The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Clement XI (1700-1721)
Consistory of May 18, 1712 (VII)
Celebrated in Rome


(27) 1. PICO DELLA MIRANDOLA, Lodovico (1668-1743)

Birth. December 9, 1668, Mirandola, diocese of Reggio Emilia. Of the family of the dukes della Mirandola. He was the eighth of the nine children of Alessandro II, duke della Mirandola and marquis of Concordia, general of the French Army, and Anna Beatrice d'Este. The other siblings were Maria Isabella, Laura, Francesco Maria, Galeotto, Virginia, Fulvia, Giovanni and Alessandro. Relative of Cardinal Antonmaria Salviati (1583).

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law. Received the insignias of the clerical character, November 1, 1683.

Early life. After the French attacked his city, he escaped to Bologna; later to Rome; and finally to Vienna, where the emperor received and supported him. Returned to Rome and was named domestic prelate of His Holiness. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, May 21, 1699 (1). Prefect of the Cubiculi of His Holiness, June 7, 1706.

Sacred orders. Received the subdiaconate (no further information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular patriarch of Constantinople, June 25, 1706, with dispensation for having only received the subdiaconate. Consecrated (no information found). Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, June 28, 1706. Prefect of the Apostolic Palace, October 24, 1707, and governor of Castelgandolfo, for a triennium.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of May 18, 1712; published in the consistory of September 26, 1712; received the red hat and the title of S. Silvestro in Capite, November 21, 1712. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 4, 1717. Transferred to the see of Senigallia, with title of archbishop, November 22, 1717. Prefect of the S.C. of Indulgences and Sacred Relics. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII. Resigned government of the diocese, September 10, 1724. Returned to Rome and was named archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica in July 1730. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, April 24, 1728. Participated in the conclave of 1730, which elected Pope Clement XII. Resigned as archpriest. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, April 9, 1731. Participated in the conclave of 1740, which elected Pope Benedict XIV. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, August 29, 1740. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Death. August 10, 1743, in his Roman palace next to the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli (2). Transferred to that church the following day, where the capella papalis took place on August 12, 1743; and later, the body was taken to the new church of the archconfraternity of Santissimo Nome di Maria a Colonna Trajana, Rome, of which he had been a distinguished benefactor; and buried there, according to his will; there is a plaque next to the main altar splendidly decorated and with his arms (3). His heart was buried in the church of S. Prassede, Rome, where Cardinal Angelo Maria Quirini, O.S.B.Cas., perpetuated his memory with an elegant inscription. In his will, he asked that three thousand masses be celebrated for the eternal repose of his soul; he indicated that two thousand of them should be celebrated in churches in Rome; and one thousand in the city and diocese of Albano; he concluded saying that he had not done a solemn will because he did not have anything of which he should dispose.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 118-119; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XLV, 211-212; Notizie per l'anno bissestile 1752. Rome : Nella Stamperia del Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1752, p. 125, no. 19; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 28, 50, 51, 170 and 353; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 38 and 40.

Links. His genealogy, G8, Genealogy.EU; his portrait by Pier Leone Ghezzi, Sothebys; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali; his portrait, Istituto per i beni artistici culturali e naturali della Regione Emilia-Romagna, Bologna; and his tomb in the church of Santissimo Nome di Maria a Colonna Trajana, Rome; and his monument in the church of S. Prassede, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, V, 170, but Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VIII, 118; and Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, XLV, 211, indicate that he was named in 1701 during the pontificate of Pope Clement XI and not by Pope Innocent XII.
(2) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, V, 28, and VI, 40. Notizie per l'anno bissestile 1752, p. 125, no. 19, says that he died on August 9, 1743.
(3) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, taken from Requien Datenbank, linked above:

D · O · M ·
LVDOVICO S · R · E · CARD · PICO
E · MIRANDVLA
EPISCOPO PORTVEN
VIXIT ANN LXXIV.
OBIIT
V ID. (?) VIII
MDCCXLIII

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(28) 2. DAVIA, Gianantonio (1660-1740)

Birth. October 13, 1660, Bologna. Of a bourgeois and illustrious family. He was baptized on the same day of his birth. His last name is also listed as D'Avia and De Via.

Education. University of Bologna, Bologna (philosophy; doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law).

Early life. Magistrate of the city of Bologna. Venturiere with the Venetian troops against the Turks, 1684; took part the siege of S. Maura. Went to Rome and at the request of Pope Innocent XI, entered the ecclesiastical state. Internuncio in Brussels, May 2, 1687.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tebe, June 21, 1690; with dispensation for not having the canonical age and the sacred orders, and also granted dispensation to receive sacred orders and the presbyterate outside of Ember days. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, July 6, 1690. Nuncio in Cologne, August 8, 1690. Consecrated, September 10, 1690, at the chapel of the archiepiscopal residence, Brussels, by Humbert-Guillaume a Précipiano, archbishop of Malines, assisted by Reginald Cools, bishop of Roermond, and by Jean Ferdinand van Beughem, bishop of Anvers. Nuncio in Poland, February 12, 1696. Granted faculties to continue as nuncio in Poland in spite of the death of the king, February 22, 1698. Transferred to the see of Rimini, with personal title of archbishop, March 10, 1698. Nuncio in Austria, April 26, 1700; expelled from Vienna after the death of Emperor Leopold I by his successor, Emperor Joseph I, in May 1706.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 18, 1712; received the red hat and the title of S. Callisto, August 30, 1713. Legate in Urbino, December 16, 1715. Legate in Romagna, April 12, 1717. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII. Opted for the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, November 19, 1725. Resigned government of the diocese, December 7, 1726. Protector of Scotland, January 1727. Prefect of the S.C. of the Index, September 1727. Minister of the king of England (Stuart) in Rome, April 1728. Participated in the conclave of 1730, which elected Pope Clement XII. Protector of the Cistercians, August 1730. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, traditionally assigned to the cardinal protoprete, February 11, 1737. He was suspected of philojansenism in several occasions; Cardinal Prospero Lambertini, future Pope Benedict XIV, defended him; later, after the cardinal's death, Jansenist sources admitted that they had defamed him insinuating that he favored Jansenism.

Death. January 11, 1740, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, where the funeral also took place; and buried in the presbytery of that same church. Pope Benedict XIV, his friend and co-citizen, composed his epitaph (1).

Bibliography. Notizie per l'anno 1721. Rome : Nella Stamperia di Gio: Francesco Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1721, p. 118, no. 61; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 27, 45, 50, 99 and 373; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 44; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, p. 152-154.

Links. Biography by Ekkart Sauser, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographischen; his portrait, École italienne, musée des Beaux-Arts, Palais Fesch, Ajaccio, Corsica; his engraving, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; and his tomb in the church of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from the Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D . O . M.
IOHANNE . ANTONIO . DE . VIA . BONONIENSI
S . R . E . RESBYTERO . CARDINALI
VIRO
RELIGIONE . ANIMI . CANDORE . ET . MVLTIPLICI . DOCTRINA
CLARISSIMO
IN . ECCLESIASTICIS . ATQVE . AC . POLITICIS . NEGOTIIS
INTEGERRIMO
BENEDICTVS XIIII . PONT . MAX.
CIVI . OPTIMO . ET . AMATISSIMO .
PERPETVVM . HOC . AMORIS . SVI . MONVMENTVM
POS.
PONTIFICATVS . ANNO . II
OBIIT . III . ID . IAN . MDCCLX . AET . ANN . LXXIX . M . II . D . XIX

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(29) 3. CUSANI, Agostino (1655-1730)

Birth. October 20, 1655, Milan. Of the family of the marquis of Somma. Third child of Ottavio Cusani and Margherita Biglia. Another cardinal of the family was Agostino Cusani (1588).

Education. University of Pavia, Pavia (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law).

Priesthood. Ordained, August 2, 1682. Entered the Roman prelature in 1685 as protonotary apostolic participantium. Commissary of Health in the pontificate of Pope Innocent XI; his main charge was to avoid the penetration into Rome of the plague that was affecting the kingdom of Naples. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government in the pontificate of Pope Alexander VIII. President of the Apostolic Chamber, January 5, 1694. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, September 20, 1695.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Amasea, April 2, 1696. Consecrated, April 23, 1696, church of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome, by Cardinal Ferdinando d'Adda, assisted by Sperello Sperelli, bishop of Terni, and by Domenico Diez de Aux, bishop of Gerace. Nuncio in Venice, April 26, 1696. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, May 5, 1696. Nuncio in France, May 22, 1706. Transferred to the see of Pavia, with personal title of archbishop, October 14, 1711. Escaped an attempt on his life at his arrival in Pavia.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 18, 1712; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria del Popolo, January 30, 1713. Legate in Bologna, April 16, 1714. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII. Resigned government of the diocese, July 12, 1724, and retired to Milan. Participated in the conclave of 1730, which elected Pope Clement XII.

Death. December 27, 1730, Milan. Exposed and buried in the church of the monks of S. Prassede, Milan, in the tomb of his ancestors.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 121-123; Notizie per l'anno 1736. Rome : Nella Stamperia del Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1736, p. 199, no. 3; Notizie per l'anno 1726. Rome : Nella Stamperia del Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1726, p.126; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 27, 48 and 306; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 289.

Links. His engraving by Girolamo Rossi, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; and Palazzo Cusani, in Italian.

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(30) 4. PIAZZA, Giulio (1663-1726)

Birth. March 13, 1663, Forlì. Baptized on that same day. Of an ancient and noble family. While he was still a child, he was sent to Rome, where his uncle, Msgr. Camillo Piazza, was a prelate in the Roman Curida.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law. (No further educational information found).

Early life. Referendary of the Supreme Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, November 22, 1688. Internuncio in Brussels. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, July 27, 1696.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Rodi, with dispensation for not having received the presbyterate, December 2, 1697. Consecrated, December 22, 1697, church of Sant' Andrea della Valle, Rome, by Cardinal Gaspare Carpegna, vicar general of Rome, assisted by Gregorio Gaetani d' Aragona, titular patriarch of Alexandria, and by Antonio Spinelli, bishop of Melfi e Rapolla. In the same ceremony was consecrated Francesco Acuqaviva d'Aragona, titular archbishop of Larissa, future cardinal. Named nuncio in Switzerland, January 7, 1698. Nuncio in Cologne, December 23, 1702. Secretary of the Cipher. Nuncio in Poland, July 15, 1706. Transferred to the titular see of Nazareth, September 13, 1706. Secretary of Memorandums, April 28, 1708. Nuncio in Austria, December 15, 1709. Transferred to the see of Faenza, with personal title of archbishop, July 21, 1710.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 18, 1712; received the red hat and the title of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna, April 16, 1714. Legate in Ferrara, May 28, 1714 until January 1718; he remained in the post until the arrival of his successor, Cardinal Giambattista Patrizi, the following May. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII.

Death. April 23, 1726, Faenza. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Faenza.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 123-124; Finch, Urban. Die Luzerner Nuntiatur 1586-1873 : Zur Behördengeschichte und Quellenkunde der päpstlichen Diplomatie in der Schweiz. Luzern ; Stuttgart : Rex Verlag, 1997. (Collectanea Archivi Vaticani ; Bd. 40) (Luzerner Historische Veröffentlichungen ; Bd. 32); Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 27, 47 and 199; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, p. 155-156.

Link. His engraving by Johann Kupezky and Girolamo Rossi, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin.

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(31) 5. ZONDADARI, Antonfelice (1665-1737)

Birth. December 13, 1665, Siena. Of a noble family. Son of Ansano Zondadari and Agnese Chigi. His last name is also listed as Chigi-Zondadari. His first name is also listed as Antonio Felice. The House Zondadari acquired the marquisate of S. Quirico in 1679. His brother, Alessandro, was archbishop of Siena; and another brother, Marc'Antonio, was general of the galleys of the Order of Malta in 1682, and later, grand master of the order from 1720 to 1722. Grand-nephew of Pope Alexander VII, on his mother's side. Nephew of Cardinal Flavio Chigi, seniore (1657). Uncle in third degree of Cardinal Antonio Felice Zondadari (1801).

Education. University of Siena, Siena (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law).

Priesthood. Ordained, March 25, 1690. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1693. Relator of the S.C. of the Consulta. Vice-legate in Bologna, February 20, 1694 until February 21, 1697. Governor of Ancona, November 16, 1697 until 1699. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1698. Nuncio extraordinary to welcome to the Papal States Queen Maria Casimira of Poland, December 6, 1698.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Damasco, December 5, 1701. Consecrated, December 18, 1701, Rome, by Cardinal Fabrizio Paolucci. Nuncio extraordinary before the King Felipe V of Spain for affairs related to peace after the war of Spanish succession, January 27, 1702. Nuncio in Spain, May 28, 1706. Because of the controversy between the king and the pope in 1709, the nuncio was ordered to move to Avignon, where he remained for three years.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 18, 1712; received the red hat and the title of S. Balbina, September 23, 1715. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 10, 1718 until February 8, 1719. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Pro-prefect of of the Congregation of Rites, perhaps because of the absence of its prefect Cardinal Carlo Maria Marini, who was also legate in Romagna. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII. Participated in the conclave of 1730, which elected Pope Clement XII; Cardinal Cornelio Bentivoglio presented the veto of King Felipe V of Spain against his election to the pontificate. Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace, July 27, 1730. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, April 9, 1731.

Death. November 23, 1737, Siena. Exposed and buried in the church of S. Girogio, Siena, which he had remodeled and chosen for burial. On his tomb, only his name was inscribed.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 124-125; Notizie per l'anno 1721. Rome : Nella Stamperia di Gio: Francesco Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1721, p. 118-119, no. 56; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 27, 44 and 180; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 48 Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 117, 157 and 988.

Link. Painting of his encounter with King Felipe V of Spain, by Sebastiano Conca, Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica, Rome.

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(32) 6. ARIAS Y PORRES, O.S.Io.Hieros., Manuel (1638-1717)

Birth. November 1, 1638, Alaejos, diocese of Valladolid, Spain. Of an illustrious family. Son of Gómez Arias and Catalina de Porres.

Education. Cultivated poetry; and studied mathematics, geometry, arithmetic, geography, and astronomy.

Early life. At fourteen years of age, in 1652, he interrupted his studies and was sent to Malta by his parents to become a knight of its Sovereign Order; vice-chancellor of the order in 1662; granted the commendam of Benavente in 1668; of Viso, near Madrid, in 1674; of Tevenes in 1676; of Quiroga in 1683. Named by Pope Innocent XI grand bailiff of the order. Resigned vice-chancellorship and returned to Spain in 1689. Named Spanish ambassador to Portugal in 1690, but declined for having entered the ecclesiastical state. Entered the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem (O.S.Io.Hieros.). Lieutenent of the grand prior of Castilla in 1692. Ambassador of the order in Spain. Elected grand prior and lieutenant of the grand priorate of Castille in 1692. Ambassador of the order before the king of Spain. Govenor of the royal and supreme council of Castilla, against his will, from December 1692 to January 1696. Retired to Viso. Renamed by the king, again against his will, to his old post in March 1699 to solve the uprising in Madrid due to the scarcity of bread; resigned in November 1703. Memeber of the Junta de gobierno instituted by King Carlos II in his testament and as such he was part of it between November 1700 and February 1701. Councilor of State of King Felipe V of Spain, from 1701 until 1703. Supporter of the French party in the question of the Spanish Succession.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Sevilla, April 3, 1702; was granted the pallium on May 8, 1702; took possession of the see on the following May 24; he conducted several pastoral visitations. Consecrated, May 28, 1702, Colegio Imperial of the Jesuits, Madrid, by Pedro Portocarrero Guzmán, titular archbishop of Tiro and patriarch of the West Indies, assisted by Francisco Zapata Vera y Morales, titular bishop of Darda, auxiliar of Toledo, and by Silvestre García Escalona, bishop of Torotsa. Granted license to be absent from the archdiocese for a biennium, July 8, 1702, to continue as president of Castilla. Fell in disgrace and went to his archdiocese in December 1704. When on February 22, 1709 King Felipe V expelled the papal nuncio, closed the tribunal of the nunciature, and prohibited all communications with Rome, Archbishop Arias was one of the four Spanish prelates who did not comply with the orders of the monarch. Three years later, the king proposed him for promotion to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of May 18, 1712; published in the consistory of January 30, 1713; the red biretta was brought to him by Troiano Acquaviva d'Aragona, papal chamberlain and future cardinal, on February 18, 1713; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title.

Death. November 16, 1717, Sevilla. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Sevilla and buried in the middle of the chapel of the Santísimo Sacramento, in a tomb that he had built, in that cathedral.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 125-128; Goñi Gaztambide, José. "Arias y Porres, Manuel." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; Suplemento (1987), Suppl., 67-68; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1700-1867). Españoles obispos en españa, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 29), p. 15; Notizie per l'anno 1721. Rome : Nella Stamperia di Gio: Francesco Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1721, p. 142, no. 11; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 29 and 222.

Links. His engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica.

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(33) 7. BUSSI, Giovanni Battista (1657-1726)

Birth. April 2, 1657, Viterbo (1). Of a noble family. Youngest of the seven children of Giovanni Battista Bussi and Eleonora Masciano. His first name is also listed as Giambattista. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Filippo Filonardi (1611). Uncle of Cardinal Pierfrancesco Bussi (1759). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Giovanni Battista Bussi (1824).

Education. Initial education under his uncle Msgr. Lodovico Bussi; La Sapienza University, Rome (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, May 7, 1696).

Early life. Went to Rome in his childhood. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, September 1695. Charged by Pope Innocent XII with the caring of the sick in the section of Città Leonina during the epidemic that afflicted Rome. Internuncio in Brussels between September 1698 and May 1705. He was sent to Holland, 1702-1703, to restore the religious peace; he removed the apostolic vicar who had Jansenist tendencies.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tarso, June 25, 1706. Named nuncio in Cologne, July 6, 1706 until the end of 1712. Consecrated, September 12, 1706, Cologne, by Cardinal Christian-August von Sachsen-Zeitz, bishop of Györ, assisted by Giulio Piazza, titular archbishop of Rodi, and by Johann Werner von Veyder, titular bishop of Eleuteropolis. Administrator of Münster, October 23, 1706 to 1708, when Bishop Franz-Arnold von Wolff-Metternich was appointed. Transferred to the see of Ancona, with personal title of archbishop, February 19, 1710.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of May 18, 1712; published in the consistory of September 26, 1712; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Aracoeli, January 30, 1713. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII. Visitor of the Shrine of Loreto in the pontificate of Pope Benedict XIII.

Death. December 23, 1726, Rome, where he had gone to attend a canonization. Transferred to his title, where in the evening of December 25, 1726, the vigil was sung; the following day the capella papalis took place. Buried in that same church. (2) (3).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 128-130; Notizie per l'anno 1721. Rome : Nella Stamperia di Gio: Francesco Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1721, p., 119, no. 64; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 28, 47, 83 and 370; Suite de la Clef, ou Journal historique sur les matières du tems : contenant aussi quelques nouvelles de litterature, & autres remarques curieuses. Par le sieur C. J. [Claude Jordan]. 1717-1776, 1727/01 (T21), p. 233; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 156.

Links. His engraving by Girolamo Rossi, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; and his tomb in the church of S. Maria in Trastevere, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is according to Notizie per l'anno 1721, p. 119, no. 64. Suite de la Clef, ou Journal historique sur les matières du tems, 1727/01 (T21), p. 233, says that he was born on April 16, 1657.
(2) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, V, 28; and also Georgius Josephus Eggs, in Supplementum novum Purpuræ doctæ, p. 654. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VIII, 130, indicates that he was buried on the right side of his family's chapel dedicated to S. Francesca Romana in the church of S. Maria in Trastevere, Rome.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D.     O.     M.
IOANNI BAPTISAE BVSSIO VITERBIEN
CARD. TIT. S. MARIAE. IN ARACOELI,
AD QVAM DIGNITATEM
SINGVLARIS PROBITAS, SACRORVM DOGMATVM PERITIA,
AC RERVM GERENDARVM PRVDENTIA
IN BRVXELLENSI, COLONIENSI
APOSTOLICI NVNCIJ MVNERE
CVM HOLLANDIAE EXTRA ORDINEM CVRA,
QVATVOR SVMMIS PONTIFICIBVS PLAVDENTIBVS,
ERGA PAVPERES QVOQVE, AC DEBILES CARITAS,
ATQVE IN ANCONITANO EPISCOPATV
INDEFESSI LABORES,
RESTITVTVSQVE EVCHARISTIAE, AC SANCTORVM CVLTVS
PROFVSAQUE LARGITIONES
EVEXERVNT,
TVMVLATVM HVNC
NEPOTES EX FRATRE MORENTES
POSVERE ANNO DNI. MDCCXLII
OIJT X. KALEN. IAN. AN. DNI. MDCCXXVI

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(34) 8. CORRADINI, Pier Marcellino (1658-1743)

Birth. June 3, 1658, Sezze, diocese of Terracina. Of a bourgeois and profoundly Christian family. Son of Torquato Corradini and Porzia Ciammarucone. Baptized on the following day; his godmother was Caterina Savelli, future venerable.

Education. Educated at home, he was sent to Rome in 1669 to continue his studies and obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law. (No further educational information found).

Early life. Auditor of Cardinal Benedetto Pamphilj, O.S.Io.Hieros., 1685. Curial lawyer. Sub-datary, May 29, 1699; confirmed in the post by the new Pope Clement XI, December 7, 1700. Canon of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, December 1699.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 10, 1702, Rome. Referendary of the Supreme Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, May 19, 1706. Uditore Santissimi, May 1706. Named by Cardinal Leandro Colloredo, Orat., grand penitentiary, auditor and canonist of the Apostolic Penitentiary, July 28, 1706; confirmed by papal bull, August 19, 1706.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Atena, November 7, 1707. Consecrated, November 27, 1707, patriarchal Lateran basilica, by Cardinal Fabrizio Paolucci; in the same ceremony was consecrated Alessandro Aldobradini, titular archbishop of Rodi, future cardinal. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, November 23, 1707

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of May 18, 1712; published in the consistory of September 26, 1712; received the red hat and the title of S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, November 21, 1712. Pro-prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, April 1718; prefect, November 26, 1718 until May 12, 1721. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, February 8, 1719 until March 4, 1720. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Pro-datary, May 12, 1721. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII. Confirmed in his post of pro-datary by the new Pope Benedict XIII, June 7, 1724. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, retaining his previous title in commendam, September 11, 1726. Participated in the conclave of 1730, which elected Pope Clement XII. Declined confirmation to the post of pro-datary from Pope Clement XII in order to be able to work in the completion of the treaties between the Holy See and Spain, Naples, and Austria. Resigned his title in commendam, April 10, 1734. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati, December 15, 1734. Participated in the conclave of 1740, which elected Pope Benedict XIV; Cardinal Troiano Acquaviva d'Aragon presented the veto of King Felipe V of Spain against his election.

Death. February 8, 1743, at 11:45 a.m., after a long and serious illness, in his Roman palace in Via Lata. Transferred to the basilica of S. Maria in Trastevere, Rome, according to his will, in the evening of February 10, 1743. The capella papalis took place the following day and he later was buried in that same church.

Beatification. On May 19, 1993, in the cathedral of Palermo, Cardinal Salvatore Pappalardo, archbishop of that city, initiated the diocesan phase of the process of beatification, which was concluded on October 17, 1999, by the new archbishop of Palermo, Cardinal Salvatore De Giorgi.

Bibliography. Benedictus XIV. Lettere de Benedetto XIV al canonico Pier Francesco Peggi a Bologna (1729-1758) : publicate insieme col diario del conclave del 1740. Per cura di Francesco Saviero Kraus. Freiburg i. B : J.C.B. Mohr, 1884. Language: Latin; Text in Italian and Latin; introd. and notes in German. Other title: Briefe Benedicts XIV an den Canonicus Pier Francesco Peggi in Bologna (1729-1758); Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 130-133; Fabi Montani, Francesco. Elogio storico del cardinale Pietro Marcellino Corradini. Rome, 1844; Del Re, Niccolò. "I cardinali prefetti della sacra congregazione del concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), p. 125; Notizie per l'anno bissestile 1752. Rome : Nella Stamperia del Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1752, p. 124, no. 15; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 28, 46, 48 and 59; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, p. 41; Venditti, Vincenzo. Il Corradini fu fundatore di congregazione religiosa? Roma, 1959; Venditti, Vincenzo. "Un mancato papa nel più dramatico conclave del secolo XVIII: P. M. Corradini." Fides, LX (1960), 175-178; Venditti, V. Porpore romane : P.M. Corradini. Rome, 1958; Venditti, Vincenzo. "La questione di Comacchio e il cardinale Corradini." Fides, LX (1960), 364-367.

Links. Portrait and biography, in Italian, Sezze Romano; images and biography, in Italian, Santi e beati; his bust, SezzeWeb.it, Comune di Sezze Romano, in provincia di Latina nel Lazio; his image in his tomb in S.Maria in Trastevere, Rome, ArtServe, The Australian National University, his engraving by Johannes Christoph Kolb, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; and biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati.

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(35) 9. SALA Y DE CARAMANY, O.S.B.Cas., Benito de (1646-1715)

Birth. April 16, 1646, Gerona, Spain (1). Son of Francisco Sala y Amat, oidor of the Audience of Cataluña, and Ana de Caramany y Cella. He had an elder brother, Esteban; and a sister, Ana María. In Catalonian, his name is listed as Benet de Sala i de Caramany. His first name is also listed as Benedetto.

Education. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict Cassinese, at the monastery of Our Lady of Montserrat, when he was twelve years old, 1658. University of Barcelona, Barcelona; Colegio de San Vicente (licentiate in theology, 1675); University of Salamanca, Salamanca (doctorates in theology and canon law).

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Professor of theology, Colegio de San Vicente, Salamanca. Definitor general and visitor of the convents of his order in Catalonia. Abbot of the monastery of Montserrat, 1682-1684. Abbot of San Pedro de la Portella and San Pablo del Campo, 1684. Abbot of Santa Maria de Gerri, 1688 (?). Named abbot of the monastery of Ripoll, declined because of having being elected bishop of Barcelona.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Barcelona, November 24, 1698. Consecrated, March 15, 1699, metropolitan cathedral of Tarragona, by José Llinás Aznar, O. de M., archbishop of Tarragona, assisted by Antonio Pascual, bishop of Vic, and by (no name found). Initially, in 1700, he recognized Philip V as king of Spain, but soon, he changed and supported Archduke Charles of Austria. The king ordered him to go to Madrid on March 17, 1705, and this precipitated his official and explicit recognition of the archduke in 1706. Then, on August 4, 1706, a company of French horsemen, imprisoned him in the middle of Camino Real, which went from Madrid to Alcalá, and sent him to Bayonne; later to Bordeaux; and finally, on March 24, 1707, to Avignon. Inquisitor general of Spain, May 15, 1711. He was freed in 1712 and returned to Barcelona in April but then went into exile in Italy in June 1713. In 1712, Archduke Charles presented him for the archdiocese of Tarragona. Pope Clement XI agreed but the bishop did not accept the promotion (2).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of May 18, 1712. After the Peace of Utrecht was signed, his creation was published in the consistory of January 30, 1713 (3). On November 29, 1714, went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title but because of illness could never meet the pope or receive them.

Death. July 2, 1715 (4), at 4 a.m., Rome. Exposed in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, where the funeral took place on July 4, 1715, and later, was transferred to the Benedictine basilica of S. Paolo fuori le mura, Rome, and buried there (5) (6).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 133-135; Girbal, Enrique Cláudio. Biografía del cardenal gerundense Fr. Benito de Sala y de Caramany. Gerona : P. Torres, 1886; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1500-1699). Españoles obispos en España, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 34), p. 240, no. 1489; Moral, Tomás. "Sala y de Caramany, Benito de." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; Suplemento (1987), IV, 2137; Notizie per l'anno 1721. Rome : Nella Stamperia de Gio. Francesco Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1721, p. 140, no. 8; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 29 and 114; Sala y de Caramany, Benito de. Epistolario del cardenal gerundense D. fr. Benito de Sala y de Caramany, obispo de Barcelona (1707-1714). Publicado y anotado por Enrique Cláudio Girbal. Gerona : Tip. del Hospicio Provincial, 1889.

Links. Biographical data, in Catalonian, Enciclopèdia Catalana, SAU; Biografía del cardenal gerundense D. Fr. Benito de Sala y de Caramany by Enrique Claudio Girbal, in Spanish, Google Books; and his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek.

(1) Some sources say that he was born ca. 1640 or in 1642.
(2) According to the site linked above, he said: Si el meu cor fos dominat de l'ambicis, preferiria isser bisbe de Barcelona a la press, que no arquebisbe de Tarragona en llibertat (If my heart were to be dominated by ambition, I would prefer to be bishop of Barcelona in prison and not archbishop of Tarragona in liberty).
(3) King Felipe V of Spain published an edict forbidding his recognition as cardinal by anyone in Spain.
(4) This is according to Moral, "Sala y de Caramany, Benito de." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, IV, 2137; Guitarte Izquierdo, Episcopologio Español (1500-1699), p. 240, no. 1489; and Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi, V, 29 and 114. Notizie per l'anno 1721, p. 140, no. 8, says that he died on July 1, 1715.
(5) The king, to the scandal of the Christian world, prohibited in Barcelona that a cardinalitial funeral for the bishop be held; that the catafalque bear the emblem of such dignity; and that the celebrant utter the word "cardinal" in the prayers said for his eternal repose.
(6) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Girbal, Biografía del cardenal gerundense Fr. Benito de Sala y de Caramany, p. 74:

D. O. M.
BENEDICTVS . DE . SALA.
. CLARO . GENERE . GERVNDAE . NATVS .
ORDINIS . S. BENEDICTI . MONACHVS .
POST . SALMATICEN . CATHEDRAM . EPVS . BARCHINONEN .
IN . HISPANIARVM . REGNIS . SVPREMVS . FIDEI . INQVISITOR .
HISQVE . NOMINIBVS . DE . ECCLESIA . OPTIME . MERITVS .
A. CLEMENTE . XI . P . O . M . S . R . E . PRESBYTER. CARDINALIS . CREATVS . DIE . XVIII . MAII. MDCCXII.
RELIGIONE . DOCTRINA . ANIMI . LIBERA LITATE . ET . HVMANITATE . OMNIBVS . CARVS .
AETATIS . SVAE . ANNO . SEPTVAGESIMO . DIE . DECIMAQVINTA . MENSIS . III . OBIIT . ROMAE . IV . JVLII .
MDCCXV.

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(36) 10. ROHAN, Armand-Gaston-Maximilien de (1674-1749)

Birth. June 26, 1674, Paris, France. Fifth of the eleven children of Prince François de Rohan and his second wife Anne Julie de Rohan-Chabot. The other siblings were Louis, Hercule Mériadec, Alexandre Mériadec, Henri Louis, Maximilien Gaston Guy, Frederic Paul, Anne Marguerite, Constance Emilie, Emilie Sophronie Pelagie and Eleonore. His godparents were Marguerite Gabrielle de Chabot de Rohan and Armand Jean de Plessis, duke of Richelieu and de Fornsac, pair de France. He was destined to the Church. Uncle of Cardinal Armand de Rohan-Soubise-Ventadour (1747), bishop of Strasbourg; and of Cardinal Louis-César-Constantin de Rohan-Guéménée-Montbazon (1761), bishop of Strasbourg from 1757 to 1779. Grand-uncle of Cardinal Louis-René-Édouard de Rohan-Guéménée (1778), bishop of Strasbourg from 1779 to 1801. He is also listed as Armando Gastone di Roan; his first name as Armandus Gasto; and his last name as Rohan only. He was called Cardinal de Rohan-Soubise.

Education. He studied at the Oratorian Seminary of Saint-Magloire, Paris; and at La Sorbonne University, Paris, where he obtained a doctorate in theology in 1700. Socius of La Sorbonne.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Abbot commendatario of Moutier in 1692. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Strasbourg in 1694, by decision of King Louis XIV of France. Abbot commendatario of Lire, 1698. He was promoted to the episcopate at the reuqest of King Louis XIV.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tiberias and appointed coadjutor with right of succession, of Strasbourg, with the consent of its chapter, April 18, 1701; he was dispensed from the canonical age requierement of thirty years of age. Consecrated, June 26, 1701, church of St-Germain des Près, Paris, by Cardinal Wilhelm Egon von Fürstenberg, bishop of Strasbourg, assisted by Louis-Anne de Roussillon, bishop of Laon, and by François-Louis de Clermont-Tonnèrre, bishop of Langres. Member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belle Lettres, 1701; and protector of the Académie de Soissons. Member of the Académie Française, June 30, 1703. Succeeded to the see of Strasbourg, April 9, 1704. Abbot commendatario Saint-Epure de Toul, 1707.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 18, 1712. Grand almoner of France and commander of the Order of Saint-Esprit, 1713. President of the commission for the examination of the bull Unigenitus Dei Filius of September 8, 1713, before its publication in France, November 1713. Abbot commendatario of La Chaise-Dieu, 1713?. Abbot commendatario of St. Waast 1715. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Received the red hat and the title of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, June 16, 1721. He remained in Rome from July to December 1721 and was in charge of French affairs. Abbot commendatario of Foigny, ca.1722. Member of the Council of Regency, 1722. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII. Blessed the wedding of King Louis XV and Princess Maria Leczinska of Poland, August 15, 1725. Participated in the conclave of 1730, which elected Pope Clement XII. Participated in the conclave of 1740, which elected Pope Benedict XIV.

Death. July 19, 1749, in his residence in Vieux-Louvre, Paris. Transferred to the chapel de la Mercy , Paris, on July 21, 1749; and buried there, beside his parents, according to his will (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 135-136; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 471-472; Le Roy de Sainte-Croix, François Noël. Les quatre cardinaux de Rohan (évêques de Strasbourg) en Alsace. Strasbourg : Hagemann et cie, 1880. (Grande collection alsacienne), pp. 11-58; Muller, Claude. Le siècle des Rohan. Une dynastie de cardinaux en Alsace au XVIIIe siècle. Strasbourg : Éditions La Nuée Bleue, 2006, p. 11-202; Notizie per l'anno bissestile 1752. Rome : Nella Stamperia del Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1752, p. 129-130; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 28, 52 and 98.

Links. Portrait and biography, in French, Wikipedia; his genealogy, A3 B2 C5, Genealogy.EU; his engraving and biography, in French, Académie française; his portrait, Rohan Palace, Saverne; his engraving by an anonymous artist, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; his engraving by Pierre Drevet, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States; and his effigy on a coin, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic.

(1) This is the text of his will, in French, taken from Muller, Le siècle des Rohan, p. 200-201:

Au nom du Père, du Fils et du Saint-Esprit, ainsi soit-il. Ceci est mon testament et la disposition de ma dernière volonti que je désire être exécutée. J'espère beaucoup de la miséricorde divine en vertu de la foi pure que le secours de la grâce m'a fait conserver et du zèle que j'ai toujours eu pour la défendre. C'est dans cette foi que je prétends mourir ainsi que dans les sentiments et soumission à toutes les décisions de l'Église et d'obéissance à Notre Saint-Père le Pape qui en est le chef, recommandant mon âme à Dieu par la protection de la Sainte Vierge et par l'intercession des saints.

Si je meurs à Paris, je souhaite d'être enterré sans cérémonie dans la chapelle de la Mercy près de Monsieur et Madame de Soubise, mes père et mère. Si je meurs en Alsace, je choisis pour ma sépulture le lieu que mon grand chapitre jugera être le plus convenable dans ma cathédrale. Je charge mon héritier et légataire universel ci-après nommé d'ordonner les prières et services pour le repos de mon âme sans faste et selon l'humilité chrétienne.

Je donne et lègue aux pauvres ou nouveaux convertis de mon évêché pour être distribué à la volonté du cardinal de Soubise mon neveu et aux pauvres de chacune de mes abbayes, à la disposition de mon héritier ou légataire universel, savoir dans mon évêché la somme de vingt mille livres, dans l'abbaye de Saint-Vaast d'Arras la somme de six mille livres, dans les abbayes de La Chaise-Dieu et de Foigny dans chacune trois mille livres.

Je donne et lègue en outre à l'hôpital de Saverne une somme de deux mille livres. Je donne et lègue une pension viagère de quatre cents livres à la prieure de Conflans près de Paris.

Je donne et lègue à ceux de mes domestiques portant livrée qui sont à mon service depuis dix ans ou plus, c'est-à-dire aux laquais attachès à ma personne, aux coureurs, porteurs, suisses et trois premiers cochers, chacun quatre cents livres une fois payés, aux trois premiers postillons la somme de trois cents livres et aux autres de cette livrée qui ne m'aurait pas servi pendant l'espace de dix années la somme de deux cents livres et à l'égard des gardes de chasse et portiers portant ma livrée une somme de cent cinquante livres...

En priant le cardinal de Soubise, mon coadjuteur, de suivre par rapport à son successeur l'exemple que je donne par rapport à lui, en quoi nous nous rapprocherons l'un de l'autre de l'usage observé jusqu'àprésent dans mon Eglise et nous mettrons nos successeurs qui sans doute nous imiteront, en état de soutenir décemment et dignement leur dignité dès leur avènement á l'èpiscopat... Si mes successeurs veulent bien faire attention aux dépenses considérables que j'ai faites pour le bâtiment du palais épiscopal, pour les châteaux de Saverne et de Mutzig, pour la construction de plusieurs maisons de recettes et presbytères, et s'ils réfléchissent que pendant mon épiscopat le prix de l'engagement des bailliages d'Oberkirch et d'Ettenheim a été remboursé et la vente de quatorze mille livres éteinte, ils ne pourront pas se dispenser de reconnaître que j'ai toujours été occupé de l'avantage et de l'utilité de mon évêché et qu'il s'en faut bien que je l'ai trouvé dans le même itat dans lequel je leur aurai laissé. Je prie le cardinal de Soubise, en qui j'ai beaucoup de confiance, de tenir la main à l'éxécution de mon présent testament.

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(37) 11. CUNHA E ATAÍDE, Nuno da (1664-1750)

Birth. December 8, 1664, Lisbon, Portugal. Youngest of the five children of Luis da Cunha e Ataíde, 7th senhor of Povolide, and Guiomar de Lancastre. His first name is also listed as Nonio; and his last name as Acunha.

Education. Studied at the University of Coimbra, where he obtained a master's of arts and licentiate in canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Canon of the cathedral chapter of Coimbra. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Lisbon. Commander of the Royal Order of Jesucristo and master of chamber of King D. Pedro II. Councilor of State for religious affairs. Deputy of the Holy Office in Portugal. Inquisitor general in Lisbon. Declined appointment to the diocese of Elvas. Major chaplain of the Royal Chapel. He was designated bishop of Elvas between September 15, 1704 and December 14, 1705 but did not occupy the see.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Targa, December 14, 1705. Consecrated, March 14, 1706, royal chapel, Lisboa, by Alvaro de Abranches, bishop of Leiria, assisted by Antonio de Vasconcellos, bishop of Coimbra, and by Antonio de Saldanha, bishop of Portalegre. Inquisitor general of Portugal, July 30, 1707. Royal privy councilor of King João V.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 18, 1712. Arrived at the port of Livorno on May 21, 1721, together with Cardinal José Pereira de Lacerda, to participate in the conclave of 1721; when they reached Rome, the new Pope Innocent XIII had already been elected. Received the red hat and the title of S. Anastasia, June 16, 1721. Did not participate in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII. Did not participate in the conclave of 1730, which elected Pope Clement XII. Did not participate in the conclave of 1740, which elected Pope Benedict XIV.

Death. December 3 (or 15), 1750, Lisbon. Exposed and buried in the church of the Dominican friars, Lisbon.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 136-137; Notizie per l'anno bissestile 1752. Rome : Nella Stamperia del Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1752, p. 130-131; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 28, 43 and 369; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 491, no. 599.

Links. Brief biographical data in Os Cardeais Portugueses - Nota Histórica, in Portuguese; his engraving by Johannes Christoph Kolb, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; his engraving, Biblioteca Nacional Digital, Portugal; another engraving, from Biblioteca Nacional Digital, Portugal.

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(38) 12. SCHRATTENBACH, Wolfgang Hanibal von (1660-1738)

Birth. September 12, 1660, Lemberg, diocese of Gürk, Austria. Of the family of the dukes of Schrattenbach. Was baptized on that same day. Nephew of Cardinal Maximilian Gandolph von Künburg (1686). His first name is also listed as Volfango Annibale; and his last name as Schrottenbach.

Education. Seminario Romano, Rome; Collegio Germanico, Rome; La Sapineza University, Rome (doctorates in philosophy and theology, December 12, 1682).

Sacred orders. Canon of the cathedral chapters of Olomouc, May 20, 1682, and of Salzburg, September 11, 1682. Received the subdiaconate, July 1, 1685; diaconate, July 26, 1688.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 28 (or September 20), 1688. Dean of the cathedral chapter of Salzburg, May 30, 1699.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Olomouc by its cathedral chapter, September 15, 1711 (1). Named administrator of the diocese for six months, December 19, 1711. Preconized, December 23, 1711. Granted dispensation to receive the episcopal consecration as well as the dignity of two abbeys, February 27, 1712. Consecrated, 1712, by Franz Julian von Braida, titular bishop of Hippo Diarrhytus, auxiliary Olomouc.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 18, 1712; the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief dated May 25, 1712; received the red hat on July 28, 1714; and the title of S. Marcello, December 7, 1714. Councilor of Emperor Charles VI from 1713. Minister of Austria before the Holy See, 1716-1719. Granted license to receive and exercise royal power and the general captainship of the Kingdom of Naples, August 18, 1719; occupied the post until March 1721. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII, and wrote a detailed memoir. Returned to Olomouc after the conclave. Did not participate in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII (2). Did not participate in the conclave of 1730, which elected Pope Clement XII.

Death. July 22, 1738, Olomouc (or Brno). Buried in the chapel of Mother of Sorrows, cathedral of Saint Moritz, Kroměříž. In the same chapel is buried Cardinal Anton Theodor von Colloredo-Waldesee-Mels.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 137-138; Notizie per l'anno 1736. Rome : Nella Stamperia del Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1736, p. 174-175; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 28, 47 and 296; Zedler, Johann Heinrich, and Carl Günther Ludovici. Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste. 64 v. Graz, Adakemische Druck, 1961- . Reprint. Originially published : Halle : J. H. Zedler, 1732-50. Vols. 19-64 ed. by Carl Günther Ludovici.

Link. His portrait, medal, arms and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his portrait, coins and medals, numismatika.cz; his effigy on a medal, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic; and 139 additional coins and medals, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic.

(1) Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, indicates that he was named bishop of Seckau on July 14, 1703. The inscription on the second medal (lines 7-8), linked above, also says that he was bishop of Seckau on that date. None of the other sources consulted (including Pius Bonifatius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae (3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957), p. 310; and Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1648 bis 1803 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz, unter Mitwirkung von Stephan M. Janker. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1990, p. 625) mention his nomination to that see and in fact list Franz Anton Adolph von Wagensperg as bishop of Seckau from 1702 until 1712.
(2) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, V, 34. Cardella Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VIII, 137, indicates that he participated in the conclave of 1724.

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(39) 13. PRIULI, Luigi (1650-1720)

Birth. September 15, 1650, Venice. Of a senatorial family. Second of the eight children of Marcantonio Priuli and Elena Basadonna. The other siblings were Danielle, Zaccaria, Angelo Maria, Pietro (a senator), Girolamo (killed in war in 1690), Giustiniana and Giovanni (a procurator and ambassador to Vienna). His first name is also listed as Alvise. Nephew of Cardinal Pietro Basadonna (1673), on his mother's side. Other cardinals of the family were Lorenzo Priuli (1596); Matteo Priuli (1616); Pietro Priuli (1706); Antonio Marino Priuli (1758).

Education. (No information found).

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Abbot comendatario of S. Zeno Maggiore, Verona, October 1684. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, 1689.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 18, 1712; received the red hat and the title of S. Marcello, July 11, 1712. Opted for the title of S. Marco, May 28, 1714. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 4, 1720 until his death eleven days later.

Death. March 15, 1720, in his Roman palace of S. Marco. Exposed in his title of S. Marco, where the funeral took place on March 18, 1720; and buried in that same church in a magnificent and sumptuous sepulchre, adorned with excellent statues, with his bust sculpted in marble, under which there was an honorable inscription (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 138; Notizie per l'anno 1721. Rome : Nella Stamperia di Gio: Francesco Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1721, p. 143, no. 15; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 26, 47 and 59; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 782.

Link. His engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; another engraving, from the same source; his tomb in S. Marco, Rome, ArtServe, The Australian National University; his tomb, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is the text of the inscription taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D      O      M
ALOYSIUS S. R. E. TIT. S. MARCI CARDINALIS DE PRIOLIS
SPECTATÆ INTEGRITATIS ET PRUDENTIÆ
PRIMVM INTER S. R. ROTÆ XII VIROS
DEINDE IN PVRPVRATORVM PP. SENATVM COOPTATVS
APVD AVUNCVLVM
PETRVM CARDINALEM BASADONNA
DIGNITATE ET VIRTVTEM NON IMPAR
TVMVLARI IUSSIT.
OBIIT ID. MARTII A. SAL. MDCCXX.
ÆTATIS SVÆ LXIX. MENSIS VI.

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(40) 14. TOMASI DI LAMPEDUSA, Theat., Giuseppe Maria (1649-1713)

Birth. September 12, 1649, Licata (or Alicata), diocese of Girgento, Sicily. Of the princely family of Lampedusa. Son of Giulio Tomasi, second duke of Palma, first prince of Lampedusa, and Rosalia Traina. They had six children: Francesca, who became a nun and was abbess of the monastery of Palma; Isabella, who also became a nun and was declared a blessed; Ferdinando, who died at 3 months of age; Antonia, who also became a nun; Giuseppe, the cardinal; Rosaria, died at 11 months of age; Ferdinando I, who succeeded his father as duke and prince; and Alipia, who also became a nun. Giuseppe left his rights as the eldest son and his titles to his brother. He was baptized on the following day by Fr. Rocco Traine, a relative of his mother. His godparents were Giacinto Cannata, mayor of Licata, and Rosalia Bugliò, baroness of Bifarra, Favarotta and Fiumesalso. In 1650, the family returned to Palma di Montechiaro. His last name is also listed as Tommasi.

Education. Entered the Order of the Clerics Regular Theatines, in the house of S. Giuseppe, Palermo, and received the religious habit at the end of Nomvember 1664. Sttarted the novitiate on March 24, 1665. He professed on March 25, 1666. Studied philosophy in Theatine houses of studies at Messina in 1667. He left for Rome in December 1667 and on his way stopped briefly in the Theatine house in Naples. In February 1668, he left for Ferrara, staying in Loreto and in the Theatine house in Ravenna. From Ferrara, where he continued his studies, he visited Padua and Venice. At the end of the summer of 1668, he transferred to Bologna. In 1669, he finished his studies in philosophy in Modena. His father died on April 21, 1669. In January 1670, he started his studies in theology in the Theatine house of S. Andrea della Valle, Rome. There he received the subdiaconate. He also studied Greek, Ethiopic, Arabic, Syriac, Chaldean and Hebrew, and collected the titles of the Psalms. Besides, he studied the Holy Scriptures and the writings of the Fathers. Researching in libraries, archives, and monuments, he was able to retrace the ancient ecclesiastical discipline and liturgy. In January-February 1672, returned home to console his brother Ferdinando, afflicted by the death of his wife, Merchiorra Naselli-Tomasi; the brother died four months later, on May 5, 1672, and Giuseppe participated in the exequies. On Saturday of Tempora of Advent 1671, he received the diaconate. On August 19, 1673 after a brilliant and comprehensive examination of theology, he was approved to be preacher and lector.

Priesthood. Ordained, Saturday of Tempora of Advent December 23, 1673, in the patriarchal Lateran basilica, by Giacomo de Angelis, archbishop of Urbino, vicegerent of Rome. He celebrated his first mass on the following December 25, in the church of S. Silvestro al Quirinale. On January 1, 1675, his uncle Carlo, also a Theatine, died assisted by his nephew Fr. Giuseppe. On November 12, 1676, he made a pilgrimage to the shrine of Loreto. In the pontificate of Pope Innocent XII, examiner of bishops.In 1680, during the general chapter of his order, he was elected vocale with active and passive voice. He published Codices sacramentorum. in 1692, died his mother Rosalia Traina saintly. On November 16, 1699 died his sister Isabella (Suor Maria Crocifissa). With an apostolic brief dated May 31, 1704, Pope Clement XI named him general consultor for the triennium 1704-1707. In the pontificate of that pope, he also was theologian of the S.C. of the Regular Discipline and of other congregations; consultor of the SS. CC. of Rites and Indulgences and Sacred Relics, and qualificator of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition in the pontificate of Pope Clement XI. In 1710, the general chapter entrusted him with the revision of the ceremonial of the Theatine Order. He insistently declined the promotion to the cardinalate and had to be compelled by the pope, who sought the help of Cardinal Tommaso Maria Ferrari, O.P., future servant of God, to make him accept.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 18, 1712; received the red hat and the title of S. Martino ai Monti, July 11, 1712. A prolific writer, chiefly in theology, Scripture, and patristic, his works were published in eleven quarto volumes in 1753. He was known and appreciated for his knowledge, humility, charity and zeal for reform.

Death. Sunday January 1, 1713, in his Roman residence, palazzo Passarini in via Panisperna, next to the church of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna. Exposed in his title, where the funeral took place on January 2, 1713, and buried in the subterranean of that same church, in front of the altar of the Blessed Virgin Gaudium Christianorum (1). In the public consistory of January 30, 1712, the pope celebrated his merits and virtues. In 1971, his incorrupt body was transferred to the Theatine church of S. Andrea della Valle, Rome, where it can be seen beneath a lateral altar.

Sainthood. On June 6, 1713, the master of the Sacred Palace authorized the incision of rami with the effigy of the cardinal and the title of Venerabile.On December 5, 1713, the process of beatification was started. With an apostolic brief dated September 16, 1803, Pope Pius VII proclaimed him a blessed. The ceremony of beatification took place the following September 29. He was canonized on Sunday October 12, 1986 by Pope John Paul II. His feast is celebrated on January 3.

Bibliography. Amato, Domenico. Giuseppe Maria Tomasi : Cardinale, Povero, Dotto, Santo. Palma di Montechiaro : [s.n.], 1986; Andreu, Francesco. Pellegrino alle sorgenti : san Giuseppe Maria Tomasi : la vita, il pensiero, le opere. Roma : Curia generalizia dei chierici regolari (Teatini), 1987; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 138-143; Masetti Zanini, Gian Ludovico. Giuseppe Maria Tomasi, C.R. Cardinale, santo e liturgista principe. Roma : Curia Generalizia dei Padri Teatini, 1986; Mattoni, Giovanni B. Sul sentiero della sapienza : vita di San Giuseppe Maria Tomasi, Teatino, cardinale di S. Romana Chiesa. Palermo ; [s.n.], 1986; Notizie per l'anno 1721. Rome : Nella Stamperia di Gio: Francesco Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1721, p. 140-141, no. 5; Oliver, Antonio. José María Tomasi : el hombre, el sabio, el santo. Madrid : Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 1986. (BAC popular ; 76); Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 28 and 49; Scicolone, Ildebrando. Il cardinale Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa e gli inizi della scienza liturgica. Roma : Studia Anselmiana, 1981. (Studia Anselmiana ; 82; Analecta liturgica ; 5; Variation: Studia Anselmiana ; 82; Studia Anselmiana.; Analecta liturgica ; 5; Tommasi, Giuseppe Maria. Venerabilis viri Josephi Mariae Thomasii S.R.E. Cardinalis Opera omnia. Romae, Ex typographia Palladis, excudebant N. et M. Palearini, 1747-1754. Note: Appendix (v. 7, p. [387]-485): La difesa de' libri liturgici della Chiesa romana e della sacra persona del venerabile cardinale Giuseppe Maria Tomasi cherico regolare illustratore e divulgatore di essi contra certe osservazioni sparse d' intorno opera del P.D. Giuseppe Maria del Pezzo. Responsibility: ad mss. codices recensuit notisque auxit Antonius Franciscus Vezzosi.

Links. Biography by Francesco Paoli, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in Italian, Totus Tuus Network; images and biography by Antonio Borrelli, in Italian, Santie e beati; I tomasi di Lampedusa nei secoli XVII e XVIII, site of Domenico Sicari, in Italian; Vita del Ven. Cardinale D. Gius. Maria Tomasi de' Chierici Regolari by Domenico Bernino, in Italian, site of Domenico Sicari; S. Giuseppe Maria Tomasi. Lettere Familiari (1674-1712), a cura di Domenico Sicari, Roma, 2004, in Italian; portrait and biography, in Italian, The Vatican; biography, in German; brief biographical data and picture, in Italian, Enrosadira; biographical data, in Italian and picture of his body, Saints, Star Quest Production Network; his portrait, monastery of the Benedictine nuns of Palma di Montechiaro, Sicily-Photos; his engraving by Arnold van Westerhout, Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal; his image with S. Angelo and the Blessed Virign Mary, by Giuseppe Spina, church della Carità, Licata; his tomb in S. Andrea della Valle, Rome, Requiem Datenbank; and his image on the cover of his biography by Gian Ludovico Masetti Zanini (see bibliography above).

(1) According to Andrieu, Pellegrino alle sorgenti : san Giuseppe Maria Tomasi : la vita, il pensiero, le opere, p. 385, note 7, his body was placed in a coffin of cypress and then in another of lead with the following inscription:

Joseph. Maria. Thomasius
S. Martini S.R.E. Presbyter Cardinalis
Obiit. Prima. Die. Anni. MDCCXIII.
Aetat. Suae. Annor. LXIII. Dier. XIX.
Ex. Ord. Cler. Regul.

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(41) 15. TOLOMEI, S.J., Giovanni Battista (1653-1726)

Birth. December 3, 1653, Camberaia, diocese of Pistoia (1). Camberaria was a fiefdom of his family. Of a noble family from Siena. He was the eldest child of the family

Education. Received his early education in Florence; then, he studied at the University of Pisa (law). Having received the call to embrace the religious life, he asked permission of his father to follow it, and was denied because he was the firstborn; he had to wait until his father died to join the Society of Jesus on February 18, 1673. He spoke eleven languages, Arabic, Chaldee, English, French, Greek, Hebrew, Illyrian, Italian, Latin, Spanish, and Syriac.

Early life. Rector of the school of Ragusa, 1677-79. Taught Sacred Scriptures at the Jesuit church of Gesù, Rome, from 1679.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1684. Procurator general of his order, 1687-1691. Solemn profession, August 1692. Professor of philosophy Collegio Romano, 1692-1697; professor of Controversies, 1697-1707; and later rector, 1698-1701. Rector of Collegio Germanico from 1710. Examiner of the prelates promoted to the episcopacy. Consultor of the SS.CC. of Rites, the Index, and Indulgences and Sacred Relics.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 18, 1712; received the red hat and the title of S. Stefano in Monte Celio, July 11, 1712. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 20, 1720; confirmed, January 20, 1721; confirmed, January 14, 1722; occupied the post until January 20, 1723. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII. Principal papal advisor in theological questions, especially in the preparation of the condemnation of the Jansenist errors of Pasquier Quesnel in the bull Unigenitus Dei Filius of September 8, 1713. Among his published works are Philosophia mentis et sensuum (Rome, 1702); De primatu beati Petri (Rome, 1867); and a pamphlet containing Daily Prayers for a Happy Death (Vienna, 1742; and Augsburg, 1856).

Death. January 19, 1726, in his residence in Collegio Romano, Rome. Transferred to the church of S. Ignazio, Rome, the following day, and in the evening the vigil was sung; the capella papalis, with the participation of Pope Benedict XIII, took place on January 21, 1726, and the cardinal was buried in front of the main altar in that church, according to his will (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 144-146; Notizie per l'anno 1721. Rome : Nella Stamperia di Gio: Francesco Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1721, p.120-121, no. 68; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 28, 51 and 59.

Links. Biography by Charles Macksey, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English, Wikipedia; biography by Ángel Santos Hernández, "Jesuitas y obispados: la Compañía de Jesús y las dignidades eclesiásticas", p. 176-179; his engraving, his tomb in the church of S. Ignazio, Rome Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is according to his biography in English, linked above; and Notizie per l'anno 1721, p. 120, no. 68. His prosopography (Person) in Requiem Databank, indicates that he was born on December 4, 1653.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D.     O.     .M
IOEM. · BAPTAM. · TIT · S · STEPH · IN · M ­ · CÆLIO
PRESB · CARD · PTOLEMÆUM · SOC Š IESV
ERVDITIONE · PIETATE · PRVDENTIA · EXIMIUM
COLL · ROM · HÆRES
SVVM · OLIM · ALVMNVM
MOX · DOCTOREM · PRÆSIDEM · DECVS
ET · QVOAD · VIXIT · CONVICTOREM
EODEM · HIC · CVM · SOCIIS TVMVLO
VOLENTEM · COMPOSVIT · AN · M · DCCXXVI
OBIIT · XIX · IAN· ÆTAT · LXXIII

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(42) 16. CASINI, O.F.M.Cap., Francesco Maria (1648-1719)

Birth. November 11, 1648, Arezzo. Of a noble family. Son of Carlo Casini and Olimpia Albergotti. He is also listed as Franciscus Maria Casinus.

Education. Entered the Order of the Friars Minor Capuchins, Cortona, 1662.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). He was a celebrated preacher throughout Italy and France; in Paris, he preached before the king of France and the queen of Great Britain. He also preached before the emperor and the Palatine and Mainz electors. He went to Naples in 1678 at the request of Cardinal Innico Caracciolo, seniore, archbishop of that city. Professor of theology. Procurator general of his order. Ordinary preacher of His Holiness, 1698. He assisted Pope Innocent XII at his death. Preacher of the Apostolic Palace, 1707.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 18, 1712; received the red hat and the title of S. Prisca, July 11, 1712. Named protector of the Order of the Most Holy Trinity, March 8, 1713. He spent thousands of scudi a year in the restoration and embellishment of his titular church. He scrupulously continued observing the frugality and simplicity of life of his religious order. Among his published works are: Panegirici sacri (1677) ; Prediche dette nel Palazzo Apostolico, 3 vols. (Rome, 1713); and L'età dell'uomo alle misure del tempo e dell'eternità (Rome, 1712). During the cardinal's last illness, the pope sent him a gift of one thousand scudi for his expenses but the cardinal refused it; the pontiff assigned the gift to the cardinal's heredity, the Collegio of Propaganda Fide.

Death. February 14, 1719, at 2 p.m., in his room in the Roman palace next to the church of Ss. Angeli Custodi. When Pope Innocent XI learned of his death, he could not contain his tears. Exposed in the Capuchin church of S. Maria della Concezione, Rome, where the funeral took place on February 17, 1719; and buried in that same church under a red marble, in which was inscribed his name and his cardinalitial title.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 146-148; Carlini, Paolino. Francesco Maria Casini (1648-1719). Un restauratore dell'oratoria italiana. Rome: 1969; Cortona, P. da. Le prediche apostolice del Cardinale Francesco Maria Casini. Dissertation. Rome, 1956; Noci, C. Il Cardinale Francesco Maria Casini. Dissertation. Rome, 1937; Notizie per l'anno 1721. Rome : Nella Stamperia di Gio: Francesco Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1721, p. 142, no. 13; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 28 and 50; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 200.

Link. Very brief biographical data, in English, Maarten van der Heijden and Bert Roest; his portrait, archdiocese of Bari; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali ; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali; his cenotaph, church of Arezzo, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali; portrait, from the same source; another portrait, from the same source; another portrait, also from the same source; his tomb, Capuchin church of S. Maria della Concezione, Rome Requiem Datenbank.

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(43) 17. ORIGO, Curzio (1661-1737)

Birth. March 9, 1661, Rome (1). Of a patrician family. Eldest of the four children of Gaspare Origo and Maria Laura Palombara. His first name is also listed as Curtio and Curtiues; and his last name as Urighis.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Relator of the S.C. of the Good Government, 1686. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, 1687. Auditor of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, 1690. Relator of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta, 1695. Civil lieutenant of the auditor of the Reverend Apostolic Chamber, from January 1696. Secretary of Memorials, September 7, 1700. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, September 17, 1705. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, 1706. Voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace, 1706. Secretary of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta, May 17, 1706.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of May 18, 1712; published in the consistory of September 26, 1712. Granted dispensation to receive sacred orders outside of Ember days and without time intervals between them, September 30, 1712. Received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Domnica, November 21, 1712. Received the diaconate, February 26, 1713. Opted for the deaconry of S. Eustachio, July 1, 1716. Legate in Bologna, April 12, 1717 until July 23, 1721. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, May 16, 1721 until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII. Opted for the order of priests, March 20, 1726, and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title. Participated in the conclave of 1730, which elected Pope Clement XII. Secretary of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition.

Death. March 18, 1737, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Eustachio, where the funeral took place on March 20, 1737, and buried in his family's sepulchre in the chapel of S. Girolamo in that church.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 148-149; Del Re, Niccolò. "I cardinali prefetti della sacra congregazione del concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), p. 126; Notizie per l'anno 1721. Rome : Nella Stamperia di Gio: Francesco Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1721, p. 134, no. 60; Notizie per l'anno 1736. Rome : Nella Stamperia di Gio: Francesco Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1721, p. 175; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 28-29, 53 and 54; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 692; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 158 and 808.

Links. His engraving by Johannes Christoph Kolb, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; his arms and plaque, façade of Palazzo Comunale, piazza Mazzini, Trevi, erected on the occasion of the cardinal's visit to that city in 1717, Associazione Pro Trevi; another view of the same plaque and arms, Chieracostui.

(1) This is according to Notizie per l'anno 1721, p. 134, no. 60. Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi, V, 29, says that he was 76 years and ten days old at the time of his death, therefore, he had been born on March 8, 1661. Notizie per l'anno 1736, p. 175, says that he was born on March 9, 1661.

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(44) 18. POLIGNAC, Melchior de (1661-1741)

Birth. October 11, 1661, Lavoûte-sur-Loire, France. Of an ancient family of Auvergne. Son of Louis Armand, viscount of Polignac, governor of Puy in the reign of King Louis XIV, and Jacqueline de Grimoard du Roure.

Education. Seminary des Bons-Enfants, 1691-1693; Collège de Clermont; La Sorbonne University, Paris.

Early life. Administrator of La Sorbonne University, Paris. Conclavist of Cardinal Emmanuel Théodose de la Tour d'Auvergne de Bouillon in 1689 and in 1691. Participated in the negotiations in Rome concerning the Declaration of 1682. Abbot of Corbie. Abbot of Bon-Port, 1693. French ambassador to Poland, March 1693-1698. Blamed for the failure of having the Prince of Conti elected king of Poland, actually the prince's fault, was relegated to the abbey of Bon-Port, 1698. Recalled to Paris and reinstated in 1702. Member of the Académie Française, May 26, 1704; reception, August 2, 1704; he replaced Bishop Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet. Sent to Rome, with Cardinal Joseph-Emmanuel de la Trémoille, to settle the French affairs with Pope Clement XI. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, 1706. Abbot of Bégard, 1707. French plenipotentiary in Holland, 1710, to participate in the Conference of Gertruydenberg. Member of the Académie des Sciences, 1711. One of the French plenipotentiaries to the negotiations of the Treaty of Utrecht, 1713, to end the War of the Spanish Succession.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of May 18, 1712; published in the consistory of January 30, 1713. Abbot of Corbie, 1713. Honorary member of the Académie des Sciences, November 30, 1715. Member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, 1717; and protector of the Académie de Bordeaux. Master of the French Royal Chapel. Granted dispensation to receive the diaconate and the presbyterate outside of Ember days and without time intervals between them, May 21, 1718. Under suspicion during the regency of the duke of Orléans of having been involved in the Cellamare's conspiracy, he was forced to retire for three years to his abbey of Auchin, Flanders, 1718; recalled to Paris by the new king, 1722. President of the Académie royale des sciences in 1718, 1722 and 1733. Did not participate in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII. Received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Portico Campitelli, September 27, 1724. French ambassador to the Holy See, 1724-1732; during his tenure he had to deal with the difficulties created by the bull Unigenitus Dei Filius of September 8, 1713. Opted for the order of priests and the title of Santa Maria in Via, November 20, 1724. Opted for the title of S. Maria degli Angeli alle Terme, December 19, 1725.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Auch, February 20, 1726. Consecrated, March 19, 1726, church of S. Luigi dei Francesi, Rome, by Pope Benedict XIII, assisted by Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni, and by Cardinal Filippo Antonio Gualterio. Participated in the conclave of 1730, which elected Pope Clement XII. Commander of the Order of the Saint-Esprit, may 1728; took possession, 1733. Did not participate in the conclave of 1740, which elected Pope Benedict XIV. At the end of his life, regretted never having visited his archdiocese. Devoted to art and literature, he was an archeologist, philologist, orator, collector of medals and antiques, and poet who wrote both in French and Latin (1).

Death. November 20, 1741, Paris. Exposed and buried in the church of Saint-Sulpice, Paris.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 149-152; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 451-452; Faucher, Chrysostôme. Histoire du cardinal de Polignac, archvêque d'Auch : commandeur de l'ordre du Saint-Esprit, ambassadeur de France en Pologne, en Hollande & à Rome, des Académies des sciences, françois, & des inscriptions & belles lettres; contenant des détails très-intéressans sur ses différentes négociations, tirés du dépot des affaires étrangeres, pour servir d'éclaircissement à une partie des regnes de Louis XIV & Louis XV ... 2 vols. Paris : Nyon l'ainé [etc.], 1780; "Nota degli Emminentisi Signori Cardinali viventi secondo il loro ordine." Notizie per l'anno 1721. Rome : Nella Stamperia di Gio: Francesco Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1721, p. 134, no. 60; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 29, 47 and 54; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 493, no. 605.

Links. Biography by Joseph Lataste, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his portrait and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his portrait by Hyacinthe Rigaud, musée du Louvre, Paris; his portrait by an anonymous artist, based on the portrait by Hyacinthe Rigaud, palais de l'Institut, Paris; his portrait by Hyacinthe Rigaud, Museu Nacional de Arte Antigua, Lisbon, Portugal; his engraving by Hyacinthe Rigaud (1729), François Chéreau, engraver, Mid-Manhattan Library / Picture Collection, The New York Public Library; his bust by Antoine Coysevox, châteaux de Versailles et de Trianon, Versailles; his effigy on a medal, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic; , Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic; Académie des Sciences, in French; Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres.

(1) Voltaire said of his Latin poetry that he was aussi bon poète qu'on peut l'être dans une langue morte (as good a poet in a dead tongue as one can be).

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