The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Clement XI (1700-1721)
Consistory of May 17, 1706 (II)
Celebrated in Rome


(2) 1. MARTELLI, Francesco (1633-1717)

Birth. January 19, 1633, Florence. Of a noble family that had given Florence several gonfalonieri and senators; and several bishops to the Church. Son of Senator Marco Martelli and Lucrezia Franceschi. He is also listed as Franciscus Martellus.

Education. University of Pisa, Pisa, 1656 (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law).

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Florenceby right of patronato of his family, 1648. He went to Rome and entered the Roman prelature during the pontificate of Pope Alexander VII. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1662. Governor of Faenza, 1662. Vice-legate in Ferrara, 1663-1666. Governor of Spoleto, 1666-1668. Relator of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta, 1668. Received the subdiaconate, August 25, 1675; diaconate, September 1, 1675.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 8, 1675.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Corinto, September 9, 1675. Consecrated, September 15, 1675, church of S. Silvestro, Rome, by Cardinal Francesco Nerli, archbishop of Florence. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, September 20, 1675. Nuncio to Poland, September 20, 1675. Secretary of the S.C. of the Ecclesiastical Immunity, October 1686. Secretary of the S.C. for Jurisdictional Controversies, 1687. Secretary of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta, July 27, 1691. Promoted to the titular patriarchate of Jerusalem, July 21, 1698.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 17, 1706; received the red hat and the title of S. Eusebio, June 25, 1706.

Death. September 28, 1717, at 11 p.m., in his Roman palace where he had retired because of the gout that afflicted him. Exposed in the church of S. Agostino, Rome, where the funeral also took place; and buried next to the main door of that same church, under a marble with his cardinalitial arms and his name only. Later, his remains werte transferred to Florence and buried in his family's chapel in the church of Ss. Michele e Gaetano.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 77; Notizie per l'anno 1721. Rome : Nella Stamperia di Gio: Francesco Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1721, p. 141, no. 9; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 24, 45, 173 and 220; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 230, 252, 88 and 763-764.

Links. His image and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his portrait, Museo di Casa Martelli, Polo Museale Fiorentino; his tomb, in the Martelli chapel, church of Ss. Michele e Gaetano, Florence, Requiem Datenbank; another view of his tomb in his family's chapel, Wikipedia.

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(3) 2. BADOARO, Gianalberto (1649-1714)

Birth. May 12, 1649, Venice (1). Son of Francesco Badoaro and Elena Michiel. Nephew of Alberto Badoaro, bishop of Crema, who educated him and for whom he received his second baptismal name. His first name is also listed as Giovanni Alberto; as Giannalberto; as Gian Alberto; as Joannes only; and as Giovanni only; and his last name is also listed as Badoarius, Badoer, Badoardo, Badoere, Badovero, Baduario, Badoero, Baduaro, Baduaru and Bodoardo.

Education. When he was five years old, he was entrusted for his education to his uncle the bishop. Received the ecclesiastical tonsure and a prebend from his uncle in 1663, who also ordained him a subdeacon in his cathedral; later, he went to study at University of Padua, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. In 1673, together with his uncle the bishop, he accompanied new Cardinal Pietro Basadonna to Rome for his cardinalitial investiture. During the visit, the pope granted him a prebend. Returned to Crema and was named archdeacon of the cathedral and abbot commendatario of S. Pietro di Colle; after the death of his uncle the bishop in 1677 (who left him all his wealth), in repudiation of nepotism, he resigned both posts and went to Padua.

Priesthood. Ordained, after 1677, Padua, by Gregorio Barbarigo, bishop of Padua, future cardinal and saint. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Padua, May 31, 1681. Recalled to Venice by Doge Luigi Contarini, who named him primicerius of the cathedral chapter of S. Marco of Venice in 1681. The Venetian Senate named him patriarch of Venice on September 16, 1688; he was the preferred one from five candidates, among whom were the bishops of Treviso, Corfù and Bergamo; he obtained 151 favorable votes and 66 contrary ones.

Episcopate. Elected by the pope patriarch of Venice, September 27, 1688. Consecrated, November 6, 1688 (no further information found). He visited all the churches and monasteries of the patriarchate as well as its seminary. He worked to improve the popular customs and opened an academy in the patriarchal palace for the formation of the clergy. In 1690, after Pope Alexander VIII canonized Blessed Lorenzo Giustiniani, first patriarch of Venice, he established that for eight Sundays following his liturgical feast special celebrations took place in the patriarchal cathedral. He established the Conservatorio di S. Maria delle Penitenti for women who had abandoned prostitution. He solemnly consecrated three new parish churches: S. Agostino on December 9, 1691; S. Benedetto on May 9, 1692; and S. Maria Zobenigo in July 1700. In 1694, executing an authorization that the Senate had given him the year before, he allowed that the pinzocchere of the subportico of S. Marcuola were given to the new monastery of S. Giuseppe in S. Trovaso. In 1702, he allowed the translation of the remains of the Blessed Countess of Tagliapietra to a chapel of the parish church of S. Ivo. He lived very frugally and daily practiced penance.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 17, 1706. Transferred to the see of Brescia, with personal title of patriarch, June 7, 1706; the diocese was affected by the heretical doctrine of Quietism and the pope wanted the zealous and virtuous cardinal to eradicate it. Received the red hat on June 22, 1706; and the title of S. Marcello, June 25, 1706. From Rome, he returned to Venice and later went to Brescia. He was ascribed to the most important congregations of the Roman Curia. On the following July 3, he wrote a pastoral letter announcing to the faithful of Brescia his election as bishop of the diocese; he took possession of the see on February 27, 1707. Abbot comendatario of Sesto al Reghena, Cividale, from 1707 until his death. He immediately began a thorough pastoral visit of the city and diocese, giving particular attention to divine worship and ecclesiastical discipline. In 1709, learning that Bishop Luigi Ruzzini of Bergamo was gravely ill, he went to assist him in his last moments. Particularly strong and decisive was his action against Giacomo Picennino, who had introduced from Switzerland some heretic pamphlets in Italian; and against Giuseppe Beccarelli, from Milan, the main promoter of the quietist movement and who was compelled to abjure publicly in September 1710. He fomented n the city and in the diocese the devotion to the Most Blessed Sacrament instituting with the help of the Regular Clerics a confraternity called Adorazione perpetua del Santissimo Sacramento. Opted for the title of S. Marco on July 11, 1712. He brought in the Salesian nuns of the Visitation in Salò, where a monastery was built and inaugurated on Decembere 21, 1712. He obtained the appointment of Monsignor Giovanni Francesco Martinengo, provost of the collegiate church of Ss. Nazarioe Celso, in Brescia, as his episcopal cooperator.

Death. May 17, 1714, of a grave fever that affected him on his return from a pastoral visitation, after receiving the sacraments of the Church, in Brescia. Exposed n the cathedral of Brescia, where the funeral took place; and buried in the chapel of S. Antonio in that cathedral, with an inscription that he himself had prepared (2).

Beatification. A very pious man, he had fame of holiness; the process of beatification has been opened and he has been declared a venerable.

Bibliography. Avogadro, Pietro ; Luciani, Antonio. Funerale dell'eminentissimo e reverendiss.mo prencipe il sig.r cardinale Giovanni Badoaro, vescovo di Brescia, morto li 17. maggio dell'anno corrente 1714 : celebrato da tutti gli ordini della citt` in segno di universale ossequiosissimo affetto alla Sua Santa memoria, il dl 14. agosto dell'anno medesimo. In Brescia : Dalle stampe di Gio. Maria Rizzardi, 1714; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 77-80; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, IV, 33-34; Niero, Antonio. I patriarchi di Venezia. Da Lorenzo Giustiniani ai nostri giorni. Venice : Studium Cattolico Veneziano, 1961. (Collana Storica, 3), pp. 133-136; Notizie per l'anno 1721. Rome : Nella Stamperia di Gio: Francesco Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1721, p. 141, no. 6; Orsoni, Alessandro. Cronologia storica dei vescovi Olivolensi detti dapoi Castellani e sucessivi patriarchi di Venezia. Corredata di annotazioni illustranti l'ecclesiastico-civile veneta storia. Venezia : Tip. G.S. Felice, 1828, p. 401-408; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 24, 47 127 and 409; Ughelli, Ferdinando. Italia sacra. 10 v. Sala Bolognese : A. Forni, 1973-1987. Note: Reprint. Originally published: Italia sacra, sive, De episcopis Italiae. Venetiis : Apud Sebastianum Coleti, 1717-1722, 5, col. 1327-1328.

Links. Biography by Gian Franco Torcellan, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 5 (1963), Treccani; biographical entry, in German, Wikipedia; his tombstone and biographical entry in Italian, Wikipedia; Funerale dell'eminentissimo e reverendiss.mo prencipe il sig.r cardinale Giovanni Badoaro, vescovo di Brescia by Pietro Avogadro and Antonio Luciani, in Italian, Internet Archive; his portrait, diocese of Brescia; another portrait, also from the diocese of Brescia.

(1) This is according to Osorni, Cronologia storica dei vescovi Olivolensi detti dapoi Castellani e sucessivi patriarchi di Venezia, p. 401; and Niero, I patriarchi di Venezia. Da Lorenzo Giustiniani ai nostri giorni, p. 133. His biography by Trocella, linked above; and his biographical entries in German and Italian from Wikipedia, also linked above, indicate that he was born on March 12, 1649. Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, IV, 33, says that he was born in 1658.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from the photograph of his tombstone, linked above:

OSSA
IOANNIS CARDINALIS BADVARV
EPISCOPI
EXPECTANTIA RESVRRECTIONEM
MORTVORVM: ORATE VT COMMISSORVM
ET OMISSORVM SVORVM
DEVS MISEREATVR

OBIIT DIE XVII MENSIS MAII
ANNO SALVTIS M.D.CCXIIII
ÆATIS ..EM SVÆ LXXI

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(4) 3. CASONI, Lorenzo (1645-1720)

Birth. October 16, 1645, Sarzana. Of a noble family. Son of Niccolò Casoni, count of Villanova, and Giulia Petriccioli. Cousin of Msgr. Agostino Favoriti, secretary of Latin Letters, whom he succeeded. Great-grand-uncle of Cardinal Filippo Casoni (1801). Great-great-great-grand uncle of Luigi Vannicelli Casoni (1839). His last name is also listed as Casonus.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Accompanied Luigi Bevilacqua, titular patriarch of Alexandria, nuncio extraordinary to the Congress of Nijmegen to sign the peace between France and Holland, 1678-1679. Canon of the chapter of S. Maria in Via Lata, Rome, July 1681. Named simultaneously secretary of the Cipher, of Latin Letters, of the particular Congregation della Régale, of the S.C. Consistorial and of the Sacred College of Cardinals, December 19, 1682. Resigned the canonicate of S. Maria in Via Lata and was named canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Cesarea, March 3, 1690, with dispensation for not having received the diaconate and presbyterate, March 3, 1690. Consecrated (no information found). Nuncio before the regent of Naples, March 4, 1690. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, March 23, 1690. Assessor of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, December 11, 1701.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 17, 1706; received the red hat and the title of S. Bernardo alle Terme, June 25, 1706. Protector of the Order of the Friars Minor Observants. Legate in Ferrara, November 7, 1707; he had declined the legation in two occasions before; during his tenure, the imperial forces occupied Comacchio and sieged Ferrara; he departed on December 2, 1709. Legate in Bologna, September 9, 1709 until April 10, 1714; during his tenure, the city suffered the plague; as one of the cardinals inquisitor general, he received the abjuration from Lutheranism of Elector Friedrich August of Saxony, who subsequently assumed the Polish throne. Opted for the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, January 21, 1715. Together with Cardinal Enrico Noris, O.E.S.Aug., was part of the anti-Jesuit party. In the cathedral of Sarzana, he founded a sumptuous chapel in honor of the SS. Crocifisso, adorned with precious marbles and excellent paintings; he erected in the chapel two monuments honoring Popes Inncent XII and Clement XI, his benefactors.

Death. November 19, 1720, near 10 p.m., Rome. Exposed in his title, where the funeral also took place; and buried near the main altar in that same church (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 80-81; Notizie per l'anno 1721. Rome : Nella Stamperia di Gio: Francesco Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1721, p. 143, no. 16; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 24, 44, 50 and 133; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), III, 229; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 158, 253, and 558.

Links. Biography by G. Pignatelli, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Treccani; his tomb, church of S. Pietro in Montorio, Rome; another view of his tomb, ArtServe, The Australian National University.

(1) This is the the text of the inscription in his tomb, taken from Requiem Datenbank:

D . O . M.
LAVRENTIO CASONIO
VIRO . ACRI . INGENIO . ET . AD . LITTERAS . COMPARATO
QVI . PRIUATVS [sic!] . AD . NOUIOMAGENSEM . CONUENTVM . MISSVS
PACIS . ET . BELLI . NEGOTIVM
INTER . POTENTISSIMOS . REGES . SAPIENTER . CVRAUIT
TVM . AD . VRBEM . EUCATVS
MINORIBVS . MAGISTRATIBVS . CASTE . INTERGRE . QVE . FVNCTVS
A . CLEMENTE . XI . P . M
PRESBYTER . CARDINALS . RENVNCIATVS . EST
IN . QVA . DIGNITATE . PRIMVM . FERRARIENSIBVS . PRAEFECTVS
PROUINCIAM . IMPETV . BELLI . UEXATAM
IN . DIFFICILLIMIS . TEMPORIBVS . FORTITER . ADMINISTRAUIT
INDE . ALTERO . LEGATIONIS . OFFICIO
IN . GAUDI . ANNONAE . CARITATE . ET . PRECORVM . CAEDE
BONONIAM . REGENS
FRIDERICVM . AVGVSTVM . REGIVM . SARMATARVM . PRINCIPEM
A . LVTHERANIS . AD . ROMANOS . EXPIAUIT
HOMINI . VNIVERSI . IVRIS . SCIENTISSIMO . ET . AD . SVMMA . NATO
NICOLAVS CASONIVS
EX COLLEGIO . XII . VIRORVM . PRO . FISCO . PRINCIPIS
REI . MILITARI . PRAEPOSITVS
ET . LEONARDVS . COMES . VILLANOVAE . FRATRES
PATRICII . GENVENSES . MAGNO . PATRVO . POSVERVNT
UIX ANN . LXXV . MENS . I . DIEB . III
DECESSIT . XIII . KAL . DEC . ANN . MDCCXX

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(5) 4. CORSINI, Lorenzo (1652-1740)

Birth. April 7, 1652, Florence. Of the noble family of the marchesi Castigliano. Son of Palatine Count Bartolomeo Corsini and Elisabetta Strozzi, of the marquises of Forano. Relative of St. Andrea Corsini, bishop of Fiesole. Nephew of Cardinal Neri Corsini (1664). Cousin of Cardinal Giambattista Patrizi (1715), on his mother's side. Uncle of Cardinal Neri Maria Corsini (1730). Uncle of Cardinal Giovanni Antonio Guadagni, O.C.D. (1731), on his mother's side. Great-grand-uncle of Cardinal Andrea Corsini (1759).

Education. Collegio Romano, Rome; University of Pisa, Pisa (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law).

Early life. Resigned his primogeniture and entered the ecclesiastical state in 1685 after the death of his uncle and his father. In the pontificate of Pope Innocent XI, he purchased for 30,000 scudi, according to the custom of the times, the post of regent of the Apostolic Chancery. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber. President della Grascia, 1690, post that he purchased for 80,000 scudi.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Nicomedia, April 10, 1690. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, May 4, 1690. Consecrated, June 18, 1690, Rome, by Cardinal Flavio Chigi, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, assisted by Francesco de Marini, titular archbishop of Teodosia, and by Francesco Martelli, titular archbishop of Corinto. Nuncio to Austria, July 1, 1690; did not occupy the post because of differences between Pope Alexander VIII and Emperor Leopold. Treasurer and collector general of the Apostolic Chamber, December 6, 1695. Superintendent of Castello Sant'Angelo, Rome, and commissary of the Sea, December 9, 1695.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 17, 1706; received the red hat and the title of S. Susanna, June 25, 1706. Legate in Ferrara, September 9, 1709. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, February 19, 1710 to January 26, 1711. Opted for the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, December 16, 1720. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati, November 17, 1725. Prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, November 22, 1726. Participated in the conclave of 1730 and was elected pope.

Papacy. Elected Pope Clement XII on July 12, 1730. Crowned, July 16, 1730, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Lorenzo Altieri, protodeacon of S. Agata in Suburra.

Death. February 6, 1740, Rome. Exposed and buried, on February 10, 1740, in the patriarchal Vatican basilica. On July 27 (1), 1742, his remains were transferred to the Corsini chapel in the patriarchal Lateran basilica.

Bibliography. Caracciolo, Alberto. "Clemente XII." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, 439-446; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 81-84; Notizie per l'anno 1721. Rome : Nella Stamperia di Gio: Francesco Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1721, p. 110-11, no. 69; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 24, 43, 50, 52, 59 and 288; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 3-5; Raybaud, Léon Pierre. Papauté et pouvoir temporel sous les pontificats de Clément XII et Benoît XIV, 1730-1758. Paris : J. Vrin, 1963. (Bibliothèque de la Société d'histoire ecclésiastique de la France).

Links. Biography, in English; biography by Alberto Caracciolo, Enciclopedia dei papi, Treccani; biography, in Italian; his episcopal lineage, in English; portrait, arms and biographical information, in English; his portrait by Francesco Trevisani, Collezione Lemme, Palazzo Chigi, Ariccia, Fondazione Federico Zeri; his bust by Filippo della Valle, in Museum voor Schone Kunsten, Ghent, Belgium; his monument by Ferdinando Fuga (design) and Filippo della Valle (execution), parochial basilica of S. Giovanni de' Fiorentini, Rome; his portrait, Palazzo Corsini, Rome; his statue by Rocco Pozzi, Campidoglio, Rome; his tomb, Corsini Chapel, patriarchal Lateran basilica; his bust in the same basilica.

(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VI, 4; his biography in English in the The Catholic Encyclopedia, linked above, indicates that the translation of his remains took place on July 20, 1742.

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(6) 5. FIESCHI, Lorenzo (1642-1726)

Birth. May 21, 1642, Genoa. Of an ancient and illustrious family. Son of Innocenzo Fieschi, of the counts of Lavagna, and M. Giovanna Carmagnola. He was baptized on that same day with the name Lorenzo Maria. Relative of Cardinal Giacomo Franzoni (1658). The family gave the Church Popes Innocent IV and Adrian V; and Cardinals Guglielmo Fieschi (1244); Luca Fieschi (1300); Giovanni Fieschi (1378); Ludovico Fieschi (1384); Giorgio Fieschi (1439); Niccolò Fieschi (1503); and Adriano Fieschi (1834). He is also listed as Laurentius Fliscus.

Education. La Sapienza University, Rome (doctorate in utroque iure).

Early life. Received the clerical tonsure, May 26, 1652. He was called to Rome by Cardinal Giacomo Franzoni. Vice-legate of Urbino, 1668-1671. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1670-1690. Governor of Ancona, June 1671 until May 1673. Governor of Campagna e Marittima (Frosinone), May 2, 1674 until July 1674. Governor of Viterbo (Patrimonio), 1675. Governor of Perugia, February 10, 1685. Governor of Marche, September 29, 1686. Secretary of the S.C. of Rites, November 23, 1689.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Avignon, July 10, 1690. Consecrated, September 24, 1690, church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, by Cardinal Fabrizio Spada. Acting vice-legate of Avignon until the arrival of the legate, July 19, 1691 until April 8, 1692; and again, January 21, 1696. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, March 31, 1695. Nuncio extraordinary in France to negotiate the peace between the European princes, January 21, 1702; occupied the charge until 1705. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Genoa, May 18, 1705.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 17, 1706; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria della Pace, June 25, 1706. Did not participate in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Did not participate in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII.

Death. May 1, 1726, in the archiepiscopal residence of Genoa. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Genoa; and buried in the tomb of his family in the chapel of S. Giorgio in that cathedral (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 84; Notizie per l'anno 1721. Rome : Nella Stamperia di Gio: Francesco Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1721, p. 111-112, no. 79; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 24, 48 and 226; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 117, 34, 183, 290, 333, 417, 433 and 667.

Link. His engraving by Domenico Rossi, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb n the floor of the same chapel in front of the altar, kindly provided by Mr. Mark West, from London, England:

LAURENTIO FLISCO
S R E CARDINALI
PER ANOS XXIII IN ROMANIS MUNERIBUS
PRAELATO
TRIENNIUM AD XTIANISSIMAM MAJESTATEM
NUNCIO
PER XV ANNOS AUENIONENSIUM
PER XX GENUENSIUM
ACCEPTISSIMO ANTISTITI
QUADRIENNI SUPRA OCTAGESIMUM
VITA FUNCTO
MOESTISSIMUS FRATER
HECTOR
MDCCXXVI

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(7) 6. ACQUAVIVA D'ARAGONA, Francesco (1665-1725)

Birth. October 14, 1665, Naples. Of the family of the dukes of Atri. Son of Giosia III Acquaviva d'Aragona, 14th duke of Atri, and Francesca Caracciolo. His last names are also listed as Aquaviva d'Aragonia. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Ottavio Acquaviva d'Aragona, iuniore (1654). Uncle of Cardinal Troiano Acquaviva d' Aragona (1732). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Pasquale Acquaviva d'Aragona (1770). Other cardinals of the family were Giovanni Vincenzo Acquaviva d'Aragona (1542); Giulio Acquaviva d'Aragona (1570); and Ottavio Acquaviva d'Aragona, seniore (1591).

Education. University of Fermo, Fermo (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law).

Early life. Vice-legate in Fermo. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace and domestic prelate of His Holiness, November 25, 1688. Chamberlain of honor of Pope Innocent XI. Vice-legate in Ferrara, 1689. Inquisitor in Malta, December 12, 1689. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, May 21, 1694. Nuncio to Switzerland, 1697; did not occupy the post. Prefect of the Cubiculi of His Holiness, November 16, 1697.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Larissa, with dispensation for not having yet received the presbyterate, December 2, 1697. Consecrated, December 22, 1697, church of Sant' Andrea della Valle, Rome, by Cardinal Gaspare Carpegna, vicar general of Rome, assisted by Gregorio Gaetani d' Aragona, titular patriarch of Alexandria, and by Antonio Spinelli, bishop of Melfi e Rapolla. In the same ceremony was consecrated Giulio Piazza, titular archbishop of Rodi, future cardinal. He was nuncio to Spain, April 6, 1700 until December 7, 1706.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 17, 1706; received the red hat and the title of S. Bartolomeo all'Isola, June 8, 1707. Opted for the title of S. Cecilia, January 28, 1709. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 26, 1711 until March 2, 1712. As protector of the Kingdom of Spain since April 1713, he was the virtual Spanish ambassador before the Holy See, participating in matters such as arranging the marriage of King Philip V and Princess Isabella Farnese of Parma, August 20, 1714; in charge of Spanish affairs from July 1716. Resided in the Palace of Spain, Rome. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, retaining in commendam his title, June 12, 1724.

Death. January 9, 1725, at 5 a.m., Rome. Transferred to the church of S. Cecilia on the following day, the funeral took place on January 11, 1725, with the participation of Pope Benedict XIII. Buried in the sepulchre that he had built for himself in that same church (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 84-88; Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912. (Suomalaisen Tiedeakatemian Toimituksia. Sarja B. Nid.5, no. 3), pp. 87 and 231; Notizie per l'anno 1721. Rome : Nella Stamperia di Gio: Francesco Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1721, p.112, no. 62; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, V, 24, 42, 44, 59 and 237; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 253 and 439.

Links. His portrait by Damiano Carpentier, Convent of S. Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome; his tomb in S. Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome, Requiem Datenbank; and The Acquaviva cardinals by Thomas Shahan, The Catholic Encyclopedia.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

FRANCISCVS S · R · E · CARDINALIS DE
ACQVAVIVA ET ARAGONIA
EPISCOPVS SABINENSIS
HVIVS TITVLI COMMENDATARIVS
SACRIQVE C NOBII AC OMNIVM
HISPANIÆ REGNORVM
APVD SANCTAM SEDEM PROTECTOR
TEMPLO CVIVS DECOREM DILEXIT ET AVXIT
PROPE CARD: OCTAVII PATRVI SVI CINERIS
HIC MONVMENTVM SIBI VIVENS POSVIT
ANNO IVBILAEI MDCCXXV
OBIJT DIE VIII MENS · JAN · ANN · MDCCXXV
AETATIS SVAE ANN. LIX.
MEN. II DIE XXV.

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(8) 7. RUFFO, Tommaso (1663-1753)

Birth. September 15, 1663, Naples. Son of Carlo Ruffo, third duke of Bagnara, and his second wife, Andreana Caracciolo, of the dukes of Calenza. Relative of Cardinal Giacomo Boncompagni (1695) (he was a nephew of the first wife of Tommaso's father). Uncle of Cardinal Antonio Maria Ruffo (1743). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Fabrizio Dionigi Ruffo (1791). Another cardinal of the family was Luigi Ruffo Scilla (1801).

Education. La Sapienza University, Rome (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law).

Sacred orders. Ordained (no information found). Internuncio to Brussels in the pontificate of Pope Innocent XI. Vice-legate in Romagna in 1693; and in 1694. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace in 1693; reappointed in 1697. Inquisitor in Malta, May 21, 1694; reconciled the Sovereign Order of Malta with the Republic of Genoa.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of of Nicea, April 7, 1698. Consecrated, April 13, 1698, church of S. Silvestro al Quirinale, Rome, by Cardinal Fabrizio Spada, assisted by Michelangelo Conti, titular archbishop of Tarso, and by Francesco Acquaviva d'Aragona, titular archbishop of Larissa. Nuncio to Tuscany, April 19, 1698. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, May 8, 1698. Having been offered the nunciature in Austria or in Spain, he accepted the latter but before occupying the post was named prefect of the Cubiculi of His Holiness on March 23, 1700; confirmed in this post by the new Pope Clement XI, November 27, 1700. Declined the appointment to the metropolitan see of Naples, 1702.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 17, 1706; granted dispensation from the impediment of having a cousin in the Sacred College of Cardinals, May 17, 1706; received the red hat and the title of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna, June 25, 1706. Abbot commendatario of S. Maria del Patir and of S. Maria del Carrà, Calabria, 1706-53. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, January 29, 1709. Legate in Romagna, September 9, 1709. Legate in Ferrara, February 19, 1710 until May 1714 . Transferred to the see of Ferrara, with personal title of archbishop, May 10, 1717. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Legate in Bologna, June 16, 1721. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII. Legation prorogued for a triennium, June 12, 1724. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, July 1, 1726. Legate in Ferrara, June 25, 1727 until the end of 1730. Participated in the conclave of 1730, which elected Pope Clement XII. Acting legate of Ferrara for a brief time at the death of Cardinal Alessandro Aldobrandini on August 4, 1734. Resigned government of the archiepiscopal see of Ferrara, April 26, 1738 (the see had been elevated to the rank of archdiocese immediate subiecta to the Holy See, April 27, 1725). Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, September 3, 1738. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Participated in the conclave of 1740, which elected Pope Benedict XIV. Vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church and commendatario of the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, proper of that post, August 29, 1740 until his death. Secretary of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, August 29, 1740 until his death. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, proper of the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, August 29, 1740.

Death. February 16, 1753, at 2:30 p.m., in the palace of the chancery, Rome. Transferred to the basilica of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, Rome, on February 18, 1753; the following day the office of the dead was sung by the religious of a mendicant order and afterwards, the capella papalis took place. Buried in the sepulchre that he had built for himself in the chapel of S. Niccolò in that same basilica.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 86-88; Notizie per l'anno 1721. Rome : Nella Stamperia di Gio: Francesco Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1721, p. 112, no. 58; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 24-25, 42, 47and 48; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 39, 40 44 and 54; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 159, 254, 369, 370 and 881.

Links. His engraving by Johannes Christoph Kolb, Antiquariat Hille / Berlin; his portrait by Pier Leone Ghezzi, Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica, Rome; his portrait by Giuseppe Maria Crespi, Kunsthaus, Zürich, CopiArte; and his tomb in the church of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is the inscription in his tomb, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D .    O .    M .
THOMAS CARDINALIS RUFUS
EPISCOPUS OSTIENSIS ET VELITERNENUS
SACRI COLLEGY DECANUS
ET S . R . E . VICECANCELLARIUS
MORTIS MEMOR
VIVENS SIBI POSUIT
OBIT XVI FEBRUARY MDCCLIII
ÆTAT . ANN. LXXXIX MEN . V ET UNIUS DIEI

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(9) 8. SPADA, Orazio Filippo (1660-1724)

Birth. December 21, 1659, Lucca. Of an illustrious family. He was sent to Rome by his family when he was 7 years old. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Giambattista Spada (1654), who educated him.

Education. Collegio Romano, Rome; La Sapienza University, Rome (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, December 30, 1679).

Early life. Privy chamberlain of Pope Innocent XI. Ablegato to bring the red biretta to new Cardinal Francesco Buonvisi, nuncio ito Austria, 1681. Canon of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, November 1693.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 27, 1694. Internuncio to Brussels, February 1696.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tebe, September 15, 1698. Consecrated, December 7, 1698, chapel of the archiepiscopal residence, Brussels, by Humbert-Guillaume a Précipiano, archbishop of Malines, assisted by Guillaume Bassery, bishop of Bruges, and by Philippe Van der Noot, bishop of Gand. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, September 28, 1698. Nuncio to Cologne, October 31, 1698. Papal plenipotentiary to the Congress of Ryswick, Holland. Nuncio extraordinary before Emperor Leopold on January 28, 1702, to reestablish the peace disturbed by the war of succession to the Spanish throne; because of the Austrian suspicions that Rome favored the French, he could not realize his mission. Nuncio to Poland, November 17, 1703. Transferred to the see of Lucca, with personal title of archbishop, December 15, 1704.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 17, 1706; received the red hat and the title of S. Onofrio, March 21, 1707. Transferred to the see of Osimo, with personal title of archbishop, January 17, 1714. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII.

Death. June 28, 1724, at 5 a.m., of an apoplexy, in Rome, where he had gone to participate in the conclave. Transferred the following day to the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome (his title was under repairs), where the funeral took place on June 30, 1724; and buried provisionally in the church of S. Croce dei Lucchesi, Rome. Later, his remains were transferred to the chapel of his family in the basilica of S. Frediano, Lucca.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 88-91; Nicolai, Umberto. I vescovi di Lucca. Lucca : Tipografia Ricchielli, 1966, p. 27, no. 92; Notizie per l'anno 1721. Rome : Nella Stamperia di Gio: Francesco Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1721, p. 112-113, no. 62; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 25, 46 and 247.

Links. Brief biographical data, in Italian; his portrait by Giovanni Odazzi, Arte Antica.eu; his bust by Ferdinando Tacca, Benucci Gallerie Antiquarie, Antico-Antico; and his engraving by an anonymous Antiquariat Hille, Berlin.

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(10) 9. GUALTERIO, Filippo Antonio (1660-1728)

Birth. March 24, 1660, Fermo. Of a family from Orvieto. Eldest of the seventeen children of Stanislao Gualterio, gonfaloniere of Orvieto, and Anna Maria Cioli, noble of Todi. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Carlo Gualterio (1654). Uncle of Cardinal Luigi Gualterio (1759). His last name is also listed as Gualtiero and Gualtieri.

Education. Studied at the University of Fermo, where he earned doctorates in philosophy, theology, and utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Governor of San Severino, February 17, 1685 until 1686. Governor of Fabriano, April 20, 1686 until 1688. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1687. Governor of Iesi, 1688-1689. Governor of Camerino, September 16, 1689 until 1690. Inspector general of the Annona and president of Montalto, June 1690. Governor of Loreto, October 1692. Governor of Viterbo, June 27, 1695. Vice-legate in Avignon, March 8, 1696 until July 26, 1700.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Atena, March 30, 1700. Consecrated, May 16, 1700, church of the Jesuits, Avignon, by François de Maily, archbishop of Arles. Nuncio to France, April 3, 1700. Transferred to the see of Imola, with personal title of archbishop, November 21, 1701.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 17, 1706. Legate in Romagna, June 25, 1706. Protector of Scotland in 1706. Received the red hat and the title of S. Crisogono, April 30, 1708. Transferred to the see of Todi, with personal title of archbishop, October 14, 1709; resigned the see, December 5, 1714; succeeded by his brother Ludovico Anselmo Gualterio. Abbot commendatario of Saint-Remy, Reims, 1710. Protector of England in August 1711; confirmed in 1717; he was in charge of the businesses of King James III before the pope. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 2, 1712 until January 30, 1713. Abbot commendatario of Saint-Victor, Paris; took possession in March 1716. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII. Commander of the Order of the Saint-Esprit, 1724. Opted for the title of S. Cecilia, January 29, 1725. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, July 31, 1726.

Death. April 21, 1728, at 9:30 a.m., in his palace in via del Corso, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Prassede, Rome, where the capella papalis took place on August 23, 1728; and buried provisionally in that same church. Transferred to the cathedral of Orvieto and buried in the tomb of his uncle in the family's chapel in that cathedral.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 91-92; Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 246; Notizie per l'anno 1721. Rome : Nella Stamperia di Gio: Francesco Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1721, p. 113, no. 61; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 25, 44, 45, 50, 9, 103, 228 and 394; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 508; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 134, 176, 225, 277, 282, 370, 381, 433 and 716.

Links. Correspondence of Cardinals Gualterio in the British Library, London, England (type "Gualterio" in "Name"); and his portrait, diocese of Imola, Italy.

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(11) 10. VALLEMANI, Giuseppe (1648-1725)

Birth. June 9, 1648, Fabriano, diocese of Camerino. Of a noble family. Son of Count Rinaldo Vallemani and Maddalena della Genga.

Education. University of Macerata, Macerata (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law).

Early life. He went to Rome at a young age and joined the court of Cardinal Emilio Altieri, later Pope Clement X. Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, and later Coppiere. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Prefect (custos) of the archive of Castel Sant'Angelo, July 1675 to August 1676. Secretary of the S.C. of Rites, June 17, 1690. Secretary of the S.C. of Ecclesiastical Immunity, October 1692. Secretary of the S.C. of Religious Discipline in the pontificate of Pope Clement XI.

Priesthood. Ordained, January 17, 1700.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Atena, December 5, 1701. Consecrated (no information found). Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, December 8, 1701.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of May 17, 1706. Prefect of the Apostolic Palace and governor of Castelgandolfo for a triennium, June 7, 1706. Published in the consistory of August 1, 1707; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria degli Angelli alle Terme, November 28, 1707. Protector of the Order of Franciscan Friars Minor Conventual. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII.

Death. December 15, 1725, at 10:15 a.m., Rome (1). Transferred to the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, the vigil took place the following day, and the capella papalis, with the participation of Pope Benedict XIII, on December 17. Buried in that same church (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 92; Notizie per l'anno 1721. Rome : Nella Stamperia di Gio: Francesco Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1721, p. 113-114, no. 73; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 26, 33, 34 and 47.

Link. His tomb in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) Following are two paragraphs of his testament, transcribed fron Requiem Datenbank, which took them fron Archivio di Stato di Roma, Archivio Capitolino, uff. 2, 12/1725, fol. 322v: "In suffragio poi dell'anima mia lascio due mila Messe, delle quali i medesimi Signori Esecutori Testamentari si compiaceranno farne celebrare con tutta sollecitudine mille qui in Roma, e le altre mille in Fabriano mia Patria." "[...] Seguita poi che sarà la mia morte, dispongo, e voglio, che il mio Corpo sia seppellito nella Chiesa de'Santi Apostoli de'Minori Conventuali di Roma, della Religione de'quali sono Protettore, servata la pura convenienza de'Funerali, ma senza fasto, e con proprietà, seconda la mia conditione di povero Cardinale; di che ne rimetto il giudizio, e l'esecuzione alli infrascritti miei Signori Esecutori Testamentari."
(2) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

IOSEPHO PRESB. CARD. VALLEMANO
ORDINIS MINOR. CONVENTVALIVM
PROTECTORI
OBIIT DIE XV DEC. AN. IVBIL. MDCCXXV

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(12) 11. SACHSEN-ZEITZ, Christian August von (1666-1725)

Birth. October 9, 1666, Castle of Moritzburg, Dresden, Saxony. Of the princes of Saxony. Eighth of the twelve children of Duke Moritz of Saxe-Zeitz and his second wife Dorothea Marie of Saxe-Weimar. The other children were Johann Philipp, Mortiz, Eleonore Magdalene, Wilhelmine Eleonore, Erdmuthe Dorothea, Moritz Wilhelm, Friedrich Heinrich, Marie Sofie, Magdalene Sibylle and Wilhelmine Sofie. He was destined to the military by his family. He was duke of Saxony. He is also listed as Cristiano Augusto di Sassonia; as Christianus Augustus de Saxonia, and as Ágost Keresztély (Christian August only), by Hungarian sources.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. At his father's death in 1681, he succeeded him as bailiff of Thüringen. Commanded a regiment in the siege of Mainz. He went to Hungary and joined the imperial army; his action was decisive in the taking of Buda Castle. Entered the Teutonic Order while he still was a Lutheran. Converted from Lutheranism in 1693.

Priesthood. Ordained in Latvia (no further information found). Canon, provost, treasurer, and dean of the cathedral chapter of Cologne. Provost of Sankt Gerson, Cologne. Canon of the cathedral chapters of Liège, Münster, and Breslau.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Györ, with dispensation of age and degrees, June 18, 1696. Consecrated, 1696, Vienna, by Cardinal Leopold von Kollonitz, archbishop of Esztergom. Granted dispensation to be elected to any other German diocese, September 22, 1696. Archbishop coadjutor of Esztergom, with right of succession, and retaining the diocese of Györ during his coadjutorship, January 24, 1701. Administrator, sede vacante, of the archdiocese of Cologne, 1703.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 17, 1706; with the apostolic brief of May 22, 1706, the pope sent him the red biretta; never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title. Promoted to the metropolitan and primatial see of Esztergom, January 20, 1707. Supreme chancellor of the Hungarian kingdom. Imperial councilor. Blessed the marriage of Emperor Charles VI and Princess Elizabeth Christina and crowned them as monarchs of Hungary in Pressburg (or Pozsony, or Possonia, now Bratislava, Slovakia). Granted retention of the administration of Györ for a decade, January 15, 1711; extended for a triennium, September 30, 1721. Named protector of the Order of Szent Paul in Hungary, October 1, 1712. Granted dispensation again to be elected to any other German diocese, May 23, 1716. Imperial first commissary in the Diet of Regensburg from 1716 until his death although he had tried to resign. Did not participate in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Did not participate in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII.

Death. August 23, 1725, Regensburg, while in a plenipotentiary imperial legation to the Diet. Exposed in the cathedral of Regensburg, where a sumptuous monument in his memory was erected. Later, the body was transferred to Ujfalu, Hungary; and then transferred to Pressburg (Bratislava), where it was buried in the vault of Saint Martin's church, on November 16, 1725.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 93-94; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 25, 226 and 364; Tusor, Péter. Purpura Pannonica : az esztergomi "bíborosi szék" kialakulásának elozminyei a 17. században = Purpura Pannonica : the "Cardinalitial See" of Strigonium and its Antecedens in the 17th Century. Budapest : Róma : Research Institute of Church History at Péter Pázmány Catholic University, 2005. (Collectanea Vaticana Hungariae, Classis I, vol. 3), p. 327.

Links. Biography, in Hungarian (under Keresztély Ágost ), Magyar Elektronikus Könyvtárban; and biographical entry, no. 11, in English, Giga Catholic Information; his engraving and biography by Jochen Vötsch, in German, Sächsische Biografie; biography by Heinrich Theodor Flathe, in German, Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie; biography, in German, Wikipedia his genealogy, A2 B6 E8 F8, Genealogy EU.

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(13) 12. PALLAVICINO, Rannuzio (1632-1712)

Birth. October 19, 1632, Polesine, Parma. Of a noble family. Son of Uberto Pallavicini, of the marchises of Polesine, feudatary of the Stato Pallaviciono, and Ersilia (or Emilia), of the marchises of Soragna, daughter of Guglielmo Lupi of Cremona. He is also listed as Ranuccio Palavicini and Raynutius Pallavicinus; and his last name as Palavigini.

Education. In his youth, he lived for sevreal years the court of Bavaria under the patronage of Elector and Duke Ferdinand Maria; and studied at the University of Münich (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law).

Early life. Returned to Parma in 1669 and was inscribed in the collegio dei giudici. Entered the ecclesiastical state and was named canon of the cathedral chapter of Parma, with the prebend of S. Secondo Inferiore, which he resined on December 24, 1669, in favor of Count Giambattista Linati, to move to Rome. Entered the Roman prelature and exercised several posts in the same. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, November 30, 1669 (1). Inquisitor in Malta in 1672. Returned to the papal court, Named secretary of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, December 1689; he assumed the post in 1690. Governor of Rome and vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, March 15, 1696 until July 27, 1706.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 17, 1706; received the red hat and the title of S. Agnese fuori le mura, June 25, 1706. Protector of the Order of Most Holy Trinity (Trinitarians), January 2, 1708. Provost of the Umiliati di S. Maria della Ghiara, Verona. He was a member of sevreal literary academies, among them Accademia dell'Arcadia and Accademi degli Innominati di Parma. An apassionate writer, he published, under the pseudonym Asterio Sireo, several literary works such as L'intreccio di gigli e perle (1660), an anthology of poetry; La scalza di Avila (1661), a life of St. Theresa; I Trionfi dell'architettura (1667), a description of the palace of the elector of Bavaria; Atalanta (1667), a drama; and Ritratto di una gran Principessa (Monaco, Luca Straub, 1668), a collection of odes dedicated to Adelaide of Bavaria.

Death. June 30, 1712, at 2 a.m., of an apoplexy, in his residence in Palazzo Farnese, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Francesco a Ripa, Rome, where the funeral took place on July 2, 1712; and buried in front of the main altar of that same church. At his death, he ordered in his will that the estate of Polesine, which he had inherited from his ancestors, and of which he had kept the property, were transferred in full to his cousin Vito Modesto.

Bibliography. Beltrami, Giuseppe. Notizie su prefetti e referendari della Segnatura Apostolica desunte dai brevi di nomina. Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1972, p. 89, no. 221; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 94; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, p. 111, no. 92; Janelli, Giovanni Battista. Dizionario biografico dei parmigiani illustri o benemeriti, nelle scienze, nelle lettere e nelle arti, o per altra guisa notevoli. Genova : Schenone, 1877, p. 293; Notizie per l'anno 1721. Rome : Nella Stamperia di Gio: Francesco Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1721, p. 140, no. 4; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 25 and 43; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 361 and 819.

(1) Beltrami, Notizie su prefetti e referendari della Segnatura Apostolica desunte dai brevi di nomina, p. 89, no. 221, says that the nomination bull is in Vol. 1437, fol. 256-258, of Brevi Apostolic, preserved in the Secret Vatican Archive. The later folio indicates that his prelature does not have the quality of Domestcio but that it is a simple referendary prelature and as such, he should dress in black like all the referendaries.

Link. Biography, in Italian, under "PALLAVICINO RANUZIO", Comune di Parma.

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(14) 13. PARACCIANI, Giandomenico (1646-1721)

Birth. August 4, 1646, Rome. Of a noble family. Youngest of the three children of Bernardino Paracciani and Cecilia Melnagoli. His first name is also listed as Gio: Domenico, as Ioannes Dominicua, and as Giovanni Domenico; and his last name as Paraccianus and as Parracciani. Uncle of Cardinal Urbano Paracciani (1766). Great-grand-uncle of Cardinal Niccola Paracciani Clarelli (1844). Great-great-grand-uncle of Cardinal Francesco Ricci Paracciani (1880).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Protonotary apostolic. Abbreviatore di parco maggiore, 1670. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1670; voter of the Signature of Justice, June 1689; voter of both tribunals, 1697. Governor of Benevento, 1679. Auditor of Cardinal Alderano Cibo, secretary of State. Auditor of Cardinal Francesco Barberini. Vicar of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, December 1689. Relator of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta, August 1690. Auditor of His Holiness. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica February 2, 1704. Pro-secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 17, 1706; received the red hat and the title of S. Anastasia, June 25, 1706. Granted dispensation to receive the diaconate and presbyterate outside of Ember days and without time intervals between them, February 28, 1707. Named protector of the Order of the Celestine Monks, January 5, 1708. Named protector of Collegio Maronita, Rome, July 9, 1708. Named protector of the Order of Silvestrine Monks, September 18, 1710. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 30, 1713 until January 17, 1714.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Senigallia, July 9, 1714. Consecrated, November 18, 1714, Rome, by Cardinal Fabrizio Paolucci, assisted by Giovanni Patrizi, titular archbishop of Seleucia, and by Nicola Spinola, titular archbishop of Tebe. Vicar general of Rome, May 1717; took possession on November 7, 1717. Resigned government of the diocese of Senigallia, November 18, 1717. Entered the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII, but had to leave because of illness, and so did not vote on May 8, 1721, the day when the new pope was elected.

Death. May 9, 1721, Rome. His body was taken to the church of Santissimi Nome di Gesù, Rome, the following day. The funeral took place on May 11, 1721 in that church, and the following day at 2 a.m., his body was transferred to the church of S. Rocco a Ripetta, Rome, and buried in the tomb of his family in the chapel of the Madonna.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 94-96; Notizie per l'anno 1721. Rome : Nella Stamperia di Gio: Francesco Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1721, p. 114-115, no. 75; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 26, 43, 59 and 353; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 716; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 143 and 826.

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(15) 14. CAPRARA, Alessandro (1626-1711)

Birth. September 27, 1626, Bologna. Of a patrician family of the counts of Caprara. He was the eldest of the seven children of Massimo degl'Anziani and Caterina Bentivoglio. Relative of Cardinal Urbano Sacchetti (1681).

Education. Obtained doctorates in philosophy and theology in 1647; later, he studied at the University of Bologna, Bologna (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law).

Early life. Went to Rome after finishing his studies and became auditor of Cardinal Giulio Sacchetti, prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature. Consistorial lawyer in 1662. Referendary of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature from 1675. Lieutenant of the auditor of the Apostolic Chamber. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota. Datary of the Sacred Roman Rota. Appointed regent of the Apostolic Penitentiary on September 6, 1696, by Cardinal Leandro Colloredo, Orat., grand penitentiary; confirmed by apostolic brief of September 17, 1696.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 17, 1706; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, June 25, 1706. On September 2, 1706, he was named protector of the English kingdom.

Death. June 9, 1711, at 4:30 a.m., in his palace in Foro Agonale, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, where the funeral took place, and buried in the church of S. Maria del Suffragio.

Biography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 96-97; Notizie per l'anno 1721. Rome : Nella Stamperia di Gio: Francesco Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1721, p. 140, no. 3; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 25 and 49; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 191, tav. Caprara 5.

Link. Biography by Giancarlo Angelozzi, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 19 (1976), Treccani; Famiglia Caprara, in Italian, Archivio di Stato di Bologna.

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(16) 15. LA TRÉMOILLE, Joseph-Emmanuel de (1659-1720)

Birth. June 28, 1659, Thouars (?), France (1). His last name is also listed as Trémouille. Son of Louis de la Tremoïlle, duke of Noirmoutiers, and his wife Renée Julie Aubery. Louis was the brother of Anne-Marie de la Tremoïlle, princess of los Ursinos, who was very influential in the courts of France and Spain, and who obtained for her brother numerous posts and benefices. Of the same family but from a different branch was Cardinal Jean-François de la Trémoille (1506). He is also listed as Giuseppe Emanuello della Tremoglie de'Duchi di Noirmontiers.

Education. La Sorbonne University, Paris (doctorate).

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Vicar of the diocese of Laon. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, 1693. Abbot of Ligny, 1695; and of Sorèze 1702. Ambassador of King Philippe V of France while he was in Naples, 1702-1706.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 17, 1706; received the red hat and the title of SS. Trintà al Monte Pincio, June 25, 1706. Minister of France before the Holy See, 1706 until his death. Commandeur of the Order of Saint-Esprit, July 1708. Abbot of Bellecombe, 1706; of Grand Selve, June 1707; and of St. Etienne de Caen, Julio 1710. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 14, 1714 to January 31, 1715.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Bayeux, June 8, 1716. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Cambrai, May 11, 1718. Consecrated, May 30, 1719, church of S. Maria degli Angeli, Rome, by Pope Clement XI, assisted by Fabrizio Paoulucci, bishop of Albano, and by Cardinal Francesco Pignatelli, Theat., archbishop of Naples.

Death. January 10, 1720, at, 1 a.m., in his palace near Monte Pietà, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Luigi dei Francesi, Rome, where the funeral took place on January 13, 1720, and buried in that same church.

Bibliography.Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 97; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 371-372; Notizie per l'anno 1721 (Rome : Nella Stamperia de Gio. Francesco Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1721), p. 142-143; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 25, 52, 59, 111 and 139.

Links. His engraving by an anonymous artist, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; and his tomb in the church of S. Luigi dei Francesi, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is according to Notizie per l'anno 1721, p. 142, which says that he died o January 10, 1720 at 60 years, 6 months and 13 days. Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, V, 25, note 21, says he died at 60 years, 6 months and 3 days on January 10, 1720, therefore, he must have been born on July 7, 1659. Chapeau, Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973, p. 371-372, says that he was born on July 11, 1660.

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(17) 16. FILIPPUCCI, Gabriele (1631?-1706)

Birth. 1631?, Macerata (1). His last name is also listed as Philipuccius.

Education. He studied law.

Early life. Went to Rome and studied under the protection of Cardinals Giovanni Battista Maria Pallotta and Benedetto Odescalchi, future Pope Innocent XI. Returned to Macerata and lived there for forty days during the plague that affected Rome. Returned to Rome and practiced law at the Roman Curia, under the direction of Advocate Giovanni Battista De Luca, future cardinal. When his elder brother died, he was intimated to get married to secure the continuation of the family; the advice of friends and the threats of his father were not enough to make him abandon his celibate life, which he had embraced with a vow. Declined the appointments made by Pope Innocent XII of canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica and voter of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature. Accepted the post of sub datary, December 23, 1695, provided that he or his relatives would not receive any ecclesiastical benefices. The pope obligated him to accept a canonicate in the patriarchal Lateran basilica and declared him his auditor and consultor of the Apostolic Penitentiary. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature, June 1, 1699. In those posts, he did not accept even the most inexpensive gifts. He spent great parts of the night in prayer and study. When Ulisse Giuseppe Gozzadini, secretary of Briefs to the Princes (Memorials) and future cardinal, had to go to Florence, the pope charged Gabriele Filipucci with that responsibility, and gave him ample faculties; he occupied the post between June 1699 and January 1700. Pope Innocent II wanted to elevate him to the cardinalate as soon as possible but the pontiff's death prevented him from doing so. He was thus spared from that anguish and was able to return to his duties at the Lateran basilica. The new Pope Clement XI elected him voter of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace with the order of accepting the post. The same pope decided to elevate him to the cardinalate. Before the consistory was convoked, Filippucci was worried about his promotion and wrote a well thought memorial of resignation, which he consigned to his friend Cardinal Galeazzo Marecotti, to be presented to the pope in that same consistory.

Sacred orders. Received the subdiaconate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 17, 1706. In the memorial he had written, Filippucci humbly begged the pontiff to dispense him from accepting that dignity for which he was convinced he was totally unworthy. The document was read in consistory and it caused stupor among the cardinals and the pope, who anyways created him a cardinal and gave some time to deliberate about the matter, and sent Fr. Francesco Maria Casini, O.F.M.Cap., apostolic preacher and future cardinal, to try to induce Filippucci to accept the dignity to which he had been promoted. But all was useless. He declined the promotion and the fear and agony that the pope may command him to accept it gave him a high fever and he quickly was gravely ill. When the pope learned of the new cardinal's condition, he thought he should not force him to accept a dignity that may cost him his life and accepted the resignation. A commission of thirteen cardinals was appointed to study if a man should be considered a cardinal once named by the pope even if he declined the nomination. The conclusion was negative, and in the secret consistory of June 7, 1706, Pope Clement XI accepted his decision to decline the cardinalate. To the embassy which had been sent from Macerata to thank the pope for the promotion of one of its citizens to the cardinalate, Pope Innocent XI said that they should not be sorry not to see him as a cardinal because one day they will be able to venerate him as a saint. The pontiff added that Filippucci's holiness was notable as was his charity toward God and his neighbors, his generosity toward the poor, his fasting and his austerity. Extremely consoled for having been spared from the promotion, he fell ill from hydropesy and prepared his testament in which he asked to be buried in the tomb of the Lateran canons without any distinction or honors and prohibited his heirs to establish any memorials in his honor. The pope derogated all the dispositions and had a solemn funeral celebrated for the humble subdeacon.

Death. July 21, 1706, at 7 p.m., Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Ignazio, Rome, where the funeral took place n the morning of July 22, 1706; in the evening, his body was transferred to the patriarchal Lateran basilica, where another exequies were celebrated the following morning, and buried there dressed in the ecclesiastical habits of a subdeacon, which was the only sacred order that he received. Nine years later, his body, which was found flexible and incorrupt, was placed into three coffins and placed in an elegant and splendid mausoleum built by his nephew in that basilica. The mausoleum has a magnificent inscription adorned with the cardinalitial insignias. Lateran Canon Crescimbeni published his biography in Rome in 1724. In the church of the nuns of S. Chiara in Rome, there is an inscription in marble, on the left side of the main door, memorializing him, placed by Bolognese Abbot Guido de Bovi.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 97-101; Notizie per l'anno 1721. Rome : Nella Stamperia di Gio: Francesco Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1721, p. 140, no. 1; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, p. 26.

Link. His portrait by Pier Leone Ghezzi, Palazzo Buonaccorsi, Macerata Musei.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VIII, 100, says that he was seventy five years old when he died. Notizie per l'anno 1721, 1721, p. 140, no. 1, says that he died at seventy years of age.

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(18) 17. FABRONI, Carlo Agostino (1651-1727)

Birth. August 28, 1651, in the Palazzo Fabroni, Pistoia. Of a very distinguished family. Cousin of Cardinals Giacomo Rospigliosi (1667) and Felice Rospigliosi (1673).

Education. Initial studies in Pistoia; Seminario Romano, Rome (theology and ecclesiastical history); University of Pisa, Pisa (doctorates in theology and canon law).

Early life. After finishing his studies, he returned to Rome in spite of the efforts of Cosimo III, grand duke of Tuscany, to retain him in Tuscany; the two men maintained a correspondence for life. In Rome, he enjoyed the auspices of Cardinals Giacomo and Felice Rospigliosi, his co-citizens and cousins, as well as of Cardinal Gianfrancesco Albani, future Pope Clement XI. Cardinal Giacomo Cantelmo, archbishop of Naples, asked him to mediate in the dispute with the royal ministers concerning his archiepiscopal jurisdiction; Fabroni's intervention was successful. Recommended by Cardinal Cantelmo, the new Pope Innocent XII named him secretary of Memorials, July 14, 1691. Pleased with his performance, the pope named him secretary of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, September 16, 1695. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, September 19, 1695. Appointed datary of the Apostolic Penitentiary by Cardinal Leandro Colloredo, grand penitentiary, September 6, 1696; confirmed in that post by apostolic brief, September 17, 1696. Abbreviatore of the Roman Curia, July 19, 1698. Appointed secretary of secret letters of the Apostolic Penitentiary by Cardinal Leandro Colloredo, grand penitentiary, January 3, 1702; confirmed in that post by apostolic brief, May 6, 1702.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 17, 1706; received the red hat and the title of S. Agostino, June 25, 1706. Named protector of the Congregation of the Canons Regular Lateranense, January 15, 1707. Named protector of the Order of Saint Benedict Vallombrosian, December 10, 1709. He is considered quasi autore of the papal constitution Unigenitus Dei Filius, published on September 8, 1713, condemning 101 propositions of Pasquier Quesnel. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 31, 1715 until January 13, 1716. Prefect of the S.C. of the Index, November 1716. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII. In 1726 he donated his large book collection of about 6710 volumes to what is now the Biblioteca Fabroniana in Pistoia.

Death. September 19, 1727, near 10 p.m., in his Roman palace. Exposed in the church of S. Agostino, Rome, where the vigil took place on September 21, 1727, and the capella papalis on the following day. Buried in front of the main altar of that same church. In his testament, he left most of his wealth to charitable works and established a fund, in perpetuity, for the maintenance of two students at the Seminary of Pistoia.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 101-104; Notizie per l'anno 1721. Rome : Nella Stamperia di Gio: Francesco Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1721, p. 115, no. 70; Notizie per l'anno 1726. Rome : Nella Stamperia del Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1726, p. 179; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 26, 44 and 59.

Links. Biographical entry, in Italian, Cultura Toscana; his portrait by Giovanni Domenico Piastrini, Galleria del Palazzo Pitti, Florence, Polo Museale Fiorentino.

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(19) 18. COLONNA, Carlo (1665-1739)

Birth. November 17, 1665, Rome. Of an ancient and illustrious family. Third child of Lorenzo Onofrio I Colonna, eighth prince and duke of Paliano, and Maria Mancini, of a noble Roman family, niece of Cardinal Jules Raymond Mazarin. Cousin of Cardinal Prospero Colonna (1739). Grand-uncle of cardinals Marcantonio Colonna, iuniore (1759) and Pietro Pamfili (1766). Other members of the family who were elevated to the cardinalate were Giovanni di San Paolo Colonna (1193); Giovanni Colonna (1212); Giacomo Colonna (1278); Pietro Colonna (1288); Giovanni Colonna (1327); Agapito Colonna (1378); Stefano Colonna (1378); Oddone Colonna (1405; later Pope Martin V); Prospero Colonna (1426); Giovanni Colonna (1480); Marco Antonio Colonna, seniore (1565); Ascanio Colonna (1586); Girolamo Colonna (1627); Girolamo Colonna di Sciarra (1743); Prospero Colonna di Sciarra (1743); Pietro Colonna (1766), who took the last name Pamphilj.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Protonotary apostolic. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, March 7, 1696. Prefect of the Apostolic Palace, March 8, 1696.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 17, 1706; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria della Scala, June 25, 1706. Opted for the deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria, May 6, 1715. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII. Participated in the conclave of 1730, which elected Pope Clement XII. Opted for the deaconry of S. Agata in Suburra, July 24, 1730. He was one of the first mecenas of composer George Frederick Haendel.

Death. July 8, 1739, Rome. Exposed in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, where the funeral took place on July 10, 1739, and buried in the choir chapel of the patriarchal Lateran basilica. His entrails were buried in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 104-105; Notizie per l'anno 1736. Rome : Nella Stamperia del Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1736, p. 190, no. 56; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 25, 54 and 52; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 50.

Links. His tomb in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, ArtServe, The Australian National University; and his genealogy, I3, Libro d'Oro della Nobiltà Mediterranea.

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(20) 19. PRIULI, Pietro (1669-1728)

Birth. March 14, 1669, Venice. Of a senatorial family, which gave Venice three doges and the Church five cardinals. Sixth of the seven children of Luigi Priuli and Vittoria Ottoboni. The other siblings were Chiara, Marcantonio, Giovanni, Lodovico, Lorenzo and Elisabetta. Grand-nephew of Pope Alexander VIII, on his mother's side (1). His last name is also listed as Prioli; and as Priolus. Other cardinals of the family were Lorenzo Priuli (1596); Matteo Priuli (1616); Luigi Priuli (1712); Antonio Marino Priuli (1758).

Education. Obtained a doctorate in law.

Early life. Entered the Roman prelature in the pontificate of Pope Innocent XII. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, July 1694. President of the Apostolic Chamber, December 23, 1701. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, September 23, 1705. Pope Clement XI elevated him to the cardinalate in gratitude to Pope Alexander VIII, who had promted that pope to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 17, 1706; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Adriano, June 25, 1706. Granted dispensation to receive the sacred orders outside of Ember days and without time intervals between them, December 17, 1706.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Bergamo, against his will, May 14, 1708. Consecrated, July 1, 1708, chapel Paolina, patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, by Pope Clement XI. assisted by Cardinal Fulvio Astalli, and by Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni. He realized an apostolic visit of the diocese between 1710 until 1712. Opted for the title of S. Marco, May 6, 1720. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII. He celebrated a diocesan synod in 1725.

Death. January 22 (or 24), 1728 (2), at 9 p.m., Venice. The funeral took place in the church of S. Paolo, Venice. His body was transferred to Bergamo and buried in the cathedral of S. Alessandro of that city.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 105-106; Dentella, Lorenzo. I vescovi di Bergamo. (Notizie storica). Bergamo : Editrice Sant'Alessandro, 1939, p. 410-414; Notizie per l'anno 1721. Rome : Nella Stamperia di Gio: Francesco Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1721, p.116, no. 52; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 25, 47, 52 and 118; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 785.

Links. His engraving by an anonymous artist, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; his portrait by Fra Galgario, Villa di Serio, S. Stefano; his portrait by an unknown artist, diocese of Bergamo; his portrait by an unknown artist, diocese of Bergamo; and another portrait by an aunknown artists, also from the diocese of Bergamo..

(1) Hierarchia Catolica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, V, 25, says that he was pronepos, grandson or grand-nephew of Pope Alexander VIII. In this case, it has to be grand-nephew since there is no record whatsoever that that pope was ever married or had children. The page of his engraving cited above, indicates that he was Großneffe, grand-nephew, of that pope. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VIII, 105, indicates that he was his nipote per canto materno, nephew on his mother's side.
(2) This is the date given by Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, V, 25. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VIII, 106, indicates that he died in 1727, and points out that other sources, erroneously, give as the date of his death as January 24, 1728 and January 21, 1727. He says that the latter is due to the confusion occasioned by the Venetian custom of principiare il nuovo anno alli 25. di marzo. Gazzetta di Bologna of February 27, 1728, says that he died on Thursday January 22, 1728 toward 6 a.m.The news is dated in Venice on January 24 and it is in the past tense, therefore, it indicates that the death had occurred before that day.

Cool Archive

(21) 20. GRIMALDI, Nicola (1645-1717)

Birth. December 6, 1645, Palazzo ducale Pietravairano, Teano, Naples. Of a patrician Genoese family. Son of Francesco and Settimia Grimaldi, marchises of Castello della Pietar. He belonged to the old, original Grimaldi family of Monaco. The "modern" family was called Goyon-Matignon. The family gave the church another three cardinals: Girolamo Grimaldi (1527), Girolamo Grimaldi-Cavalleroni (1643) and Girolamo Grimaldi (1730). He is also lsited as Nicolaus Grimaldus.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1670. Governor of Rimini, May 20, 1671 until April 14, 1672. Governor of S. Severino, 1673. Governor of Fano, 1674. Governor of Fermo, April 26, 1680. Gorvernor of Ascoli, 1684. Governor of Ancona, February 20, 1685. Governor of Campagna e Marittima, May 10, 1687. Governor of Perugia, October 16, 1689. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, October 22, 1692. President delle Strade, November 1692 to April 1696. Voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace, March 1696. Secretary of the Congregation of Waters, April 1696. Prefect of the Annona, May 1696. Secretary of the S.C. of Ecclesiastical Immunity and of Bishops and Regulars, December 11, 1701.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 17, 1706; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin, June 25, 1706. Legate in Bologna, September 13, 1706 until September 11, 1709. Granted dispensation to receive the diaconate and the presbyterate outside of Ember days and without time intervals between them, April 2, 1707. Prefect of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta until his death. Opted for the order of priests and the title of S. Matteo in Via Merulana, June 8, 1716.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 20, 1716.

Death. October 25, 1717, at 4 p.m., in his Roman palace. Exposed in the Capuchin church of Santissima Concezione, Rome, where the funeral took place on October 27, 1717, and buried at the door of that same church (1). He left an inheritance estimated at 1.5 million French pounds.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 106-107; Notizie per l'anno 1721. Rome : Nella Stamperia di Gio: Francesco Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1721, p. 141, no. 10; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp.25-26, 49 and 54; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 117, 124, 158, 183, 236, 246, 333, 355, 381 and 714.

Links. I Grimaldi, una famiglia speciale, in Italian, Pietravairano-ce.it; his tomb, Capuchin church of Santissima Concezione, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D    ·    O    ·    M    ·
OSSA NICOLAI GRIMALDI
PATRTITII GENOVENSIS S · R · E ·
PRESBITERI CARDINALIS FILII
FRANCISCI ET SEPTIMIÆ
MARCHIONVM PETRÆ · OBIIT ·
VIII · KAL · NOVEMB · MDCCXVII
ÆTAT · LXXII

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