The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Alexander VIII (1689-1691)
Consistory of February 13, 1690 (II)

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(2) 1. PANCIATICI, Bandino
(1629-1718)

Birth. July 10, 1629, Florence. Of a noble Pistoian family. Relative of Pope Clement IX .

Education. Studied at the University of Pisa, where he earned a doctorate in law.

Early life. Went to Rome with his relative Cardinal Giulio Rospigliosi, future Pope Clement IX. Practiced law with the famous lawyer Giambattista De Luca, future cardinal. When Pope Clement IX was elected, he entered the ecclesiastical state. Secondo collaterale of the Roman Curia, 1668, and soon after, lieutenant of the auditor of the Reverend Apostolic Chamber; resigned during the pontificate of Pope Clement X in order not to break the duties of justice (non mancare ai doveri della giustizia), and returned to Florence. Recalled to Rome by Pope Innocent XI in 1678, he was named secretary of the S.C. of the Apostolic Visit and of the State of Regulars. Secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, 1686. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Pro-datary of His Holiness, October 7, 1689. Preceptor of the archhospital of S. Spirito in Sassia, Rome.

Episcopate. Elected titular patriarch of Jerusalem, with dispensation for not having yet received the sacred orders, October 14, 1689. Consecrated, December 21, 1689, Rome, by Cardinal Gasparo Carpegna. Granted dispensation to pontificate and use the title of patriarch without having yet received the pallium, January 4, 1690. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, January 25, 1690.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 13, 1690; received the red hat and the title of S. Tommaso in Parione, April 10, 1690. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. Confirmed as pro-datary by the new Pope Innocent XII, July 14, 1691. Opted for the title of S. Pancrazio, August 8, 1691. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1699 to February 3, 1700. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI. Declined, because of advanced age, the secretariat of State, offered by Pope Clement XI. Prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, December 4, 1700 until his death. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, February 19, 1710.

Death. April 21, 1718, at 9:30 p.m., in his Roman residence at Palazzo Bolognetti. Exposed and buried in front of the main altar of the church of S. Pancrazio, Rome. Later, transferred to Florence and buried in the tomb of his family in the church of S. Maria Novella.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 3-5; Passerini, Lugi. Genealogia e storia della famiglia Panciatichi. Florence : Tipi di M. Cellini e c., 1958, pp. 218-22; Re, Nicola del. "I cardinali prefetti della sacra congregazione del concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), p. 124.

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(3) 2. CANTELMO, Giacomo
(1645-1702)

Birth. June 13, 1645, Naples. Son of Filippo Cantelmo, duke of Popoli and prince of Pettorano, and Beatrice Brancia, duchess of Padula. His last name is also listed as Cantelmo Stuart because he was related to King James II of England.

Education. He studied Latin, Greek and Hebrew and became an expert in these languages; attended La Sapienza University, Rome; University of Bologna, Bologna.

Early life. He entered the ecclesiastical state at a young age. Roman prelate in the pontificate of Pope Clement X. Named abbot commendatario of S. Antonio di Vienna, Naples, by Pope Innocent XI. Inquisitor in Malta, June 4, 1678. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Cesarea, September 27, 1683. Consecrated, October 3, 1683, church of S. Andrea della Valle, Rome, by Cardinal Carlo Pio, bishop of Sabina, assisted by Giuseppe Bologna, former archbishop of Benevento, and by Gregorio Giuseppe Gaetani, titular archbishop of Neocaesarea. In the same ceremony was consecrated Francesco Pignatelli, seniore, Theat., archbishop of Taranto, future cardinal. Nuncio in Venice, 1683. Nuncio in Switzerland, April 18, 1685 until December 10, 1687. Nuncio extraordinary in Poland, October 23, 1688. Nuncio extraordinary in Austria, October 15, 1689; returned to Rome and that same year became secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Religious.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 13, 1690; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro, April 10, 1690. Named extraordinary nuncio to the Diet of Augsburg for the election of the new King of the Romans, February 23, 1690; in the same capacity attended the coronation of Joseph of Austria, the newly elected king. Legate in Urbino, April 10, 1690. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Capua, September 27, 1690; received the pallium, December 11, 1690. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Naples, July 23, 1691; received the pallium, August 8, 1691. Celebrated a diocesan synod in Pentecost 1694. Convoked and celebrated a provincial council; the council was open on June 7, 1699 with the participation of thirteen bishops. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, February 3, 1700 to January 23, 1702. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI.

Death. December 11, 1702, at 10 p.m., Naples. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Naples, in the tomb that Pope Innocent XII had prepared for himself while he was archbishop of that see (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 5-7; Fink, Urban. Die Luzerner Nuntiatur 1586-1873 : Zur Behördengeschichte und Quellenkunde der päpstlichen Diplomatie in der Schweiz. Luzern ; Stuttgart : Rex Verlag, 1997. (Collectanea Archivi Vaticani ; Bd. 40) (Luzerner Historische Veröffentlichungen ; Bd. 32); Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 237; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 16, 47, 59, 133, 141 and 283; Squicciarini, Donato. Die Apostolischen Nuntien in Wien. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1999; Zigarelli, Daniello Maria. Biografie dei vescovi e arcivescovi della chiesa di Napoli con una descrizione del clero, della cattedrale, della basilica di s. Restituta e della cappella del tesoro di s. Gennaro. Napoli: Tipografico di G. Gioja, 1861, pp. 198-205.

(1) This is the text of the cardinal's epitaph taken from Zigarelli, Biografie dei vescovi e arcivescovi della chiesa di Napoli, p. 205:

D.     O.      M .
IACOBVS . S. R. E. CARDINALIS. CANTELMVS . E. DVCIBVS . POPVLI
ARCHIEPISCOPVS . NAEPOLITANVS
HVMANIS . DIVINISQVE . LITERIS . MIRE . ERVDITVS
LEGATIONIBVS . AMPLISSIMIS . PRO . DEI . ECCLESIA
FELICITER . FVNCTVS
ACERRIMVS . ECCLESIASTICAE . DISCIPLINAE . VINDEX
EFFVSA . IN . PAVPERES . LARGITATE
MORVMQVE . INNOCENTIA . INSIGNIS
MAGNO . CVM . OMNIVM . ORDINVM . LVCTV . E . VIVIS . SUBLATVS
HOC . IN . TVMVLO
AB . INNOCENTIO . XII . P. M . SIBI . DONO . DATO
CONDITVS . EST
ANNO . DOMINI . MDCCII.

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(4) 3. ADDA, Ferdinando d' (1650-1719)

Birth. September 1 (or August 17), 1650, Milan. His last name is also listed as De Addua and De Abdva. Of a patrician family.

Education. Attended the University of Bologna, where he estudied law; and the University of Pavia.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Nominated auditor of the Roman Rota by the Collegio degli Avvocati of Milan did not occupy the post but Pope Innocent XI (1676-1689) conferred on him a famous abbey and sent him to Madrid to bring the red biretta to the new cardinal Savo Millini, nuncio in that country. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Amasea, March 3, 1687. Consecrated, May 1, 1687, Saint James Chapel, London, by Dominic MacGuire, O.P., archbishop of Armagh, assisted by John Leyburn, titular bishop of Adramittio, and by John O'Mollony, bishop of Killaloe. Nuncio before King James II of England. During his nunciature in London, he was charged by Pope Innocent XI with the task of inducing the English monarch to intercede with King Louis XIV of France, in favor of the oppressed Protestants of that country. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, October 16, 1689.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 13, 1690; received the red hat and the title of S. Clemente, April 10, 1690. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. Opted for the title of S. Balbina, January 2, 1696. Legate in Ferrara, September 24, 1696. Legate in Bologna, November 24, 1698; legation prorogated for a triennium, February 7, 1701. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI. Prefect of the S.C. of Rites. Opted for the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, April 16, 1714. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, January 21, 1715.

Death. January 27, 1719, at 11:45 a.m., in his Roman palace in piazza Ss. XII Apostoli. Exposed in the church of S. Carlo ai Catinari, Rome, where the funeral took place on January 29, 1719, and buried in that same church.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 7-8.

Links. Biography by Thomas Shahan, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his bust, Ss. Ambrogio e Carlo al Corso, Rome; and engraving by Issac Beckett, National Portrait Gallery, London, England.

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(5) 4. FORBIN DE JANSON, Toussaint de (1631-1713)

Birth. October 1, 1631 (1), Provence, France. His last name is also listed as Janson de Fourbin. Of a noble family. Third son of Gaspard II, marquis of Jason, and Claire de Libertat, his second wife.

Education. Studied letters (no further educational information found).

Early life. At a very young age, received the cross of Malta, and entered the army; later, left to study letters.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Assisted his uncle Raphael de Bologne, bishop of Digne, who requested him as bishop coadjutor.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Filadelfia and coadjutor of Digne, with right of succession, with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age, July 5, 1655. Consecrated, May 14, 1656, cathedral of Marseille, by Étienne de Puget, bishop of Marseille, assisted by Hyacinthe Serroni, bishop of Orange, and by Jacques de Grignan, bishop of Saint-Paul-Trois-Châteaux. Succeeded to the see of Digne, 1664. Transferred to the see of Marseille, July 9, 1668. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, June 2, 1673. Ambassador extraordinary of France to the Polish diet for the election of a new king, Jan Sobieski, 1673. Transferred to the see of Beauvais, September 25, 1679. Peer of France. In the États of Provence, of which he was a member by right, he ably reconciled the interests of the king with those of the province. Charged by the king with the delicate mission of reestablishing the friendship with the wife of the grand duke of Tuscany, Marguerite-Louis d'Orléans, which he successfully completed. Ambassador in Holland. Subscribed to the propositions of the Gallican clergy in the assembly of Paris in 1682. For this, Pope Innocent XI resisted his promotion to the cardinalate. Commander of the Order of Saint-Esprit, 1689.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 13, 1690; received the red hat and the title of S. Agnese fuori le mura, July 10, 1690. Some cardinals strongly opposed his promotion but the pope responded that he had recanted all his past errors. Adopted the name of Cardinal de Janson at his promotion, to distinguish himself from his brother the marquis of Forbin-Janson. French ambassador before the Holy See, 1690-1697. Abbot comendatario of Savigny, 1690. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. Abbot commendatario of Corbie, 1693, and of Marchiennes. In 1693, successfully concluded the peace negotiations between Pope Innocent XII and King Louis XIV, after the rupture caused by the assembly of the clergy of 1682. The negotiations had started during the pontificate of Pope Alexander VIII. Opted for the title of S. Callisto, September 28, 1693. French ambassador before the Holy See, 1700-1706. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 23, 1702 until January 15, 1703. Grand almoner of France, 1706 until his death. Commander of the Order of Malta, 1706. Reentered the Order of Malta, which he had had to leave when becoming a bishop, because of the privilege of the cardinals. Commander of Saint-Jean d'Avignon.

Death. March 24, 1713, after a long illness, Paris. Exposed and buried in Saint-Pierre's cathedral, Beauvais (2). His statue by Nicolas Coustou, in that cathedral, was finished in 1738.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 8-10.

Links. His engraving by Antoine Masson, Museum Châteaux de Versailles et de Trianon, France; his engraving by Nicolas II de Larmessin, Museum Châteaux de Versailles et de Trianon, France; and his tomb in the cathedral of Saint-Pierre, Beauvais.

(1) This is according to Jean, Les évèques et les archêveques de France depuis 1682 jusqu'a 1801, p. 312; Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, also gives October 1, 1631 as his date of birth. There is great discrepancy among other sources concerning the year of his birth, 1626, 1629, 1630, 1631, 1634 and 1636, but all agree on the month and day, October 1.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from the site of his tomb, linked above:

D.    O.     M
TUSSANUS DE FORBIN DE JANSON S.R.E.SUB TIT. S.CALLIXTI CARDINALIS
REGIONUM ORDINUM NEC NON MAGNUS MELITENTIS COMMENDATOR
OLIM DINIENSIUM DEINDE MASSILIENSIUM, POSTREMO BELLOVACENSIUM ANTISTE
VICE DOMINUS DE GERBENDO COMES ET PAR FRANCIAE : SUPREMUS REGIARUM ELEMOSINARUM PRAEFECTUS,
REUM PUBLICARUM STRENUUS MINISTER NULLI DEFUIT.
IN ETRURIAM UT COSMOE DE MEDICIS, ET MARG. LUD. D' ORLEANS
MENTES TUM IBI DISSIDENTES NOVO REVINCERET FOEDERA A REGE MISSUS
LEGATUS IN POLONIA COADUNATIS PROCERUM SUFFRAGIIS,
JOANNEM SOBIESKI MIRA CONSILII ANIMIQUE DEXTERITATE AD SOLIUM EVEXIT.
APECE S.SEDIS, ET CLERI GALLICANI DISJUNCTOS ANIMOS
ANGELUS PACIS RECONCILIAVIT
OVIBUS PLURIES MOERENS CREPTUS PASTORALI SOLLICITUDINE ABSENS ADERAT
ANNOS VIXIT OCTOGINTA HEU ! BREVES TAMEN,
E VITA MIGRAVIT LUTETIAE PARISIORUM VIII. KAL. APR. AN. DOMINI MDCCXIII ET HIC CORPORIS RESURRECTIONEM EXPECTAT

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(6) 5. RUBINI, Giambattista
(1642-1707)

Birth. 1642, Venice. Second of the two sons of Donato Rubini and Cristina Medici. Grand-nephew of Pope Alexander VIII; his grandmother, Cristina Ottoboni, was a sister of the pope.

Education. Studied at the University of Padua, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Padua. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Governor of the cities of Fabriano, Spoleto, Frosinone, Viterbo and Macerata. Governor of the provinces of Campagna e Marittima, Umbria and Marca. Received the minor orders, September 10, 1683; subdiaconate, September 12, 1683; and diaconate, September 19, 1683.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 21, 1683.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Vicenza, May 15, 1684. Consecrated, May 21, 1684, church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, by Cardinal Alessandro Crescenzi, assisted by Francesco Capobianco, former bishop of Lacedonia, and by Franciesco Maria Giannotti, bishop of Segni. Secretary of State, October 1689 until February 1, 1691.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 13, 1690; received the red hat and the title of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna, April 10, 1690. Legate in Urbino, September 27, 1690. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI. Resigned government of the diocese, March 25, 1702. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 15, 1703 until January 14, 1704. Opted for the title of S. Marco, March 25, 1706.

Death. February 17, 1707, at 11 p.m., in the palace of the Apostolic Chancery, Rome. Exposed in the basilica of S. Marco, where the funeral took place on February 19, 1707, and buried in front of the chapel of SS. Sacramento, in that same church.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 10; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 695.

Link. His tomb in he church of S. Marco, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

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(7) 6. GIUDICE, Francesco del (1647-1725)

Birth. December 7, 1647, Naples. Fifth of the fifteen children of Nicolò del Giudice, prince of Cellamare, duke of Giovinazzo, and Ippolita Palagana. Uncle of Cardinals Niccolò Caracciolo (1715) and Niccolò del Giudice (1725).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Referendary of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature. Vice-legate in Bologna. Governor of Fano. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber. Governor of Roma and vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 13, 1690, with dispensation for not having received the minor orders; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria del Popolo, April 10, 1690. Protector of the Spanish crown. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII.

Sacred orders. Granted permission to receive the sacred orders outside Ember days and without time intervals between them, December 19, 1691, when he received them. Declined promotion to the metropolitan see of Salerno, 1696. In charge of Spain's affairs in Rome, 1698-1699. Opted for the title of S. Sabina, March 30, 1700. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI. Granted permission to accept and exercise the post of viceroy and captain general of the kingdom of Sicily, December 15, 1701.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Monreale, January 14, 1704. Granted license to receive the episcopal consecration from any bishop assisted by two or three other bishops. Consecrated, February 10, 1704, in the Casa Professa of the Jesuits, Palermo, by Giuseppe Gasch, archbishop of Palermo, assisted by Asdrubale Termini, bishop of Siracusa, and by Bartolomeo Castelli, bishop of Mazzara. Granted license to be absent from his archdiocese for two years while occupying the posts of viceroy and captain general of Sicily. Inquisitor general in Spain, June 2, 1711; granted license to be absent from his archdiocese for three years while exercising his post in Spain, July 24, 1711. He played a very active political role during his tenure. Melchor de Macanaz, influential regalist intendent of Aragón, whom he had opposed, was able to block his appointmen as archbishop of Toledo in 1713. His edict of July 1714 condemning regalist writings made him lose the royal favor and go in exile to Bayonne, but the death of Queen María Luisa and the loss of power of the Princess of Ursinos allowed him to return that same year. He was preceptor of the Prince of Asturias and first minister of State in 1714; and lost his post in 1716 because of dissensions with Cardinal Giulio Alberoni; and he returned to Italy in 1717. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, retaining the administration of Monreale, July 12, 1717. Minister of Austria before the Holy See, August 11, 1719 until 1720. Secretary of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, 1719 until his death. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Frascati, March 3, 1721. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, proper of the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, June 12, 1724. Resigned the administration of the metropolitan see of Monreale, February 15, 1725. Prefect of the S.C. of Ecclesiastical Immunity. Secretary of the S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition.

Death. October 10, 1725, Rome, after having received all the sacraments of the church. Transferred the following morning to the church of S. Marcello, where the funeral took place October 12, 1725, with the participation of the pope. At midnight, transferred to the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, with the cavalry corresponding to the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, and buried in that church temporarily until his translation to Naples. Buried in the tomb of his ancestor in the church del Carmine, Naples.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 10-12; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 322.

Links. Biography by Pietro Messina, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 36 (1988), Treccani; biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; and his engraving by Johannes Christoph Kolb, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin.

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(8) 7. COSTAGUTI, Giambattista
(1636-1704)

Birth. 1636, Rome. Of an illustrious Genoese family. Son of Prospero Costaguti, marquis of Sipicciano and of Rocca Elvezia, and his second wife, a Countess Vidman. Half-brother of Cardinal Vincenzo Costaguti (1643). Great-grand-uncle of Cardinal Baldassare Cenci, iuniore (1761), on his mother's side.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, president of the Zeccha and of the Annona, 1669. Dean of the Apostolic Chamber.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 13, 1690; received the red hat and the title of S. Bernardo alle Terme, April 10, 1690. Granted dispensation to receive all the sacred orders outside the Ember days and without time intervals between them, July 18, 1690. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. Opted for the title of S.Anastasia, November 12, 1691. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI.

Death. March 8, 1704, at 3 p.m., in his Roman palace. Exposed in the church of S. Carlo ai Catinari, Rome, where the funeral took place on March 10, 1704, and buried in the chapel he had built for himself in that same church.

Bibliography. Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 17, 43 and 44; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 219; and I, 279.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 12-14.

Link. His tomb in S. Carlo ai Catinari, Rome.

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(9) 8. BICHI, Carlo (1638-1718)

Birth. May 6, 1638, Siena. Of a patrician family. Son of Galgano Bichi, marquis of Rocca Albenga and of Vallerone, and Girolama Piccolomini. Nephew of Cardinal Alessandro Bichi (1633). Uncle of Cardinal Vincenzo Bichi (1731). Other cardinals of the family were Metello Bichi (1611); and Antonio Bichi (1657).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Knight of the Soveriegn Order of Malta. Domestic prelate in the pontificate of Pope Alexander VII (1655-1667), his fellow citizen. Vice-legate of Bologna, June 10, 1661. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Inquisitor in Malta. Lieutenant general of the papal galleys in Candia. Abbot of Monmajour-lès-Arlès, Provence. Vice-legate of Romagna, 1664; again in 1666; and again in 1667. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, December 2, 1669. Voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace. President delle Ripe, 1675. President della Zecca, ca. 1680-1681. General auditor of the Apostolic Chamber, ca. 1687.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 13, 1690; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin, April 10, 1690. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. Opted for the deaconry of S. Agata in Suburra, December 22, 1693. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI.

Death. November 7, 1718, at 12:15 p.m., in his Roman palace in S. Andrea della Valle. Exposed in the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, where the funeral took place on November 10, 1718; in the afternoon was transferred to the church of S. Agata in Suburra and buried on the right side, at the back of that church.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 14; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. 6 v. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 105; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 156, 368 and 499.

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(10) 9. IMPERIALI, Giuseppe Renato (1651-1737)

Birth. April 29, 1651, Oria (1), near Francavilla, fief of his family, archdiocese of Brindisi. Of a Genoese family. His last name is also listed as Imperiale. Nephew of Cardinal Lorenzo Imperiali (1652). Uncle of Cardinals Giuseppe Spinelli (1735) and Cosimo Imperiali (1753).

Education. Obtained a doctorate (no further educational information found).

Early life. Papal prelate in the pontificate of Pope Clement X (1670-1676). Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber in the pontificate of Pope Innocent XI (1676-1689), and later treasurer and auditor of the same chamber. Commissary general of sailors and galleys and of fortresses and maritime towers of the Papal States, September 14, 1686.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 13, 1690; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, April 10, 1690. Granted dispensation to be a cardinal although he had not yet received the minor orders, February 13, 1690. Granted license to receive all the sacred orders outside of Ember days and without time intervals between them, March 18, 1690. Legate in Ferrara, April 10, 1690; legation prorogated for a triennium, July 17, 1691. Legate ad exercendam in Bologna, June 10, 1690. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI. Prefect of the S.C. of Good Government. Prefect of the S.C. of the Discipline of Regulars, 1698. Named legate a latere before King Carlos II of Spain during his visit to Milan, October 14, 1711. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII. Opted for the order of priests and his deaconry was elevated, pro illa vice, to title, December 9, 1726. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, January 20, 1727, retaining his other title until November 17, 1732 when he resigned it. Participated in the conclave of 1730, which elected Pope Clement XII; Cardinal Cornelio Bentivoglio presented the veto of King Felipe V of Spain against his election to the papacy when he was one vote short of being elected. Cardinal protoprete. Supported and protected the nascent Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles. He collected a vast library that was auctioned in 1793.

Death. January 15, 1737, at 4 p.m., after a brief illness, Rome. Transferred to the church of S. Agostino, Rome, where the funeral took place, and buried on the right side of the chapel dedicated to the saint in that same church.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 14-17.

Links. His portrait, and his engraving by Johann Crhistoph Kolb, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin.

(1) Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, indicates that he was born in Ferentano (Ferentino).

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(11) 10. OMODEI, iuniore, Luigi (1657-1706)

Birth. March 20, 1657, Madrid. His last name is also listed as Homodei. Son of Agostino Omodei, marquis of Almonacid, Spain, and his third wife Maria Pacheco y Cabrera. Of the Milanese family of the marquises of Villanova e Piovera. Nephew of Cardinal Luigi Omodei, seniore (1652).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. He was in Rome in 1686. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber in the pontificate of Pope Innocent XI (1676-1689).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 13, 1690; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria Portico Campitelli, April 10, 1690. Granted dispensation for not having yet received the sacred orders, February 13, 1690. PParticipated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. Granted license to receive the sacred orders outside Ember days and without time intervals between them, July 21, 1693. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI.

Death. August 18, 1706, at 4:30 p.m., Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome, where the funeral took place on August 19, 1706, and buried in that same church, near the main door.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 18-19.

Link. His bust, by Agostino Cornacchini, church of Ss. Ambrogio e Carlo al Corso, Rome.

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(12) 11. ALBANI, Gianfrancesco (1649-1721)

Birth. July 23, 1649, Pesaro (1). Of a distinguished Italian family, descendant of refugees from Albania in the fifteenth century. Originally, the family had two branches: Bergamo and Urbino. Son of Carlo Albani, a patrician from Urbino, master of chamber of Cardinal Francesco Barberini, and Elena Mosca. His first name is also listed as Giovanni Francesco. Uncle of Cardinals Annibale Albani (1711), and Alessandro Albani, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1721). Cousin of Cardinals Fabio Olivieri (1715); and Agapito Mosca (1732). Grand uncle of Cardinal Gian Francesco Albani (1747). Great-grand-uncle of Cardinal Giuseppe Albani (1801). The first cardinal of the family was Gian Girolamo Albani (1570).

Education. Collegio Romano, Rome (1660). Queen Christina of Sweden enrolled him in her exclusive Accademia in Rome (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, which was conferred upon him at Urbino, where his compatriots had invited him to receive their congratulations).

Early life. Canon of the chapter of the basilica of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, Rome, 1670. Papal prelate, 1677. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace in the pontificate of Innocent XI (1676-1689). Governor of Rieti. Governor of Sabina. Governor of Orvieto. Secretary of Apostolic Briefs, October 5, 1687 for thirteen years. Vicar of the cardinal archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica and judge of the S.C. of the Reverend Fabric of Saint Peter's, May 22, 1688. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, October 29, 1688. When he learned of his promotion to the cardinalate, he begged the pope not to proceed with the creation.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 13, 1690; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Aquiro, April 10, 1690. Abbot commendatario of S. Maria e Ss. Martiri Giovanni e Paolo di Casamari, diocese of Veroli. Opted for the deaconry of S. Adriano, May 22, 1690. Participated in the conclave of 1691, which elected Pope Innocent XII. He drafted the bull Romanum decet Pontificem issued by Pope Innocent XII on June 22, 1692, which outlawed nepotism. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Silvestro in Capite, March 30, 1700.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 1700. Celebrated his first mass on October 6, 1700 in the church of S. Maria degli Angeli, Rome. Participated in the conclave of 1700 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected Pope Clement XI on November 23, 1700, after having declined the election for three days.

Episcopate. Consecrated bishop of Rome, November 30, 1700, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Emmanuel-Theódose de la Tour d'Auvergne de Bouillon, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, assisted by Cardinal Nicolo Acciaiuoli, bishop of Frascati, and by Cardinal Gaspare Carpegna, bishop of Sabina. Crowned, December 8, 1700, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Benedetto Pamphili, protodeacon of S. Maria in Via Lata. Took possession of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, April 10, 1701. He extended the feast of Our Lady of the Rosary to the Universal Church in 1716. He created seventy cardinals in fifteen consistories.

Death. March 19, 1721, Rome. Exposed in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, and buried in the choir of the canons of that same basilica (2).

Bibliography. Andretta, Stefano. "Clemente XI." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, 405-420; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VIII, 19-24; Kelly, John Norman Davidson, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, pp. 291-293; Montor, Artaud de. The lives and times of the popes, including the complete gallery of the portraits of the pontiffs reproduced from "Effigies pontificum romanorum Dominici Basae"; being a series of volumes giving the history of the world during the Christian era, retranslated, rev. and written up to date from Les vies des papes, by the Chevalier Artaud de Montor. 10 vols. Lateran ed. New York : The Catholic Publication Society of America 1910-11, VI, 169-218; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 17, 22-32, 51, 52 and 53.

Links. Biography by James Loughlin, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church; his effigy on a medallion, Christopher Eimer.

(1) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VIII, 19, and Montor, The lives and times of the popes, VI, 169. Other sources indicate that he was born in Urbino.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph on the pavement of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

D      O      M
CLEMENS XI · P · M
HVIVS SS. BASILICAE
OLIM VICARIVS
ET POSTEA CANONICVS
SIBI VIVENS PONI IVSSIT
OBIIT DIE XIX MARTII
ANNO SAL · MDCCXXI
AETATIS VERO SVAE LXXI
MENS · VII D · XXV
SEDIT IN PONTIFICATV
ANNOS XX MENSES III

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