promotion to the cardinalate, September 1, 1681. Granted license to receive the sacred orders outside the Ember days and without time intervals between them, March 5, 1682.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Viterbo e Toscanella, March 29, 1683. Consecrated, May 2, 1683, church of S. Agnese in Agone, Rome, by Cardinal Alderano Cibo, assisted by Giacomo Altoviti, titular Latin patriarch of Antioch, and by Odoardo Cibo, titular archbishop of Seleucia. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata, November 28, 1689. Cardinal protodeacon. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. Opted for the order of priests and the title of S. Bernardo alle Terme, December 22, 1693. Did not participate in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI. Resigned government of the diocese, January 24, 1701. Abbot of Galeata and of S. Maria all'Isola. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, January 14, 1704.

Death. April 6, 1705, around noon, in his Roman palace, of the illnesses due to an apoplexy he had suffered six years earlier. Exposed in the church of S. Giovanni de' Fiorentini, Rome, where the funeral took place on April 8, 1705, and buried in the tomb of his ancestors in the chapel of SS. Crocifisso of that same church.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 259-260.

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(14) 14. GINETTI, Gianfrancesco (1626-1691)

Birth. December 12, 1626, Rome. Of a family from Velletri. Nephew of Cardinal Marzio Ginetti (1626).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace in the pontificate of Pope Alexander VII. Obtained a post in the Apostolic Chamber with the direction of the milizia. Treasurer general of the Apostolic Chamber.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of September 1, 1681; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria della Scala, September 22, 1681. Opted for the deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria, January 12, 1682.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Fermo, June 5, 1684. Consecrated, June 11, 1684, church of S. Andrea della Valle, Rome, by Cardinal Alderano Cibo, assisted by Giacomo de Angelis, former archbishop of Urbino, and by Camillo Piazza, titular bishop of Drago. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Opted for the deaconry of S. Nicola in Carcere Tulliano, November 28, 1689. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII.

Death. September 18, 1691, near 10:30 p.m., next to the church of S. Catarina Funario, Rome, of cholera, which afflicted him for three days. The funeral took place on September 20, 1691, in the church of S. Andrea della Valle, Rome, and buried near 1 a.m., in the chapel of his family in that church, on the left side, opposite to the tomb of his uncle Cardinal Marzio Ginetti.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 260-261.

Webgraphy. His statue in his tomb in S. Andrea della Valle, Rome; and his tomb in S. Andrea della Valle, Rome.

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(15) 15. PAMPHILJ, O.S.Io.Hieros., Benedetto
(1653-1730)

Birth. April 25, 1653, Rome. His last name is also listed as Pamfili. Son of former Cardinal Camillo Francesco Maria Pamphilj (1644) and Olimpia Aldobrandini, princess of Rossano. Grand-nephew of Pope Innocent X. Great-grand-nephew of Cardinal Girolamo Pamphilj (1604). Uncle of Cardinal Camillo Cibo (1729), on his mother's side. Other cardinals of the Pamphilj family were Giuseppe Maria Doria Pamphilj (1785); Antonio Maria Doria Pamphilj (1785); and Giorgio Doria Pamphilj (1816).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Grand prior in Rome of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, 1678.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of September 1, 1681; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Portico Campitelli, September 22, 1681. Granted dispensation for not having yet received the minor orders at the moment of his promotion to the cardinalate. Named protector of the Order of the Cistercians, January 22, 1682. Received the minor orders, December 20, 1684; subdiaconate, December 21, 1684; diaconate, December 23, 1684.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 24, 1684. Prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, March 23, 1685. Opted for the deaconry of S. Cesareo in Palatio, April 30, 1685. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin, September 30, 1686. Opted for the deaconry of S. Agata in Suburra, May 17, 1688. Participated in the conclave of 1689, which elected Pope Alexander VIII. Legate in Bologna, August 23, 1690 until October 1693. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata, December 22, 1693. Cardinal protodeacon. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, November 1, 1694. Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, April 20, 1699. Legate a latere to open and close the Holy Door of the patriarchal Lateran basilica in the Jubilee Year of 1700. Protector and superintendent of the port of Anzio, May 28, 1700. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI. Librarian of the Holy Roman Church, February 26, 1704 until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII. Did not participate in the conclave of 1730, which elected Pope Clement XII. Grand prior in Rome of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem. Protector of Collegio Clementino, Rome. Patron of the arts, especially music, he authored librettos for works of Alessandro Scarlatti and George Frideric Händel.

Death. March 22, 1730, at 5:30 p.m., after suffering from fevers for a long time, Rome, during the sede vacante. Exposed in the church of S. Agnese in Agone, Rome, where the funeral took place without the participation of the cardinals who were in conclave, and buried in his family's chapel in that church.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 261-262; Montalto, Lina. Un mecenate in Roma barocca: il cardinale Benedetto Pamphili, 1653-1730. Firenze : Sansoni, 1955. (Critica e storia); Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LI, 89; Notizie per l'anno 1722. In Roma MDCCLIII : Nella Stamperia di Galeazzo Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, p. 175; The Pamphilj and the arts : patronage and consumption in Baroque Rome. Edited by Stephanie C. Leone. Boston : McMullen Museum of Art, Boston College ; [Chicago] : Distributed by University of Chicago Press, 2011. Contents: The Four rivers fountain: art and building technology in Pamphilj Rome / Maria Grazia D'Amelio and Tod A. Marder -- The Aldobrandini lunettes: from early Baroque chapel decoration to Pamphilj art treasures / Catherine Puglisi -- Cannocchiali Pamphilj per le stelle, per i quadri e per tutto il resto / Andrea G. De Marchi -- Committenze artistiche per il matrimonio di Anna Pamphilj e Giovanni Andrea III Doria Landi (1671) / Laura Stagno -- Notes on Alessandro Stradella, L'avviso al Tebro giunto / Carolyn Gianturco and Eleanor F. McCrickard -- L'avviso al Tebro giunto (Once Tiber has been apprised) / Alessandro Stradella -- The Jesuit education of Benedetto Pamphilj at the Collegio romano / Paul F. Grendler -- Too much a prince to be but a cardinal: Benedetto Pamphilj and the College of Cardinals in the age of the late Baroque / James M. Weiss -- Cardinal Benedetto Pamphilj's art collection: still-life painting and the cost of collecting / Stephanie C. Leone -- Cardinal Benedetto Pamphilj and Roman society: festivals, feasts and more / Daria Borghese -- Benedetto Pamphilj's sunflower carriage and the designer Giovanni Paolo Schor / Stefanie Walker -- Le conversazione in musica: Carlo Francesco Cesarini, virtuoso de sua eccellenza padrone / Alexandra Nigito -- Pamphilj as phoenix: themes of resurrection in Handel's Italian works / Ellen T. Harris -- The power of the word in papal Rome: Pasquinades and other voices of dissent / Laurie Shepard -- "Fioriscono di splendore le due cospicue librarie del signor cardinale Benedetto Pamfilio": studi e ricerche sugli inventari inediti di una perduta biblioteca / Alessandra Mercantini -- La perduta biblioteca del cardiale Benedetto Pamphilj: acquisti, rilegature e restauri / Alessandra Mercantini -- Cardinal Benedetto Pamphilj as Fenicio Larisseo and the Arcadian Academy in Rome / Vernon Hyde Minor. Note: "This publication is issued in conjunction with the conference of the same name at Boston College, October 15-16, 2010"; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 12, 52 and 54; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 167-168; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 157 and 822.

Webgraphy. His genealogy, sito ufficiale Doria Pamphilj; and his portrait, sito ufficiale Doria Pamphilj.

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(16) 16. RICCI, Michelangelo (1619-1682)

Birth. January 30, 1619, Rome. Of an obscure and pious family.

Education. Student of Benedetto Castelli in Rome. Played an important role among the followers of the Galilean School in Rome.

Early life. Secretary of the S.C. of Indulgences and Sacred Relics. Consultor of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition. Repeatedly intervened to avoid censorship of the activities of the representatives of the newest scientific ideas by church authorities. He was an able mathematician and noted theologian. Regularly corresponded with Evangelista Torricelli, also a noted mathematician and assistant of Galileo at the end of his life, and later also with Vincenzo Viviani and Cardinal Leopoldo de' Medici.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of September 1, 1681; humbly declined the promotion (1) and only accepted after the serious reasons given by the pope; received the red hat and the deaconry of S Maria in Aquiro, November 17, 1682. Granted dispensation to receive the minor orders, requirement to be a cardinal, because he suffered from epilepsy since his childhood, September 1, 1681. Granted dispensation to receive the sacred orders outside of Ember days and without time intervals between them, November 17, 1681. Together with Cardinals Raimondo Capizucchi, O.P., and Lorenzo Brancati, O.F.M.Conv., he was asked to judge Spanish mystic and chief representative of the religious revival known as Quietism, Father Miguel de Molinos.

Death. May 12, 1682, near 1 a.m., Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Valicella, Rome, where the funeral took place on May 14, 1682; in the afternoon, transferred to the church of S. Francesco a Ripa, Rome, and buried in the chapel of SS. Crocifiso, in his family's tomb.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 262-264.

Webgraphy. Brief biographical data, in English; biographical entry, in English; another biographical entry, in Italian; his tomb in S. Francesco a Ripa, Rome.

(1) According to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VII, 262, he wrote the pope a long and well thought letter in which, with grande energia , e forza di ragioni, e pari copia di erudizione, il motivo gli rappresenta, che lo determina a ricusare la conferitagli dignità. But all was in vain and he had to submit to the will of Pope Innocent XI, who wanted him cardinal.

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