The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Clement XI (1700-1721)
Consistory of May 29, 1715 (X)
Celebrated in Rome


(48) 1. THIARD DE BISSY, Henri-Pons de (1657-1737)

Birth. May 25, 1657, Pierre-de-Bresse, Saône-et-Loire, France. Son of Claude de Thiard, count of Bissy, and Eleonore de Neuchèze. He is also listed as Errico de' Conti di Thiard di Bissy; and his last name as Thyard. He was called Cardinal de Bissy.

Education. Studied at the Jesuit school of Godrans, Dijon; licentiate at La Sorbonne University, Paris; later, in 1685, he obtained a doctorate in theology at the same university.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Abbot comendatario of the Benedictine monastery of Noaillé, diocese of Poitiers, 1669. Vicar capitular of the diocese of Toul, 1687-1692. Nominated bishop of Touls by King Louis XIV of France on March 29, 1687; the differences between the monarch and the pope delayed the emission of the bulls and his election for five years.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Toul, March 10, 1692. Consecrated, church of the Missions Étrangères, Paris, August 24, 1692, by Hardouin Fortin de la Hoguette, archbishop of Sens, assisted by Louis de Thomassin, bishop of Sisteron, and by Armand de Chalucet, bishop of Toulon. He celebrated a diocesan synod in Toul. Abbot commendatario of Trois-Fontaines, diocese of Châlons-sur-Marne. Declined the nomination to the metropolitan see of Bordeaux, 1698. He took part in the protest against the edicts of Duke Léopold I of Lorraine, considered contrary to the jurisdiction and authority of the Church. Transferred to the see of Meaux, February 9, 1705. He participated in the Assemblée extraordinaire du Clergé de France, 1713-1714. In 1713, he published the Missal of Bishop Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet, his predecessor in the see, which he had amended, and the Breviary. Abbot of Saint-Germain-des-Près, 1714.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 29, 1715. With the apostolic brief of June 5, 1715, the pope sent him the red biretta. In 1719, he published several documents against those who appealed to the future council the papal constitution Unigenitus Dei Filius. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Received the red hat and the title of Ss. Quirico e Giulitta, June 16, 1721. He was present at the consecration of the King of France Louis XV on October 25, 1722, in the cathedral of Reims. In 1724, he published the decrees of his predecessor as well as some of the ones he had issued. Commander of the Order of Saint-Esprit, 1724. He had a new and sumptuous altar built in the cathedral, renewed the episcopal cathedra and repaired and increased the parish churches of the diocese. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII. Presided over an assembly of French bishops gathered at the palace of Saint-Germain-des-Près, Paris, to proscribe errors concerning the sacrifice of the Mass, the Eucharist, the authority of the Church and the primacy of the Roman Pontiff; the decrees were later confirmed in their respective dioceses by many French bishops. Participated in the conclave of 1730, which elected Pope Clement XII. Opted for the title of S. Bernardo alle Terme, August 14, 1730. Apostolic commissary for the reform of the Order of St. Benedict of Cluny, August 24, 1730. In 1731 was published the history of the see of Meaux, written by Tussano de Plessis, O.S.B., which the cardinal had requested. He assigned a perpetual rent of 7,500 lire to assist the poor and support the ministers of the Sanctuary. The cardinal also assigned an annual rent of 50,000 lire to the Seminary of Saint-Sulpice for the support of the poor clerics of his abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Près; he also established an annual rent of 10,000 lire in favor of the parish of Saint-Sulpice for the sustenance of priests, the poor, and children who needed instruction. He contributed a considerable sum for the foundation of the Seminary of Saint-Esprit, in the suburb of Saint-Marcel, Paris; he also left a perpetual rent to feed five of its poor clerics. He headed the anti-Jansenist party and defended the apostolic constitution Unigenitus Dei Filius, issued by Pope Clement XI in 1713 against Jansenism; he published Traité Théologique sur la constitution Unigenitus, in two volumes. Another of his published works was Instructions Pastorales. He was a confident of King Louis XIV of France and wrote the monarch's will and gave him the anointing of the sick before his death.

Death. July 26, 1737, Saint-Germain-des-Près, Paris. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Meaux, next to Bishop Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet, in the tomb he had built for the bishops of the diocese.

Bibliography. Alis, Bernard. Les Thiard, guerriers et beaux esprits. Paris ; Montréal : Éditions l'Harmattan, 1997; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 156-158; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 103-104; Notizie per l'anno 1736. Rome : Nella Stamperia del Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1736, p. 176; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 29, 51, 263 and 394.

Links. Biography, in French, Wikipedia; brief biographical entry, in German, Wikipedia; his portrait by Hyacinthe Rigaud, Muzéo Collection; reprodution of the same portrait by Charles Sevin de la Penaye, châteaux de Versailles et de Trianon, Versailles.

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(49) 2. CARACCIOLO, iuniore, Innico (1642-1730)

Birth. July 9, 1642, Castle of Martini, in the fief of his family, archdiocese of Taranto (1). Of one of the most ancient and noble families of Naples. Son of Francesco Caracciolo, duke of Martina, and his second wife, Beatrice Caracciolo. Nephew of Cardinal Innico Caracciolo, seniore (1666), on his mother's side, who was of the family branch of Airola. Other cardinals of the family were Marino Ascanio Caracciolo (1535); Niccolò Caracciolo (1715); Giovanni Costanzo Caracciolo (1759); Diego Innico Caracciolo (1800); and Filippo Giudice Caracciolo, Orat. (1833). His last name is also listed as Carracciolo.

Education. La Sapienza University, Rome (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, June 9, 1677).

Early life. Inquisitor in Malta, April 30, 1683. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Primicerius of the church of S. Spirito in Sassia, Rome, from 1689. Secretary of the S.C. of the Discipline of Regulars and of the Apostolic Visit, February 10, 1690; confirmed in this post, January 12, 1693. Received the subdiaconate. Declined the election to the metropolitan see of Capua proposed by Pope Innocent XI.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Aversa, with dispensation for having only received the subdiaconate, February 25, 1697 (2). Consecrated, March 24, 1697, church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, by Cardinal Galeazzo Marescotti, assisted by Francesco Pannochieschi, archbishop of Pisa, and by Carlo Lofredi, archbishop of Bari. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, May 16, 1697. Named cleric of the Apostolic Chamber in the pontificate of Pope Clement XI. Nuncio extraordinary in Switzerland with faculties of legate latere, 1712. He spent his ecclesiastical rents as well as his patrimony assisting the poor of his diocese. He celebrated a diocesan synod, restored the cathedral and founded a seminary proving it with excellent professors.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of May 29, 1715, published in the consistory of December 16, 1715; received the red hat and the title of S. Tommaso in Parione, March 30, 1716. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII. Participated in the conclave of 1730, which elected Pope Clement XII.

Death. September 6, 1730, in the monastery of Sant'Agata ai Monti, Rome. His body was transferred to the church of that monastery on the evening; the vigil was sung the following day; transferred to the church of S. Maria della Vittoria, Rome, on the evening of September 8, 1730, and buried there. Later, translated to the cathedral of Aversa and buried in the chapel of the Santissimo Sacramento, which he had built. Only his name was engraved on his tombstone. His nephew Innico Caracciolo erected a magnificent mausoleum in his memory with an honorable inscription on its base. The life of the cardinal was written by Michele Sagliocco and published in Rome in 1738.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 158-160; Notizie per l'anno 1721. Rome : Nella Stamperia di Gio: Francesco Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1721, p. 121-122, no. 79; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 30, 52 and 109; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), V, 169.

Links. His portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali; another portrait, from the same source; his engraving by an anonymous artist, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; his funeral monument, cathedral of Aversa, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali; and another view of his funeral monument.

(1) Some sources give Martina Franca as his birthplace.
(2) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi, V, 109. "Nota degli Emminentisi Signori Cardinali viventi secondo il loro ordine." Notizie per l'anno 1721, p. 122, no. 79, says that he was elected on February 23, 1697.

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(50) 3. SCOTTI, Bernardino (1656-1726)

Birth. October 6, 1656, Milan (1). Of the counts Scotti. Son of Count Vincenzo Scotti and Teodora Cusana Borromeo. He is also listed as Bernardino de' Conti Scotti; and his last name Scotto.

Education. Studied law. (No further educational information found).

Early life. Entered the Collegio degli Avvocati of Milan in 1680. Provided with the abbeys of S. Giovanni al deserto and of S. Gottardo di Modoezia. Moved to Rome and became consistorial lawyer in charge of the causes of the saints, 1682. Auditor of Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni in the pontificate of Pope Alexander VIII. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, retaining the post of consistorial lawyer, November 18, 1689. Relator of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta. Secretary of the Congregation of Waters, 1694. Voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, September 1694. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, June 1693; took possession, March 29, 1694 (?). Consultor of the SS.CC. of Rites and of Religious Immunity. Secretary of the S.C. of Religious Immunity, May 23, 1694. In 1702, he was named datary of Cardinal Francesco Barberini, legate a latere before King Felipe V of Spain. In 1711, he was named datary of Cardinal Giuseppe Renato Imperiali, legate a latere in Milan before Prince Charles of Austria, later Emperor Charles VI. Governor of Rome and vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, December 10, 1711 until December 16, 1715; pro-governor until June 23, 1717.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of May 29, 1715; published in the consistory of December 16, 1715. Granted dispensation for not having received the minor orders at the moment of his cardinalitial creation, December 16, 1715. Received the red hat and the title of S. Pietro in Montorio, February 5, 1716. Pro-prefect of the Tribunal of the Signature of Justice, June 21, 1717. Resigned pro-governorship, June 26, 1717. Received the subdiaconate, October 24, 1717; diaconate, October 28, 1717.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 31, 1717. Prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, November 26, 1718. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 20, 1723 until January 12, 1724. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII. Died on his return from a trip to the Shrine of Our Lady of Loreto. He restored and embellished the churches of S. Maria de' Miracoli and S. Carlo al Corso. Cardinal Caracciolo assisted with large sums and materiel the Venetians in the war of Corfu and in the war of the Swiss.

Death. November 16, 1726, in his Roman palace, near the church of S. Tommaso degli Angeli. Transferred to the church of Ss. Carlo e Ambrogio, dei Lombardi, Rome; on November 18, 1726; the capella papalis took place the following day; and he was buried in that same church, near the lateral door, in a tomb with his cardinalitial arms and a simple epitaph. He is memorialized in the church of S. Urbano, where the Capuchins, in gratitude and recognition to their great benefactor, erected a plaque with a eulogy.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 160-162; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, p. 112; Notizie per l'anno 1721. Rome : Nella Stamperia di Gio: Francesco Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1721, p. 122. no. 65; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 30 and 49; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 361 and 904.

Links. His engraving by an anonymous artist, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; and his portrait, Consevatorio di S. Eufemia, Lions Club Roma Sistina.

(1) Other sources give October 6 and October 12, 1656 as his date of birth.

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(51) 4. MARINI, Carlo Maria (1677-1747)

Birth. March 13, 1667, Rome, while his parents were traveling throughout Italy. Of a Genovese patrician family. Son of Gottifredo Marini and Maria Francesca Imperiale. His last name is also listed as de' Marini, and de Marinis.

Education. University of Turin, Turin.

Early life. After traveling throughout Europe, he settled in Rome. Bought, in the pontificate of Pope Innocent XI, according the custom of the time, a post of cleric of the Apostolic Chamber; and in January 1691, that of auditor of the chamber. The custom was later abolished by Pope Innocent XII, who returned the money to the buyers and let him go. Prefect of the Cubiculi of His Holiness, April 1709.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of May 29, 1715; published in the consistory of December 16, 1715; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Aquiro, February 5, 1716. Granted dispensation for not having received minor orders at the moment of his cardinalitial promotion, December 16, 1715. Granted dispensation to receive the sacred orders outside of Ember days and without time intervals between them, August 19, 1719. Did not participate in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII. Prefect of the S.C. of Rites, June 1726. Legate in Romagna, September 11, 1726. Participated in the conclave of 1730, which elected Pope Clement XII. Opted for the deaconry of Ss. Vito e Modesto, June 23, 1738. Legate in Romagna, again, July 15, 1739 until October 1743. Opted for the deaconry of S. Agata in Suburra, July 15, 1739. Granted faculties to receive the subdiaconate, diaconate and presbyterate outside of Ember days and without time intervals between them, January 16, 1740. Participated in the conclave of 1740, which elected Pope Benedict XIV. Opted for the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata, proper of the cardinal protodiacono, August 7, 1741. Legate in Urbino, September 19, 1746; he never exercised his function because shorthly before taking possession, he went to Genoa and when he was starting for Urbino, he fell ill and died.

Death. January 16, 1747, near Genoa. Buried in the church of the Santissima Annunziata, commonly known as del Vastato, of the Franciscans Observant. He named Pope Benedict XIV his fiduciary heir and the pontiff quickly and religiously followed all the indications of the late cardinal.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 162-163; Notizie per l'anno bissestile 1752. Rome : Nella Stamperia del Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1752, p. 127, no. 28; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 30 and 53; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 50 and 52; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 370, 371, 420 and 633.

Link. His engraving, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna.

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