The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Clement XI (1700-1721)
Consistory of November 29, 1719 (XIV)
Celebrated in Rome


(59) 1. POTIER DE GESVRES, Léon (1656-1744)

Birth. August 16, 1656, Paris, France. Son of Léon Potier, duke de Gesvres, peer of France, and Marie-Françoise du Val, his first wife. Destined to the ecclesiastical state at a young age. Uncle of Cardinal Etienne-René Potier des Gesvres (1756)

Education. Studied at La Sorbonne University, Paris, earning a doctorate in law; and a licentiate in theology in 1694.

Early life. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine Bernay, diocese of Lisieux, 1666. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine abbey of Saint-Géraud d'Aurillac, diocese of Saint-Flour. Settled in Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Protonotary apostolic de numero participantium, 1681. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. He returned to France in 1688.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Bourges, August 30, 1694. Consecrated, January 23, 1695, at the Novitiate of the Society of Jesus, Paris, by Cardinal César d'Estrées, former bishop of Laon, assisted by Jacques Potier de Novion, bishop of Évreux, and by François Bochart de Saron, bishop of Clermont. He never resided in his archdiocese and visited it only a few times; in one of his visits, he was assaulted and robbed by bandit Cartouche. Participated in the Assemblies of the Clergy, Paris, 1705, 1710, and 1715; he was one of its presidents.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 29, 1719; with an apostolic brief of December 23, 1719, the pope sent him the red biretta; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title. bbot commendatario of the abbey of Saint-Amand, 1720-1744. Commander of the Order of Saint-Esprit, 1724. Resigned government of the archdiocese, March 5, 1729. Abbot commendatario of Saint-Remy, Reims, until his death. Did not participate in any of the conclaves celebrated during his cardinalate.

Death. November 12, 1744, in his country house near Versailles. Exposed and buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 177-178; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 453-454, no. 2542; Notizie per l'anno bissestile 1752. Rome : Nella Stamperia del Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1752, p. 126, no. 23; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 31 and 122.

Links. His engraving by Estienne Gantrel, Bibliothèque nationale de France; his engraving by Pierre Landry, Château de Versailles et de Trianon, Centre de recherche de Versailles, Banque d'images; and his effigy on a medal, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic.

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(60) 2. MAILLY, François de (1658-1721)

Birth. March 4, 1658, Paris, France. Of one of the most ancient families of Picardie. Third son of Louis-Charles Mailly, marquis of Nesle and Montcravel, and Jeanne de Monchy.

Education. Obtained a licentiate in theology in Paris; studied at La Sorbonne University, Paris, earning a doctorate in law.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Abbot commendatario of the monastery of Flavigny, 1693. Almoner of the King of France, 1694. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monastery Saint-Martin de Massay, Bourges, 695. Promoted to the episcopate at the nomination of the king of France on December 24, 1697.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Arles, April 7, 1698. Consecrated, May 11, 1698, church of Saint-Victor, Paris, by Cardinal Toussaint de Forbin-Janson, bishop of Beauvais, assisted by Gabriel de Roquette, bishop of Autun, and by François Chevalier de Saulx, bishop of Alès. Received the pallium on July 31, 1698. Participated in the Assemblies of the Clergy of 1705, 1707, 1711, and 1713. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Reims, December 1, 1710. Received the pallium of January 26, 1711. Decidedly supported and enforced the apostolic constitution Unigenitus Dei Filius in 1713, and for this was involved in disputes with the clergy of his archdiocese, the Regency, and the Parliament. The University of Reims elected him its rector in 1717 but he declined because the university did not accept that apostolic constitution.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 29, 1719; the pope sent him the red biretta with the apostolic brief of December 23, 1719; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title. Since his promotion had not been requested by the Regency, he was prohibited from wearing the cardinalitial insignias; later, the regent accepted, and the new cardinal received the biretta from King Louis XV. Abbot of Saint-Etienne de Caen, 1719 (or 1720). Because of illness, he did not participate in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII.

Death. September 13, 1721, in the abbey of Saint-Thierry, near Reims. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Reims; his heart was deposited in the tomb of his ancestors in Nesle. Father Châlippe delivered the funeral oration.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre .... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1181-182Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 178-179; Notizie per l'anno 1721. Rome : Nella Stamperia di Gio: Francesco Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1721, p. 124, no. 63; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 31, 7 and 333; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 495.

Links. His engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his tomb, discovered during the restauration works in the metropolitan cathedral of Reims from August to October 1919, after the First World War, Ministère de la Culture de France; and his funeral inscription engraved in lead, metropolitan cathedral of Reims, Ministère de la Culture de France

(1) This is the text of the funeral inscription, taken from the site of the Ministère de la Culture de France, linked above:

ILLUSTRISSIMO ET EMINENTISSIMI DOMINI DOMINI
FRANCISCI CARDINALIS DE MAILLY
ARCHIEPISCOPI DUCIS REMENSIS PRIMI FRANCIA
PARIS, .... QVI OBIIT IN ABBATIA STI. THEODORICI
PROPE REMOS DIE 13 MENSIS SEMPTEMBRIS ANNI
M· DCCXXI · ÆTATIS SVÆ ANNO LXIV INCHOATO CVIVS
COR DEPORTATVM FUIT AD VRBEM NISELLÆ UVLGO
DE NEESLE IN ANTIQVO SEPVLCHRO MAIORVM

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(61) 3. SPINOLA, Giorgio (1667-1739)

Birth. June 5, 1667, Genoa. Of the Genoese family Spinola di San Luca. Son of Cristoforo Spinola and Ersilia Centurione, daughter of Doge Giovanni Battista Centurione of Genoa. He was baptized on June 5, 1667 and given the name Giorgio Cristoforo. Other cardinals of the various branches of the Spinola family were Agostino Spinola (1527); Filippo Spinola (1583); Orazio Spinola (1606); Agustín Spínola (1621); Giandomenico Spinola (1626); Giulio Spinola (1666); Giambattista Spinola, seniore (1681); Giambattista Spinola, iuniore (1695); Niccolò Spinola (1715); Giovanni Battista Spinola (1733); Girolamo Spinola (1759); and Ugo Pietro Spinola (1831).

Education. Started his studies at the Jesuit Collegio Tolomei, Siena (literature); he later obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on August 18, 1691, at the University of Siena.

Early life. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apstolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, December 2, 1694. Papal prelate, 1695. Vice-legate in Ferrara, July 1695. Consultor of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition. Governor of Civitavecchia and Tulfa, and superintendent of Corneto, April 30, 1696 until 1699. Governor of Viterbo, June 5, 1699 until 1701. Governor of Perugia and Umbria, January 29, 1701 until May 1703. Inquisitor in Malta, July 4, 1703. Received the subdiaconate, June 3, 1706; diaconate, June 6, 1706.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 13, 1706. Preceptor coadjutor of the archhospital of S. Spirito in Sassia, Rome, July 15, 1706.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Cesarea, June 1, 1711. Consecrated, June 7, 1711, church of S. Spirito in Sassia, Rome, by Cardinal Fabrizio Paolucci, assisted by Ferdinando Nuzzi, titular archbishop of Nicea, and by Domenico de Zaoli, titular archbishop of Teodosia. In the same ceremony was consecrated Prospero Marefoschi, titular archbishop of Cesarea, future cardinal. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, June 29, 1711. Nuncio before the Spanish government of the archduke of Austria, July 3, 1711. Nuncio in Austria, May 26, 1713.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 29, 1719; received the red hat and the title of S. Agnese fuori le mura, January 20, 1721. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Secretary of State, May 10, 1721 until March 7, 1724. Plenipotentiary, together with Cardinal Álvaro Cienfuegos, S.J., bishop of Catania, to negotiate the devolution to the Holy See of the city Comacchio and the towns in its vicinity, January 27, 1724. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, February 20, 1726. Prefect of the S.C. of Ecclesiastical Immunity, July 4, 1726. Legate in Bologna, June 25, 1727 until 1731. Participated in the conclave of 1730, which elected Pope Clement XII. Legate a latere to the duchies of Parma and Piacenza. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, December 15, 1734. He temporarily acted as camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church during the absence of Cardenal Annibale Albani, the camerlengo, from 1736 to 1737. Protector of the Order Camaldolese, November 27, 1737. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, December 16, 1737. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, September 3, 1738.

Death. January 17, 1739, suddenly, at 9 a.m., Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Ignazio, Rome, where the funeral took place on January 19, 1739; in the afternoon, his body was transferred to the church of S. Salvatore delle Coppelle, Rome, and buried there. His brother and heir, Felice Spinola, erected a monument to his memory with the effigy of the cardinal sculpted in marble supported from one side by the image of the fame and on the other by that of the genius. There is a magnificent eulogy in the base.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 179-180; Del Re, Niccolò. La Curia romana : lineamenti storico giuridici. 4th ed. aggiornata ed accresciuta. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, p. 89; Notizie per l'anno 1736. Rome : Nella Stamperia del Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1736, p. 177; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 31, 43 and 133; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 40, 46 and 48; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, p. 157-159; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 159, 219, 253, 333, 433 and 927.

Links. His funeral monument (on the left), by Bernardino Ludovisi in the Church of S. Salvatore delle Coppelle, since 1913 the church of the Romanian community in Rome; his tomb, Requiem Datenbank; his portrait, attributed to Giovanni Gaulli, Baciccio; and to Giorgio Enrico Vaymer, Arte Antica; another view of the same portrait, art bank old master; his portrait by Giorgio Enrico Vaymer, in "Gio Enrico Vaymer: Studio della tecnica e della tavolozza attraverso l'ausilio delle analisi chimiche", click ten times on the down arrow in the bottom right; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali; and another portrait, from the same source.

(1) These are the inscriptions taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above, on his sarcophagus:

D . O . M
GIORGIO S . R . E
CARDINALIS SPINULA
EPISCOPUS PRÆNESTINUS


and on the pedestal:

"GIORGIO CHR·F·S·R·E·CARD · SPINVLA PONT · PRFNEST.
CLEMENTIS XI · PONT · MAX.
FERRARIÆ PROLEGATIONE PATRIMONII
ET UMBRF PRÆTURA PONTIFIC · MELIT · CENSURA
LEGATIONE DIFFICILLIMIS TEMPORIBUS OBITA
BARCINONEN TUM VINDOBONAM
AD CAROLUM C Æ SAR · AUG · HISP · REGEM
EGREGIE FUNCTO
IN S · E · R · PRESB · CARD · TIT· S · AGNETIS RELATO
INNOCENTII XIII PONT · MAX.
PRIMO RERUM GEREND· ASMINISTRO
BENEDICTO XIII PONT· MAX·
BONONIAM CUM PROCOS · POTEST · LEGATO
REI AGRAR · ET SACROR · LIBERT · TUEN · PRÆFECTO
REBVS UNDIQUE OPTIME GESTIS
GENUÆ III · NON · IUN · PATRITIO MAIORUM GENTIUM
BONO REIPUBLICÆ NATO A · MDCLXVII
OBIIT URBE XVI KAL · FEBR · A · MDCCXXXIX
VIXIT ANNOS LXXI MENSES VII DIES XII
FELIX FRATER ES ASSE HÆRES
P ·

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(62) 4. BENTIVOGLIO, Cornelio (1668-1732)

Birth. March 27, 1668, Ferrara. Of a powerful and prominent family. Of the Ferrarese branch of the Bentivoglio family from Bologna. Fifth of the seven children of Ippolito Bentivoglio and Lucrezia Pio di Savoia, his cousin. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Guido Bentivoglio (1621).

Education. Studied at the University of Ferrara, earning a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on December 6, 1701.

Early life. He went to Rome at a mature age. President of Accademia degli Intrepidi, 1698. Member of Accademia della Crusca, 1699. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, June 1, 1702. Not having been able to obtain the post of auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota corresponding to a citizen of Ferrara, he was compensated by Pope Clement XI by naming him cleric of the Apostolic Chamber on September 30, 1706 and president delle armi in August 1707. Received the subdiaconate, November 29, 1711; diaconate, December 8, 1711.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 28, 1711.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Cartago, March 16, 1712. Consecrated, April 3, 1712, church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, by Cardinal Fabrizio Paolucci. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne on March 27, 1712. Named nuncio in France on May 20, 1712. His strong support, at times undiplomatic, of the bull Unigenitus Dei Filius, 1713, condemning Jansenism, displeased the duke of Orléans, regent of France at the death of Louis XIV in 1715, and he was recalled from the nunciature with orders of staying in Ferrara.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 29, 1719; with an apostolic bull of December 3, 1719, the pope sent him (in Paris) the red biretta with Monsignor Bartolomeo Massei, future cardinal; received the red hat and the title of S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni, April 15, 1720. Legate in Romagna, March 20, 1720; legation prorogated for a triennium, May 28, 1721; and for another triennium, June 12, 1724 until January 1727. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII. Plenipotentiary minister of Spain before the Holy See, 1726 until his death. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 20, 1727 until January 26, 1728. Opted for the title of S. Cecilia, June 25, 1727. Participated in the conclave of 1730, which elected Pope Clement XII; presented the veto of King Felipe V of Spain against the election of Cardinals Giuseppe Renato Imperiali and Antonfelice Zondadari. He was a poet and translated into Italian from Latin the poem Tebade of Publio Papiro Stazio, using the pseudonym Selvaggio Porpora.

Death. December 30, 1732, Rome. Exposed in his title, where the funeral took place, and buried on the right side of the central pavement in that same church. His tombstone was engraved with his cardinalitial arms and a brief inscription (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 180-181; Forcella, Vincenzo. Iscrizioni delle chiese e d'altri edificii di Roma dal secolo XI fino ai giorni nostri. 14 v. in 7. Roma : Tip. delle scienze matematiche e fisiche, 1869-1884. Note: Imprints vary: v. 2-7, "Tip. dei fratelli Bencini"; v. 8-13, "Coi tipi di L. Cecchini"; v. 14, "Roma, Firenze, Torino, E. Loescher & Cie."/ Vol. 14 contains indices to the whole work. Responsibility: raccolte e pubblicate da Vincenzo Forcella, II, 40, no. 120; Notizie per l'anno 1736. Rome : Nella Stamperia del Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1736, p. 201, no. 7; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. ; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), V, 91; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 370 and 490.

Links. His portrait by an anonymous artists, Biblioteca Ariostea, Ferrara; his engraving, Wikimedia; the Bentivoglio family by Nicholas Weber, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; and his tomb in S. Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome, ArtServe, The Australian National University.

(1) This is the text of the inscription, taken from Forcella, Iscrizioni delle Chiesa e d'altri edificii di Roma, II, 40, no. 120:

HIC · IACET
CORNELIUS · TIT · SANCTÆ · CÆCILIÆ
PRESB · CARD · BENTIVOLUS · DE · ARAGONIA
FERRARIEN.
PRO · CATHOLIC · HISPANIÆ · REGE
PHILIPPO · V.
APUD · APOSTOLICAM · SEDEM · ORATOR
VIXIT · ANNOS · LXIV.
MENSES · IX · DIES III.
OBIIT · AN · SAL · MDCCXXXII.
ITI · KAL · IANUARIAS

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(63) 5. HÉNIN-LIÉTARD D'ALSACE-BOUSSU DE CHIMAY, Thomas Philip Wallrad d' (1679-1759)

Birth. November 12, 1679, Brussels, Flanders. Second son of Philippe Louis d'Hénin-Liétard d'Alsace, count of Boussu and prince of Chimay, knight of the order de la Toisson d'or, and Anne Louise Vermychen, daughter of the baron of Impden. Baptized on the following day of his birth. Destined to the ecclesiastical state at a very young age, he received the clerical tonsure, November 29, 1690. He is also known as the Cardinal d'Alsace. His last name is also listed as Bossut.

Education. Primary studies with the Jesuits. Studied philosophy in Cologne; then went to Rome, residing at Collegio Germanico while studying at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum S. Apollinare, Rome (theology); later, studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he earned doctorates in philosophy and theology on August 28, 1702; he was the first one to defend his thesis in public before an assembly of prelates and doctors.

Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Gent, and later, provost in 1695. Received the minor orders, August 24, 1698; subdiaconate, June 12, 1701; diaconate, November 20, 1701.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 15, 1702. Chamberlain di onore of Pope Clement XI. Synodal examiner in the diocese of Gent, 1702. Vicar general of Gent in the absence of the bishop. Domestic prelate, August 20, 1712. The pope was going to name him bishop of Ypres in 1713 when the emperor nominated him for the metropolitan see of Mechlin.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Mechlin, December 16, 1715. Consecrated, January 19, 1716, chapel of the house of the professed Jesuits, Vienna, by Giorgio Spinola, titular archbishop of Cesarea, nuncio in Austria, assisted by László Erdody, bishop of Nitra, and by Sigmund von Kollonitz, bishop of Vác. Privy councilor of the emperor. He was promoted to the cardinalate at the request of the emperor and the king of Spain.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 29, 1719; the pope sent him the red biretta with a brief of December 23, 1719; received the red hat and the title of S. Cesareo in Palatio, June 16, 1721. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Did not participate in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII. Did not participate in the conclave of 1730, which elected Pope Clement XII. Opted for the title of S. Balbina, December 2, 1733. Participated in the conclave of 1740, which elected Pope Benedict XIV. Stayed in Rome until May 1741. Cardinal protoprete. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, customarily assigned to the cardinal protoprete, July 17, 1752. Did not participate in the conclave of 1758, which elected Pope Clement XIII.

Death. January 5, 1759, Mechlin. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Mechlin.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 181-182; Notizie per l'anno1763. In Roma MDCCLXIII : Nella Stamperia del Chracas, p. 127, no. 5; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 31, 53 and 262; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 42 and 44.

Links. Biographical entry, in Dutch, Wikipedia; his bust and fifiteen portraits, Institut royal du Patrimoine artistique, Bruxelles; his engraving by Martin Bernigeroth, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; his arms, Institut royal du Patrimoine artistique, Bruxelles; his portrait by Pieter Tanje, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, San Fancisco, California, United States of America; and his funeral monument cathedral of Sint-Rumoldus, Bruxelles, Belgium..

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(64) 6. BARBARIGO, Giovanni Francesco (1658-1730)

Birth. April 29, 1658, Venice. Eldest of the three children of Antonio Barbarigo and Chiara Duodo. His last name is also listed as Barbadico. Nephew of Cardinal Gregorio Barbarigo (1660); and relative of Cardinal Marcantonio Barbarigo (1686). Another cardinal of the family was Angelo Barbarigo (1408).

Education. Studied at the University of Pavia, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on June 9, 1698.

Early life. Entered the diplomatic service of the Republic of Venice and was representative to France in two occasions. Entered the ecclesiastical state.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Primicerius of the cathedral chapter of Venice.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Verona, July 21, 1698. Consecrated, August 17, 1698, church of S. Marco, Rome, by Cardinal Sebastiano Antonio Tanara, assisted by Francesco Pannochieschi, archbishop of Pisa, and by Prospero Bottino, titular archbishop of Mira. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, September 7, 1698. For the edification of his clergy, he published, helped by Antonio Magliabecchi, the works of S. Zenone, bishop of Verona; he charged several knowledgeable and literary men the composition of the history of the diocese of Verona and had it published at his own expense. He started the construction of a new seminary. He also reformed the conduct of the clergy and personally visited parishes and oratories. He provided for and assisted the victims of a severe epidemic in 1702. In 1712, he introduced in Verona the Fathers of the Oratory of S. Flippo di Neri, assigning them the church of Ss. Fermo e Rustico. He was a strong defender of the ecclesiastical rights and immunity. Transferred to the see of Brescia, July 9, 1714; he tried to avoid his transfer from Verona but the express order of the pope made him accept it. He established a catechism for the children of the poor, whom he assisted with abundant alms. He built several cells in one suburban villa, where he retired with his clergy during Lent to practice spiritual exercises. This custom spread throughout the city and the diocese. In the seminary, he established a chair of Greek.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of November 29, 1719; published in the consistory of September 30, 1720. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Received the red hat and the title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro, June 20, 1721. Transferred to the see of Padua, January 20, 1723. He expanded the seminary and founded several monasteries of nuns. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII. Promoted the cause of beatification of Cardinal Gregorio Barbarigo. With great diligence and the help of Canon Paolo Galeardi, he published topuscles of S. Gaudenzio, and Ramperto and Adelmanno, bishops of Brescia.

Death. January 26, 1730, at 11 p.m., Padua. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Padua, next to the tomb of his uncle and predecessor Cardinal Gregorio Barbarigo.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 182-185; Notizie per l'anno 1726. Rome : Nella Stamperia del Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1726, p. 190-191; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 32, 47, 127, 209 and 411; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 98.

Link. Biography by Nicholas Weber, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his portrait, when he was primicerius of the cathedral chapter of Venice, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali; his portrait, diocese of Brescia; his portrait, diocese of Brescia; his portrait, diocese of Verona; and his portrait by Ugolino, beginning of the 19th century, diocese of Verona.

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(65) 7. BELLUGA Y MONCADA, Orat., Luis Antonio (1662-1743)

Birth. November 30, 1662, Motril, archdiocese of Granada, Spain. Of a noble family. Son of Luis de Belluga y Moncada and María Francisca del Castillo. He was orphaned very young. He is also listed as Lluís Belluga i de Montcada; and his first as Lodovico, Luigi, Luiz and Louiz.

Education. Initial studies with his uncle Luis Belluga y Mortara, beneficiary of the parish of Motril; and with the Mínimos of San Francisco de Paula; received the ecclesiastical tonsure and went to study at Colegio Mayor de Santiago, Granada in 1676 (philosophy and theology); Colegio Mayor de Santa María de Jesús, Sevilla, where he obtained a doctorate in theology in 1686.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1686. Judge and synodal examiner in the diocese of Córdoba. Canon lectoral of the cathedral chapter of Zamora, 1687. Canon lectoral of the cathedral chapter of Córdoba, by opposition with unanimous vote, 1689 until 1705. Founder and superior of the Congregation of the Oratory of St. Philip Neri in Córdoba.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Cartagena, February 9, 1705. Consecrated, Sunday April 19, 1705, chapel of the bishop, Córdoba, by Cardinal Pedro Salazar Gutiérrez de Toledo, O. de M., bishop of Córdoba. For religious reasons supported King Felipe V in the War of Spanish Succession. In a pastoral letter, 1705, he reasoned the obedience due to the king. His position caused a heated debate. The war affected Murcia in 1706, and when he found out that the troops of Archduke Charles had desecrated churches in Alicante, acting against his peaceful temperament, he formed a militia and riding a horse and with a crucifix in his hand exhorted the faithful to defend themselves "from the enemies of our Holy Faith, defend their churches and not see them desecrated". In February 1706, King Felipe V named him viceroy of Valencia, a post he unwillingly accepted; and resigned in April 1707. He presented himself in the battlefield of Almansa in 1707. In 1709, Pope Clement XI recognized the archduke as king of the occupied territories in Spain and King Felipe V broke relations with Rome and limited religious freedom in the kingdom. Bishop Belluga, in spite of his affection and loyalty to the king, defended the rights of the church in a memorial dated November 16, 1709. He was a loyal supporter of the king but opposed his royalist policies and his French ministers. In Vega Baja del Segura, from 1715, he founded the towns of Dolores, San Felipe and San Fulgencio. Declined the sees of Córdoba and Zaragoza, and by mandate of Pope Clement XI accepted the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 29, 1719. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Traspontina, June 16, 1721. The papal bull Apostolici ministerii, 1723, on the Tridentine reform in Spain, was called bellugana because of his contribution to its composition. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII. After the conclave, he stayed to reside in Rome. Resigned government of the diocese, September 11, 1724. Opted for the title of S. Prisca, February 20, 1726. Named protector of Spain in July 1726. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 26, 1728 until February 7, 1729. Participated in the conclave of 1730, which elected Pope Clement XII. Pro-minister of Spain before the Holy See at the death of Cardinal Cornelio Bentivoglio, January 1733 until April 1734. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, December 16, 1737. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, September 3, 1738. Participated in the conclave of 1740, which elected Pope Benedict XIV; exited the conclave because of illness on March 8, 1740 and re-entered on March 24.

Death. February 22, 1743, at midnight, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, where the capella papalis took place on February 25, 1743; and buried in the chapel of S. Carlo in that same church; his epitaph was redacted by Pope Benedict XIV (1).

Bibliography. Arco y Molinero, Ángel del. Estudio biográfico del Eminentísimo Señor Cardenal D. Luis Belluga y Moncada, Protector de Espana. Murcia, Tipografía de La Paz, 1891; Báguena, Joaquín and Alcázar Molina, Cayetano. El cardenal Belluga, su vida y su obra. Murcia : Instituto de Estudios Históricos de la Universidad de Murcia, 1935; Belluga y Moncada, Luis Antonio. El Cardenal Belluga : pastorales y documentos de su época : publicados en el tercer centenario de su nacimiento. Con una introducción de Antonio Pérez y Gómez. [Murcia] : Caja de Ahorros del Sureste de España, 1962. (Textos murcianos raros y curiosos ; 1); Boades, Miguel. La Diputación Provincial de Murcia y Las Pías Fundaciones del Excmo. Cardenal Belluga. Murcia : Tip. La Paz, 1869; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 185-189; Cremades Griñán, Carmen María. Estudios sobre el cardenal Belluga. Murcia : Academia Alfonso X el Sabio, 1985. (Biblioteca murciana de bolsillo ; 64; Variation: Biblioteca murciana de bolsillo ; 64). Contents: Fundamentos doctrinales e históricos de la posicisn antirregalista del cardenal Belluga / Isidoro Martmn Martínez -- El cardenal Belluga y sus pías fundaciones / José Latour Brotons -- Don Luis Belluga y Moncada / Angel Benito y Durán -- Aportación al estudio de la colonización de la Vega Baja del Segura / T. León Closa. Responsibility: edición y estudio preliminar de Carmen Ma. Cremades Griñán; García de la Rosa, Diego. Biografía del Excmo. sr. cardenal D. Luis Belluga y Moncada, protector de España. Motril : Imprenta de Servaty hermanos, 1845; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1700-1867). Españoles obispos en españa, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 29), p. 18, no. 37; Martín Martínez, Isidoro. "Belluga y Moncada, Luis." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; Suplemento (1987), I, 202-203; Martín Martínez, Isidoro. El cardenal Belluga ante la ruptura de Felipe V con la Santa Sede en 1709. Madrid : Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores, Escuela Diplomática, 1952; Martín Martínez, Isidoro. Figura y pensamiento del cardenal Belluga a travis de su memorial antirregalista a Felipe V. Murcia, Talleres Tip. Belmar, 1960; Martn Martínez, Isidoro. Fundamentos doctrinales e históricos de la posicisn antiregalista del Cardenal Belluga. Murcia : Sucs. de Nogués, 1960. Note: Publicaciones de la Academia Alfonso X el Sabio; Notizie per l'anno 1752. Rome : Nella Stamperia del Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1752, p. 124, no.16; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 31, 48, 50, 59 and 145; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 46 and 48; Sáez Calvo, José. San Felipe Neri : real villa de las Pías Fundaciones del cardenal Belluga. Alicante : Instituto Alicantino de Cultura Juan Gil-Albert, 2002. (Colección Patrimonio; Variation: Patrimonio (Alicante, Spain)); Serra Ruiz, Rafael. El pensamiento social-político del Cardenal Belluga. Murcia, Patronato de Cultura de la Diputación 1963; Sobejano, Andrés. El Cardenal Belluga. Murcia, Academma Alfonso X el Sabio 1963, ©1962; Torres Fontes, Juan; and Bosque Carceller, Rodolfo. Epistolario del Cardenal Belluga. Murcia : Academia Alfonso X el Sabio, 1962; Vilar, Juan ; Sánchez Gil, Francisco Víctor ; Vilar, María José. Catálogo de la Biblioteca Romana del Cardenal Belluga. Transcripción, estudio y edición. Murcia : Universidad de Murcia ; Fundación Séneca, 2009; Vilar, Juan Bautista. El Cardenal Luis Belluga. Granada : Editorial Comares, 2001; Vilar, Juan Bautista. Murcia y el Cardenal Belluga. Murcia : Concejalía de Cultura y Festejos, 2005. Corporate author: Centro de Arte Palacio Almudí.

Links. Images and biography, in Spanish, Región de Murcia Digital; biography, in Spanish, Gran Enciclopedia Rialp, Canal Social; biography, in English, Enciclopèdia Catalana, SAU; his portrait, École intalianne, musée des Beaux-Arts, Palais Fesch, Ajaccio, rmn Agence photographique; his portrait, diocese of Cartagena; his engraving by Martin Bernigeroth, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; his engraving by Johann Gaspard Schwab, Biblioteca Nacional Española, Biblioteca Digital Hispánica; his engraving by Gasparo Massi, Biblioteca Nacional Española, Biblioteca Digital Hispánica; his image, in "El Seminario en el Siglo XVIII", "La Época del Cardenal Belluga"; his caricature by Pier Leone Ghezzi, Bildindex der Kunst und Architektur; his statue by Pablo Coronado (1948), Motril, Coral Armiz; his statue, cathedral square, Murcia (1958), Flickr; his image on a postal stamp, Flickr; and his tomb in S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is the text of the epitaph, taken from the site Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D     O     M
LVDOVICO . BELLVGA . HISPANO
QVI
EX . EPISCOPO . CARTHAGINENSI
INVITVS . ET . REVENS
A . CLEMENTE . XI . P . M
IN . S . R . E . CARDINALIVM . COLLEGIVM . COOPTATVS
HISPANIARVM . APVD . S . SEDEM . PROTECTOR
IVRIVM . R . ECCLESIAE . VINDEX
HOC . VNVM . CURAVIT
VT . DEO . NON . HOMINIBVS . PLACERET
VIR
APOSTOLICO . PROPAGANDAE . FIDEI . ZELO
FLAGRANTISSIMVS
ECCLESIASTICA . DISCIPLINAE . ASSERTOR
DE . ALIMONIA . PAVPERUM
DE . INSTITVTIONE . CLERICORVM
DE . EDVCATIONE . JVVENTUTIS . SOLLICITVS
COLLEGIA . SCHOLAS . PIAS . DOMOS . SEMINARIA
AERE . SVO . FVNDAVIT
BENEDICTVS XIIII . P . M
PERENNE . HOC . AMORIS . SVI . MONVMENTVM
P . C
VIXIT . ANNOS . LXXX . MENSES . II . DIES . XXIII
OBIIT . VIII . KAL . MARTIAS . ANNO . S . R . MDCCLIII
HIC . EX . TESTAMENTO
VNA . CVM S. PHILIPPI . NERII . FILIS
FILIVS . IPSE . ET . CONGREGATIONIS . PROPAGATOR
RESSURECTIONEM . EXPECTAT

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(66) 8. PEREIRA DE LACERDA, José (1662-1738)

Birth. June 7, 1662, Castello de Moura, archdiocese of Evora, Portugal. Of a noble family. Son of Francisco Pereira de Lacerda and Antónia de Brito Nogueira. He was baptized on the same day of his birth. His first name is also listed as Josefe; and his last name as Pereira de La Cerda; and Pereyra de Lacerda.

Education. Attended the University of Coimbra, earning a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on November 14, 1683. He was an excellent orator who possessed and extraoridnary eloquence.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 20, 1690. Professor of theology and canon law at the University of Coimbra. Grand prior of the Order of San Jaime de Esprata. Named viceroy of Faro.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Faro, June 8, 1716. Consecrated (no information found). Governor of Algarve, which capital is Faro, from June 1718 and January 1720. He was promoted to the cardinalate at the instance of the king of Portugal.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 29, 1719; the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief of December 20, 1720. Arrived at the port of Livorno on May 21, 1721; when he reached Rome, together with Cardinal Nuno da Cunha e Ataíde, to participate in the conclave of 1721, the new Pope Innocent XIII had already been elected. Received the red hat and the title of S. Susanna, June 16, 1721. He remained in Rome and was named minister of Portugal before the Holy See in July 1721; he occupied the post until November 1723; before he would have left Rome, Pope Innocent XIII died and he stayed to take part in the election of his successor. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII. After the conclave he stayed in Rome and participated in the Lateran Council. He also took part in the negotiations of the conflict involving Nuncio Vincenzo Bichi and King João V of Portugal, until the rupture of relations between Portugal and the Holy See in March 1728. Did not participate in the conclave of 1730, which elected Pope Innocent XIII.

Death. September 28, 1738, Faro. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Faro.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 189; Notizie per l'anno 1736. Rome : Nella Stamperia del Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1736, p. 198; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 31, 52 and 312.

Links. His engraving by Girolamo Frezza, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; his engraving by Girolamo Rossi, based on a portrait by Antonio David, Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal, Biblioteca Nacional Digital; his engraving by Girolamo Frezza, Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal, Biblioteca Nacional Digital; his genealogy, in Portuguese, Geneall.pt; and brief biographical data in Os Cardeais Portugueses - Nota Histórica, in Portuguese, patriarchate of Lisbon.

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(67) 9. ALTHAN, Mihály Frigyes (1682-1734)

Birth. July 20, 1682, Glatz, diocese of Könnigrätz, Bohemia. Son of Count Wenzel Michael Franz von Althan and Countess Anna Maria Elisabeth von Aspremont-Lynden. His first name is also listed as Michele Fedrigo; and his last name as Althann.

Education. Studied at the University of Prague, obtaining doctorates in canon law and theology.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Canon of the cathedral chapters of Prague, Breslau and Olomouc. Provost of the royal chapel Omnium Sanctorum, Prague. Provost of SS. Cosmae et Damiani Boleslaviae, Prague. Abbot of SS. Petri et Pauli de Tapolcza, archdiocese of Eger. Named auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota in 1714, having been nominated by the emperor; took possession of the post in March 1715. Nominated bishop of Vác by the emperor of Janury 4, 1718.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Vác, Hungary, June 27, 1718. Granted permission to receive the episcopal consecration from a bishop and two abbots, July 4, 1718. Consecrated, July 25, 1718, at the chapel of the imperial palace of La Favorite, near Vienna, by Sigismund von Kollonitsch, archbishop of Vienna, assisted by László Ádám Erdődy, bishop of Nitra, and by Hugo František (Franz) von Königsegg-Rothenfels, bishop of Litomerice. At the instance of Emperor Charles VI he was promoted to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 29, 1719; with an apostolic brief of December 16, 1719, the pope sent him the red biretta; received the red hat and the title of S. Sabina, September 16, 1720. Accredited as imperial chargé d'affaires in Rome in Septembre 1720. Privy councilor of the Austrian emperor from 1720. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII, and presented the Imperial veto against the election of Cardinal Fabrizio Paolucci. Granted license to become viceroy and captain general of Naples, May 19, 1722; occupied the post until 1728. Did not participate in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, February 7, 1729 until February 8, 1730. Participated in the conclave of 1730, which elected Pope Clement XII.

Death. June 20, 1734, near noon, Vác. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Vác.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 189-190; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, I, 285; Notizie per l'anno 1736. Rome : Nella Stamperia del Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1736, p. 203, no. 15; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 32, 51 and 402; Tusor, Péter. Purpura Pannonica : az esztergomi "bíborosi szék" kialakulásának elozminyei a 17. században = Purpura Pannonica : the "Cardinalitial See" of Strigonium and its Antecedens in the 17th Century. Budapest : Róma : Research Institute of Church History at Péter Pázmány Catholic University, 2005. (Collectanea Vaticana Hungariae, Classis I, vol. 3), p. 28, 206 and 327; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 496.

Links. His arms and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; brief biographical data, in Hungarian, Magyar Elektronikus Köyutár; brief biographical data, in Italian, under "ALTHANN (D') Michele Federico", Araldica Vaticana; his portrait by Francesco Solimena, extinct site Gabrius; his engraving, Deutsches Historisches Museum; his engraving by Domenico de' Rossi, Magyar Elektronikus Köyutár; and his genealogy, B8 C4, Genealogy EU.

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(68) 10. SALERNI, S.J., Giovanni Battista (1670-1729)

Birth. June 24, 1670, Cosenza. Of a noble family. Son of Domenico Salerni and Cecilia Constestabile. His last name is also listed as Salerno.

Education. Studied with the Jesuits (elementary education). Entered the Society of Jesus in June 1687; professed in Naples. He received the religious habit from Cardinal Vincenzo Maria Orsini, O.P., archbishop of Benevento, future Pope Benedict XIII. He was later sent to Rome, where he became a friend of Annibale Albani, nephew of Pope Clement XI and future cardinal.

Priesthood. Ordained in 1699. Professor of theology. Prefect of studies, Collegio Grieco, Rome. Professor of canon law, Collegio Germanico, Rome. Superior of Jesuit houses in Rome. Examiner of the prelates promoted to the episcopate. In 1709, as a theologian, accompanied Annibale Albani, nephew of the pope and future cardinal, in a mission to Saxony and Poland to negotiate the protection of the church in those regions. In Poland, Fr. Salerni was able to convert from Calvinism Frederick August, son of King August II of Poland; he abjured from Calvinism in Bologna in 1712, in the hands of Cardinal Lorenzo Casoni, papal legate in that city and one of the supreme inquisitors of Rome; Fr. Salerni later blessed the marriage of the prince, who soon after ascended the throne of Poland as Frederick August III, to the daughter of Emperor Charles VI. He was promoted to the cardinalate at the request of King Frederick August III, who assigned him a pensione of one thousand florins per month. The new cardinal was very strict with himself and liberal and splendid with the poor.Fr, Salerni tried by al menas to avoid the promotion because as a Jesuit he had made a promise not to accept any ecclesiastical dignity. He even asked an opinion from the theologians of the University of Prague, who agreed with him, but the pope was determined to created him a cardinal and Fr. SAalerni had to accept the promotion.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 29, 1719. Received the red hat and the title of Prisca, September 16, 1720. Abbot commendatario of the monastery of Ferraria, 1720. Entered the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII, but had to leave because of illness, and did not vote in the ballot of May 8, 1721, when the new pope was elected. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII. Opted for the title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, February 20, 1726. In Tivoli, he built a house where to retire during the fall.

Death. January 30, 1729, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Ignazio, Rome, where the capella papalis took place on January 31, 1729, and buried in that same church, near the main altar; his tombstone, placed by his nephews Francesco Maria and Fabrizio Salerni, has an elegant inscription and the arms of the family (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 190-191; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LX, 253; Notizie per l'anno 1721. Rome : Nella Stamperia di Gio: Francesco Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1721, p. 126, no. 51; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 32, 50 and 51; Santos Hernández, Angel. Jesuitas y obispados. 2 vols. Madrid : Universidad Pontificia Comillas, 1998-2000. (Publicaciones de la Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Madrid; 72-73; Publicaciones de la Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Madrid / 1 / Estudios; 72-73; Variation: Publicaciones de la Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Madrid ; 72-73.; Universidad Pontificia ; Publicaciones de la Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Madrid; 72-73). Contents: t. 1. La Compañía de Jesús y las dignidades eclesiásticas. 2. Los jesuitas obispos misioneros y los obispos jesuitas de la extinción, I, 179-183.

Links. Biography by Ángel Santos Hernández, "Jesuitas y obispados: la Compañía de Jesús y las dignidades eclesiásticas", p. 179-183; Specimen Orientalis Ecclesif ab origine ad concilium Nicenum primum, Giovanni Battista Salerni (1702); Specimen Orientalis Ecclesiæ a concilio Nicæno primo usque ad Constantinopolitanum generale secumdum (1706); his engraving by Martin Friedrich Bernigeroth, Antique Portrait; his engraving by Domenico de' Rossi, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; and his epitaph on his tomb in the church of S. Ignazio, Rome, Requiem Databank.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D     ·     O     ·     M     ·
IO · BAPTISTÆ TITVLI SANCTI STEPHANI
IN MONTE CÆLIO CARDINALI SALERNI
SOCIETATIS IESV CONSENTINO
DOMINICI SALERNI ET CÆCILIA CONTESTABILE
CIACCIO CONIVGVM LILIO
PIETATE PRVDENTIACONSTANTIA
E RELIGIONE DE SANCTA SEDE
DE PRINCIPIBVS VIRIS OPTIME MERITO
MARCHIO FRANCISCVS MARIA ET
FABRITIVS SALERNI EPISCOPVS
MELPHITENSIS FRATRI AMANTISSIMO
POSSVERE · ANNO MDCCXXIX


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