The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Innocent XII (1691-1700)
Consistory of December 12, 1695 (I)

(1) 1. MORIGIA, B., Giacomo Antonio (1633-1708)

Birth. February 23, 1633, Milan (1). His first name is also listed as Jacopo. His baptismal name was Giovanni Ippolito.

Education. Entered the order of the Clerics Regular of Saint Paul (Barnabites), 1651; took the name Giacomo Antonio. Studied at the University of Pavia.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Lector of philosophy and theology in Macerata and Milan. Notable preacher throughout Italy. Declined election to superior general of his order. Theologian of Cosimo III, grand duke of Tuscany, and preceptor of his eldest son, Ferdinando, 1674.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of San Miniato, September 1, 1681. Consecrated, September 14, 1681, church of S. Carlo ai Catinari, Rome, by Cardinal Gaspare Carpegna, assisted by Giacomo de Angelis, former archbishop of Urbino, and by Angelo della Noce, former archbishop of Rossano. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Florence, February 15, 1683. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, July 15, 1692.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of December 12, 1695; published in the consistory of December 19, 1698; received the red hat and the title of S. Cecilia, April 11, 1699. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, April 20, 1699. Resigned government of the archdiocese, October 23, 1699. Legate a latere for the opening and closing of the holy door of the patriarchal Liberian basilica in the Jubilar Holy Year of 1700. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI. Transferred to the see of Pavia, with personal title of archbishop, January 24, 1701.

Death. October 8, 1708, Pavia. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Pavia.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 26-29.

Links. His engraving by Louis David and Arnauld Van Westerhaut, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; engravings, arms and biographical data, in Italian, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Chiesa Romana, VIII, 26, indicates that he entered the order of the Barnabites in 1651 when he was thirteen years old so he would have been born in 1638.

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tanarasa.jpg

(2) 2. TANARA, Sebastiano Antonio
(1650-1724)

Birth. April 10, 1650, Rome (1). Second child of Cesare Tanara and Laura di Carpegna; the other siblings were Franciotto and Diana. Nephew of Cardinal Ulderico Carpegna (1633). Uncle of Cardinal Alessandro Tanara (1743). His last name is also listed as Tanari.

Education. Studied at the University of Bologna, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on April 10, 1671. After graduation, went to Paris with Nuncio Pietro Bargellini and later visited several European cities and regions. Received the ecclesiastical tonsure, May 21, 1674.

Early life. Called to Rome by his uncle. Protonotary apostolic in the pontificate of Pope Clement X (1670-1676). Internuncio in Flanders, 1675-1687. Sent in a secret mission to King James II of England, who had converted to Catholicism.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Damasco, with dispensation for only having received the tonsure, April 28, 1687. Nuncio in Cologne, April 30, 1687. Granted dispensation to receive the sacred orders and the presbyterate outside Ember days, May 23, 1687. Consecrated, July 13, 1687, church of Sainte Gudule, Brussels, by Alphonse de Berghes, archbishop of Malines, assisted by Jean van Beughem, bishop of Anvers, and by Pierre Van den Perre, bishop of Namur. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, December 21, 1689. Nuncio in Portugal, May 26, 1690; delivered the fascie sent by Pope Alexander VIII for the newborn Infant Prince of Brazil, son of the king of Portugal. Nuncio in Austria, March 15, 1692.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 12, 1695; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Quattro Coronati, May 21, 1696. Abbot of Nonantola. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI. Prefect of the S.C. of the Ecclesiastical Immunity. Legate in Urbino, April 23, 1703; legation prorogated for a triennium, May 23, 1705; prorogated for a second time, April 27, 1709; and for a third time, May 14, 1712. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati, April 1, 1715. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, proper of the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 3, 1721. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII; he had to leave the conclave because of a serious illness on April 15, 1724.

Death. May 5, 1724, around 5 :30 a.m., in his Roman palace, during the sede vacante. Transferred on May 7 to the church of S. Maria della Vittoria, Rome, where the funeral took place, and buried in that same church, in the pavement under a marble slab with a simple inscription (2). Later, his compatriot and close friend Pope Benedict XIV placed, in the atrium to the sacristy, a decorous inscription with a marble bust of the cardinal.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 29-31; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, pp. 147-148; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 928.

Links. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; engravings and portrait, Araldica Vaticana; his tomb in S. Maria della Vittoria, Rome, Requiem Datenbank; and his funeral monument in the same church, iccd immagini, Fototeca Nazionale.

(1) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, V, 180, but the archive of the cathedral of Frascati indicates that he was born in Bologna in 1651 while other authors such as Grandi, and Moroni, say that he was born in 1649 in Rome of the noble Bolognese family of the marquis della Serra. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VIII, 29, says that he was born in Rome because his parents, from Bologna, were visiting the city for the Holy Year Jubilee of 1650. Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, indicates that he was born on July 8, 1650.
(2) This is the text of the inscription in his tomb, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D     ·     O    ·     M
SEBASTIANO ANTONIO TANARI BONONIENSI
S · R · E · PRESBYERO CARDINALI
QUI PRIMO BRUXELLIS INTERNUNTIS
MOX APUD UBIOS LUSITANUS ET LEOPOLDUM CÆSAREM
SEDIS APOSTOLICÆ NUNTIUS
AB INNOCENTIO XII · INTER CARDINALES ADSCITUS EST
INDE LEGATIONI URBINATENSI EJUSQUE ECCLESIÆ
ARCHIEPISCOPALI ADMINISTRANDÆ DIU PRÆFIT
DEMUM OSTIENSIS AC VELITERNUS EPISCOPUS
ET SACRI COLLEGIJ DECANUS
OBIJT ROMÆ IV · NONAS MAIJ MDCCXXIV · ÆT · ANN · LXXIV
ET IN HAC ÆDE S · MARIÆ DE VICTORIA SEPULTUS
BENEDICTUS XIV · P · M
CIVI OPTIMO ET AMICO BENEVOLENTISSIMO
MONUMENTUM POS ·
PONTIFICATVS ANNO III

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(3) 3. BONCOMPAGNI, Giacomo (1652-1731)

Birth. May 15, 1652, Isola, diocese of Sora. His first name is also listed as Jacopo; and his last name as Buoncompagni. Of the family of the dukes of Sora. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Francesco Boncompagni (1621); nephew of Cardinal Girolamo Boncompagni, archbishop of Bologna (1664); grand-uncle of Cardinal Gregorio Salviati (1777). Relative of Cardinal Tommaso Ruffo (1706).

Education. Studied at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on March 30, 1676.

Early life. Knight of the Sovereign Order of Malta at a very young age. Willing to enter the ecclesiastical state, went to Rome. Governor of Orvieto in 1676. Vice-governor of Fermo in the pontificate of Pope Alexander VIII (1689-1691).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Bologna, with dispensation for not having yet received the sacred orders, April 17, 1690. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, May 4, 1690. Consecrated, May 7, 1690, church of S. Marco, Rome, by Cardinal Gasparo Carpegna.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 12, 1695; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Via, January 2, 1696. Legate a latere to bless the marriage of future Emperor Joseph I of Austria and Wilhelmina-Amalia von Brunswick-Lünenberg. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, retaining the administration of the archdiocese of Bologna, June 12, 1724. Participated in the conclave of 1730, which elected Pope Clement XII.

Death. March 24, 1731, in the convent of the Theatines, Rome. Transferred on March 27, 1731, to the church of S. Andrea delle Valle, Rome, where the funeral took place. Buried in that church, temporarily, until his body was translated to the metropolitan cathedral of Bologna and buried in front of the chapels of the Relics and of S. Rocco, next to his uncle Cardinal Girolamo.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 31-32; Meluzzi, Luciano. I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna. Bologna : Grafica Emiliana, 1975, (Collana storico-ecclesiastica; 3), pp. 460-467; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 841.

Links. His engraving by N. Dorigny and A. Lesma, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; his engravings, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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(4) 4. CAVALLERINI, Giovanni Giacomo (1639-1699)

Birth. February 16, 1639, Rome. His first name is also listed as Gian Iagopo. Roman noble of a family originally from Modena. His parents were Guarnerio Cavallerini, distinguished juris consult, and Veturia Bonaventura.

Education. Received from the Jesuits his basic education; later, he studied at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Lawyer of the Roman Curia. Entered the ecclesiastical state. Domestic prelate in the pontificate of Pope Alexander VIII who named him lieutenant of the auditor of the papal chamber, post that he occupied for twenty years. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota. Received the minor orders, March 19, 1692; subdiaconate, March 23, 1692; diaconate, March 25, 1692.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 30, 1692.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Nicea, June 25, 1692. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, June 29, 1692. Consecrated, June 30, 1692, convent of the nuns of Santi Domenico e Sisto Magnapoli, Rome, by Cardinal Fabrizio Spada, assisted by Michelangelo Mattei, titular archbishop of Adrianopoli, and by Baldassare Cenci, titular archbishop of Larissa. Nuncio in France, July 1, 1692.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 12, 1695; received the red hat and the title of S. Bartolomeo all'Isola, May 21, 1696. Prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, May 16, 1696.

Death. February 18, 1699, at noon, in his Roman palace, after a brief illness. Exposed in the church of S. Carlo ai Catinari, where the funeral took place on February 19, 1699, at 9 p.m., and buried in front of the chapel of S. Paolo in that same church.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 32-33.

Links. His engraving, Araldica Vaticana; his tomb in the church of S. Carlo ai Catinari, Rome.

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(5) 5. CACCIA, Federico (1635-1699)

Birth. 1635, Milan. Of a noble Novarese family. Son of Camillo Caccia and Orsola Casati.

Education. Studied at the University of Pavia, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Member of Collegio de' nobili giurisconsulti of Milan. Moved to Rome and became consistorial lawyer in the pontificate of Pope Clement X. Rector of the Archgimnasium of Rome for four years. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota. Lieutenant of the Holy Office. Almoner of Pope Innocent XI. Had earlier declined appointments to the episcopal sees of Lucca, Novara and Cremona.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Laodicea, January 2, 1693, retaing the auditorship of the Sacred Roman Rota under the title of lieutenant. Consecrated, January 4, 1693, church of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome, by Cardinal Galeazzo Marescotti, assisted by Prospero Bottini, titular archbishop of Mira, and by Stefano Menatti, titular bishop of Cirene. Nuncio in Spain, January 5, 1693. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, January 6, 1693. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Milan, April 13, 1693, retaing the auditorship of the Sacred Roman Rota under the title of lieutenant. He was granted the pallium on July 20, 1693.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 12, 1695; the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief of December 22, 1695; received the red hat on July 23, 1696; and the title of S. Pudenziana, August 13, 1696.

Death. January 14, 1699, at 8 a.m., in the archiepiscopal palace of Milan. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Milan, and buried in front of the altar of the Madonna del Albero in that same cathedral. Left all his possessions to the poor.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 33-34; Cazzani, Eugenio. Vescovi e arcivescovi di Milano. Nuova ed./ a cura di Angelo Majo, 2. ed. Milano : Massimo : NED, 1996. Note: Originally published 1955, now enlarged and updated, p. 244-246; Majo, Angelo. Storia della chiesa ambrosiana. 5 vols. 2nd ed. Milano : NED, 1983-1986, III, 1, 85 and 95; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, VI, 187-188; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 19, 51, 235 and 263.

Links. Biography by Vittor Ivo Comparato, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 15 (1972), Treccani; his engraving and portrait, Araldica Vaticana; Serie cronologica dei vescovi di Milano (III-XXI secolo), in Italian, archdiocese of Milan.

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(6) 6. VERME, Taddeo Luigi dal (1641-1717)

Birth. February 16, 1641, Piacenza. Baptized the following day. Of an ancient and illustrious family. Son of Giovanni Maria dal Verme, count of Sanguineto, and Ottavia Meli-Lupi di Soragna, of the marquises of Soragna. Nephew of Cardinal Savo Millini (1681) and relative of Cardinals Girolamo Farnese (1657) and Mario Alberizzi (1675).

Education. Studied at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law on January 26, 1688.

Early life. Received the clerical tonsure in 1650 when he was nine years old. Resigned his primogeniture in 1664 to become a priest. Went to Rome in 1664 and accompanied Nuncio Mario Alberici to Vienna.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Prefect of the episcopal palace of Fano. Declined several times the promotion offered by the duke of Parma to the episcopal see of that city. Pope Innocent XI obligated him to accept the see of Fano.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Fano, December 20, 1688. Consecrated, January, 2, 1689, Rome (no further information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 12, 1695; with dispensation for having an uncle in the Sacred College of Cardinals; received the red hat and the title of S. Alessio, January 2, 1696. Transferred to the see of Imola, January 2, 1696. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI. Transferred to the see of Ferrara, March 14, 1702.

Death. January 12, 1717, Ferrara. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Ferrara.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 34-36; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, V, 19, 43, 198 and 201.

Link. His engravings, Araldica Vaticana.

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(7) 7. CENCI, seniore, Baldassare (1648-1709)

Birth. 1648, Rome. Youngest of the five children of Virginio Cenci and Maria Vittoria Verospi. Uncle of Cardinal Baldassare Cenci, iuniore (1761). Other cardinals of the family are Tiberio Cenci (1645) and Serafino Cenci (1734).

Education. Studied at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Vice-legate in Avignon, September 26, 1685.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 26, 1691.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Larissa, August 27, 1691. Consecrated, September 30, 1691, patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Fabrizio Spada, assisted by Ercole Visconti, titular archbishop of Damietta, and by Michelangelo Mattei, titular archbishop of Adrianopoli. Prefect of the Cubiculi of His Holiness, August 28, 1691. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, December 3, 1691.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of December 12, 1695; published in the consistory of November 11, 1697; received the red hat and the title of S. Pietro in Montorio, December 2, 1697. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Fermo, November 20, 1697. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI.

Death. May 26, 1709, at 5 p.m., in the archiepiscopal palace of Fermo. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Fermo, and buried in the chapel of the Madonna in that cathedral.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 37-38; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 218.

Link. His engravings and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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(8) 8. FERRARI, O.P., Tommaso Maria (1649-1716)

Birth. December 2, 1649, Casalnuovo. His baptismal name was Pieragostino.

Education. Entered the Order of Preachers (Dominicans), 1662; took the name Tommaso Maria. (No further educational information found). When two of his brothers, who had also joined the order, died during the novitiate, he was asked to return home but refused. Sent to study in Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Lector of philosophy in the convent of S. Tommaso, Naples. Named master of his order, 1677. Lector of theology in the convent of Bologna, 1685; during his tenure he became a very close friend of Cardinal Antonio Pignatelli, legate and future Pope Innocent XII. Master of the Sacred Palace, 1688. Acting apostolic preacher of the Sacred Palace during the illness of the preacher.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 12, 1695; received the red hat and the title of S. Clemente, January 2, 1696. Prefect of the S.C. of the Index. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 14, 1704 until January 26, 1705.

Death. August 20, 1716, at 8:30 p.m., Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Sabina, Rome, where the funeral took place, and buried in that same church.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 38-43.

Link. His engraving and portrait, Araldica Vaticana.

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(9) 9. SACRIPANTE, Giuseppe (1642-1727)

Birth. March 19, 1642 (or 1643), Narni (1). Eldest of the four children of Giacinto Sacripante and Vittoria de Basilis. His last name is also listed as Sacripanti. Uncle of Cardinal Carlo Maria Sacripante (1739)

Education. Studied letters, and then, law in Rome.

Early life. Worked with Giacomo Prioli, auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, whom he succeeded when the auditor fell gravely ill. Consistorial advocate, 1684. Sub-datary, April 17, 1687; confirmed in his post by the new Pope Alexander VIII, October 10, 1689; and again by Pope Innocent XII, July 16, 1691. Abbreviatore of the Roman Curia, November 6, 1688. Canon of the patriarchal Lateran Basilica. Secretary of the Congregations of Avignon and Loreto. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, retaining his post of consistorial lawyer, April 24, 1690. Secretary of Memorials, retaining the subdatary, 1695.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 12, 1695; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Traspontina, January 2, 1696. Prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, January 2, 1696 until December 4, 1700. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI. Pro-datary, December 4, 1700. Prefect of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, December 9, 1704 until his death. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 26, 1705 until January 25, 1706. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, March 3, 1721. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XII. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, July 31, 1726, Cardinal primoprete.

Death. January 4, 1727, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Ignazio, Rome, where the funeral took place, and buried in the tomb he had built for himself in that same church (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 43-44; Del Re, Nicola. "I cardinali prefetti della sacra congregazione del concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), pp. 123-124 Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 19, 46, 48, 50 and 59; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), IV, 850.

Links. His engraving, Araldica Vaticana; his tomb in the church of S. Ignazio, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, V, 19, indicates that he died when he was 84 years old, and Cardella Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Chiesa Romana, VIII, 44, says that he was 85 years old at his death.
(2) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D     ·     O     ·     M     ·
IOSEPH S·R·E·CARDINALIS SACRIPANTES
CLEMENTIS XI PONT MAX
PRODATARIVS
ET SACRÆ CONGREGATIONI
DE PROPAGANDA FIDE
PRÆFECTVS
SANCTO IOSEPHO PATRONO SVO
SACELLVM
CENSV ANNO DIVINÆ REI
QVOTIDIE IN EO FACIENDÆ CONSTITVTO
SIBI SVISQVE
SEPULCHRVM
POSVIT
ANNO DNI MDCCXII

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(10) 10. SFONDRATI, O.S.B., Celestino (1644-1696)

Birth. January 10, 1644, Milan. Of an ancient and illustrious family. Son of Marquis Valeriano Sfondrati, commissary general in the Spanish army, and Paola Camilla Marliana. Grand-nephew of Pope Gregory XIV (1590-1591), and grand-nephew of Cardinal Francesco Sfondrati (1544) and nephew of Paolo Emilio Sfondrati (1590).

Education. Benedictine school at Rorschach, Bodensee, 1656. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict, April 26, 1660, in the monastery of Sankt Gall (or Saint-Gall), Switzerland; changed his baptismal name, Valentino, to Celestino. Received the minor orders, May 14, 1665; subdiaconate, September 19, 1665; diaconate, September 24, 1667. Taught philosophy and theology at Kempten, while a deacon, 1667. Benedictine University of Salzburg (doctorates in theology, 1679, and canon law).

Priesthood. Ordained, April (or May) 26, 1668. Celebrated his first mass, June 3, 1668. In the monastery of Sankt Gall, professor of philosophy, December 31, 1670; theology, 1671; and master of novices, July 20, 1675. Professor of canon law, Benedictine University of Salzburg, 1679-1683. Returned to Sankt Gall in 1683 and for a brief time was pastor of a small country church near Rorschach. Vicar general of the abbot of Sankt Gall, 1683. The pope called him to Rome on October 30, 1686, to appoint him bishop of Novara. He reluctantly accepted the promotion but did not occupy the see because he was elected prince-abbot of St. Gall, March (or April) 17, 1687. Strongly supported the rights of the Holy See and opposed Gallicanism and Jansenism. Published numerous works in theology, apologetics, and canon law, among other topics.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 12, 1695; received the red hat and the title of S. Cecilia, February 20, 1696.

Death. September 4, 1696, in the hospice next to the house of probation of the Society of Jesus, adjoining the church of S. Andrea al Quirinale, Rome. Exposed in his title, where the funeral took place on September 6, 1696, and buried in that same church. His heart was brought to the monastery of Sankt Gallen.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 44-46.

Links. Biography by Michael Ott, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his engraving and portraits, Araldica Vaticana.

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(11) 11. NORIS, O.E.S.A., Enrico (1631-1704)

Birth. August 29, 1631, Verona. Of Irish ancestry (1). His first name is also listed as Errico; and his last name as Nori; and as Norris. His baptismal name was Girolamo.

Education. Initially, he studied at the Jesuit school in Rimini (rhetoric and logic), 1646. Entered the Order of the Hermits of Saint Augustine, 1647; novitiate of Rimini; took the name Enrico; after probation, from 1650 to 1654, he studied philosophy amd theology at the Augustinian general study, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Professor of philosophy and theology in Pesaro, 1658-1662; Perugia, 1662-1663; Florence, 1664-1666; Padua, 1666-1671; and Rome, 1671-1672. Magister of theology, 1663. Some of the works he published in 1673, in history and theology, produced much controversy although they had been approved by a special commission in Rome. He even went to Rome to explain his orthodoxy before that commission. Pope Clement X appointed him one of the qualificators of the Holy Office, recognizing his knowledge and orthodox doctrine. In spite of this, more charges were presented accusing him of Jansenism and Bajanismus (2). Grand duke Cosimo III of Tuscany, called him to Florence and named him his personal theologian and professor of church history, University of Pisa, 1674-1692. Declined promotion to the see of Pistoia as well as other promotions offered by Popes Clement X and Innocent XI. First custos of the Vatican library, May 16, 1692.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 12, 1695; received the red hat and the title of S. Agostino, January 2, 1696. Librarian of the Holy Roman Church, March 6, 1700 until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI (3). His complete works were published in a five-volume folio by the Ballerini Brothers, Verona, 1729-1741.

Death. February 23, 1704, at 3 p.m., Rome. Exposed in his title, S. Agostino, where the funeral took place; and buried there (4). The Augustinian friars erected a beautiful monument to honor his memory in that church.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 46-49; Martínez, Agustín M. Introducción a la teología del cardenal Enrique Noris, agustino (1631-1704). Santiago, Chile : Imp. Lathrop, 1946; Nicaise, Claude, 1686-1701. Lettres de l'abbi Nicaise au cardinal Noris (1686-1701). Besançon : Typographie et lithographic Jacquin, 1903; Rojo Martínez, Fernando. "Ensayo bibliográfico de Noris, Bellelli y Berti," Analecta Augustiniana. XXVI (1963), 294-331; Wernicke, Michael Klaus. Kardinal Enrico Noris und siene Verteidigung Augustins. Würzburg : Augustinus-Verlag, 1973.

Links. Biography by Francis Tourscher, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography by Adolar Zumkeller, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon; his engraving by Benedetto Fariat (or Farjat), Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; engravings, bust and portrait, Araldica Vaticana; and his tomb in the church of S. Agostino, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) According to Martínez, Introducción a la teología del Cardenal Enrique Noris, p. 7, his grandfather, James Noris, was an Irishman who migrated to Cyprus and had to escape when the Turks of Selim II conquered the island in 1570. With his family, he settled in Verona.
(2) On July 31, 1748, Pope Benedict XIV sent a brief to the prefect of the Spanish inquisition ordering the name of Noris to be removed from the list of forbidden books.The pope said that the charges had never been proved; had been rejected several times by the S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, and had been repudiated by several popes who had recognized and honored him.
(3) William Joseph Battersby, A history of all the abbeys, convents, churches, and other religious houses of the order particularly of the Hermits of St. Augustine in Ireland (Dublin : G. P. Warren, 1856), p. 95, says "On the death of Pope Innocent XII, Cardinal Norris received all the votes of the Cardinals to succeed him as vicar of Jesus Christ ; but owing to his humilty in declining such a wighty charge or the Order of Providence, Clement XI. was elected in his place." None of the sources consulted mention this incident.
(4) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

F. ENRICO NORIS VERONENSI
ORDINIS AC TITVLI S. AVGVSTINI
PRESBYTERO CARDINALI
S. R. E. BIBLIOTHECARIO
AVGVSTINIANA EREMOTARVM FAMILIA
THEOLOGO CHRONOLOGO HISTORICO
B. M. P.
HENRICO MONVMENTVM INGENS SESE EXPLICAT ORBIS
PHOENICVM AD LITTVM LITTORE AB HESPERIÆ
INSCRIBVNT TVMVLO QVIDQVID DVXERE PERENNI
AERE ARGENTO AVRO SÆCVLA ET HISTORIÆ
NORISIO MINOR EST TIVLVS TV GRANDIOR ESSE
AVGVSTINE POTES PAR TVMVLO TITVLVS
OBIIT VII. KAL. MARTII ANNO AERAE CHRISTI MDCCIV
AETATIS LXXXIII. EX A. D. IV KAL. SEPTEMBRIS

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(12) 12. SPINOLA, iuniore, Giambattista (1646-1719)

Birth. August 4, 1646, Genoa. Eldest of the six children of Senator Francesco Maria Spinola and Pompilia Cattaneo. The other children were Federico, Isabella, Giorgio (bishop of Albenga), and two other children. Nephew of Cardinals Giulio Spinola (1666); and Giambattista Spinola, seniore (1681). Great-great-grand-uncle of Cardinal Ugo Pietro Spinola (1831). Other cardinals of the various branches of the Spinola family were Agostino Spinola (1527); Filippo Spinola (1583); Orazio Spinola (1606); Agustín Spínola (1621); Giandomenico Spinola (1626); Niccolò Spinola (1715); Giorgio Spinola (1719); Giovanni Battista Spinola (1733); and Girolamo Spinola (1759).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. In 1665 went with his uncle to the nunciature in Austria; the emperor named him chamberlain of honor and knight of the Golden Key. Returned to Rome and was relator of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta and governor of Tivoli, Fano, and Ascoli, in the pontificate of Pope Clement X (1670-1676). Preceptor of the archhospital of S. Spirito in Sassia, Rome, February 28, 1688. Secretary of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta, October 12, 1689. Governor of Rome and vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, July 28, 1691 until December 12, 1695. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 12, 1695 with dispensation for having an uncle in the Sacred College of Cardinals; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Cesareo in Palatio, January 2, 1696. Granted dispensation for not having yet received the minor orders, December 12, 1695. Granted dispensation to receive sacred orders outside Ember days and without time intervals between them, January 11, 1696. Legate in Bologna, February 25, 1697. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, November 24, 1698 until March 19, 1719. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI. Opted for the order of priests and his deaconry was elevated, pro illa vice, to title, January 25, 1706.

Death. March 19, 1719, at 2 p.m., of podagra, in his Roman palace. Exposed in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, where the funeral took place on March 22, 1719, and buried in the tomb of Cardinal Giulio Spinola, in the Jesuit church of S. Andrea al Quirinale, Rome (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 49-50; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, pp. 110-111; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 921.

Links. His engraving, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his tomb in the church of S. Andrea al Quirinale, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D · O · M ·
IOANNES BAPTISTA
CARDINALIS SPINVLA
S · R · E · CAMERARIVS
PATRVI CINERIBVS
MORTALITATIS SVÆ
SOCIATO DEPOSITO
AMOREM TALE VIRO
DEBITVM
VEL MORTVVS
TESTATVR
OBIIT DIE XIX MARTII
AN · MDCCXIX

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(13) 13. TARUGI, Domenico (1638-1696)

Birth. 1638, Ferrara. Of a family from Orvieto. His father was auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota. His last name is also listed as Tarusius.

Education. Studied at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in law.

Early life. Practised law in the study of Angelo Celsi, auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota and later cardinal. Auduitor of the nunciature in Portugal, 1670. Auditor of Cardinal Flavio Chigi. Consistorial lawyer, 1682. Civil lieutenant of the auditor of the Chamber, 1689. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, retaining the office of consistorial lawyer, January 29, 1689. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, 1694.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 12, 1695; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria della Scala, January 2, 1696.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Ferrara, January 2, 1696. Granted dispensation for not having yet received the sacred orders, January 2, 1696. Consecrated, February 12, 1696, church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, by Cardinal Giacomo Boncompagni, assisted by Michelangelo Mattei, titular Latin patriarch of Antioch, and by Prospero Bottini, titular archbishop of Mira.

Death. December 27, 1696, archiepiscopal palace of Ferrara. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Ferrara.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 50-51.

Link. His engraving, Araldica Vaticana.

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(14) 14. LA GRANGE D'ARQUIEN, Henri Albert de (1613-1707)

Birth. September 8, 1613, Calais. His last name is also listed as Lagrance. He was marquis d'Arquien. Of an ancient, noble but impoverished family, established in Berri before 1440, that had given France a marshal and knights of different orders. His father was governor of Calais.

Education. (No information found). Like his father, he took a military career.

Early life. Married two times and had seven children; his second wife died in 1692. Captain of the cavalry regiment of Gaston, duke of Orléans, son of King Henri IV of France, in 1643; grand master, lieutenant of the regiment, May 1651; fought in Flanders with the regiment; promoted to field marshal, July 1652; captain of the Swiss guard, 1654. In 1672, he joined in Poland his daughter Marie-Casimire who had married, in second nuptials, Jan Sobieski, who became king of Poland on May 20, 1674. After she tried in vain to have her father named duke and peer by King Louis XIV, she turned to Pope Innocent XII and obtained from him the cardinalate for her father.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 12, 1695; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Nicola in Carcere, April 11, 1699. After the death of the Polish king, he and his daughter retired to Rome in 1699. Granted dispensation to receive sacred orders outside of Ember days and without time intervals between them, September 25, 1700. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI. He died without having received ordination.

Death. May 24, 1707, at 4 p.m., Rome (1). Exposed and buried in the church of S. Luigi dei Francesi, Rome (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 51-53; Platania, Gaetano ; Langrange d'Arquien, Henri de. Lettere alla corte di Roma del cardinale Enrico de la Grange d'Arquien, suocero di Giovanni Sobieski. Udine : Del Bianco, 1989. (Testi e studi / Biblioteca dell'Accademia di storia e letteratura polacca e slava di Bologna Adamo Mickiewicz ; nuova ser., 4; Variation: Testi e studi (Accademia di storia e letteratura polacca e slava di Bologna Adamo Mickiewicz. Biblioteca) ; nuova ser., 4).

Links. His tomb in the church of S. Luigi dei Francesi, Rome, Requiem Datenbank; his engraving, Araldica Vaticana; and Ojciec królowej (Father of the Queen), 1979 Polish film directed by Wojciech Solarz in which one of the characters is the cardinal.

(1) Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentoris Aevi, V, 20, n. 9, citing as a source the Archive of the S.C. of Ceremonial, says that he died in Rome on May 24, 1707 at 4:30 p.m. and that he was 107 years old. The epitaph indicates that he died on March 23, 1707 and that he was 105 years and 11 days old. Mémoires de Saint-Simon, vol. XV, pp. 147-148, n.3, says the date of birth in his epitaph is March 13, 1602; that Gazette d'Amsterdam gives December 1604 as the date of his birth; and that according to Recueil des notices of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1699, he was born on April 3, 1609.
(2) This is the inscription in his tombstone, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

OSSA
HENRICI DIACONI CARDINALIS
DE LA GRANGE D'ARQVIAN


       This is the text of his epitaph, taken from the same source:
D.     O.     M.
HIC IACET
HENRICVS DE LA GRANGE
MARCHIO D'ARQVIAN
MARIÆ CASIMIRÆ
POLONIARVM REGINA PATER
MAGNI IOANNES III. SOCER
LEGVM ET ELECTORIS PROABVS
ORDINIS S. SPIRITVS EQVES
S. R. E. DIACONVS CARDINALIS
VIXIT ANNOS CV. ET DIES XI.
OBIIT ROMÆ ANNO D. MDCCVII
DIE XXIII MARTII

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