The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Clement XII (1730-1740)
Consistory of September 24, 1731 (III)
Celebrated in Rome


(6) 1. BICHI, Vincenzo (1668-1750)

Birth. February 2, 1668, Siena. Of a noble family. Son of Metello Bichi, marquis of Rocca Albenga, and Vittoria Piccolomini d'Aragona. His last name is also listed as Bichius. Nephew of Cardinal Carlo Bichi (1690). Other cardinals of the family were Metello Bichi (1611); Alessandro Bichi (1633); Antonio Bichi (1657).

Education. Went to Rome when he was nine years old and was placed under the care of his uncle the cardinal; and studied at Seminario Romano; and at Collegio Clementino, where he studied under Fr. Lorenzo Cozza, O.F.M.Obs., future cardinal; later, at La Sapienza University, Rome (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, July 30, 1689).

Early life. Entered the Roman prelature in 1691. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, 1695. Prefect of the Archives, 1692; 1697-1699; and 1702.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 26, 1699.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Laodicea, December 11, 1702. Consecrated, (no information found). Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, December 25, 1702. Nuncio in Switzerland, January 5, 1703. Nuncio in Portugal, September 14, 1709 until 1720 (1).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 24, 1731; with an apostolic brief of September 26, 1731, the pope sent him the red biretta; received the red hat and the title of S. Pietro in Montorio, March 31, 1732. He declined the see of Montefiascone in 1734. Protector of the Order of the Clerics Regular Ministers of the Sick of S. Camillo Lellis, March 29, 1737. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna, December 16, 1737. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 26, 1739 until January 2, 1741. Participated in the conclave of 1740, which elected Pope Benedict XIV. Opted for the title of S. Matteo in Merulana, August 29, 1740. Pro-prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice ca. 1743. Opted for the title of S. Silvestro in Capite, May 20, 1743. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, September 23, 1743. In 1745, he unsuccessfully sought his promotion to the metropolitan see of Pisa. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Frascati, April 10, 1747.

Death. February 11, 1750, of an apoplexy, in his palace in Via Lata, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Marcello, of the Servants of Mary, Rome, where the capella papalis with the participation of Benedict XIV took place on February 13, 1750; and in the afternoon his body was transferred to the church of Ss. Venanzio ed Ansovino, della nazione Camerinese, and buried in the tomb of his ancestors in that church without any memorial.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 251-252; Fink, Urban. Die Luzerner Nuntiatur 1586-1873 : Zur Behördengeschichte und Quellenkunde der päpstlichen Diplomatie in der Schweiz. Luzern ; Stuttgart : Rex Verlag, 1997. (Collectanea Archivi Vaticani ; Bd. 40) (Luzerner Historische Veröffentlichungen ; Bd. 32); Notizie per l'anno bissestile 1752. Rome : Nella Stamperia del Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1752, p. 139, no. 38; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 235; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 6, 41, 47, 48, 49 and 56; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. tuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. 6 v. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 105; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), II, 455.

Links. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; his portrait by Giorgio Domenico Duprà artnet - Le monde de l'art en ligne; his engraving by Rocco Pozzi, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica; his engraving, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; and another engraving from the same source.

(1) According the site of the diocese of Frascati, probably due to malice and envy, Nuncio Vincenzo Bichi was suspected of bad conduct by King João V of Portugal and was recalled to Rome, where he satisfactorily explained his acts and contradicted the accusations of the ministers. He not only returned to Portugal, but regained the good will of the king. The appreciation of the king was felt when in 1722 Pope Innocent XIII named Archbishop Giuseppe Firrao as the new nuncio in Portugal. King João refused to accept the new nuncio until the new Pope Benedict XIII created Archbishop Bichi a cardinal. The pope had the suspicion that this demand from the king was due to the insistence of the former nuncio and did not want to submit to this form of blackmail and broke off the friendly relations that existed between the two courts. King João answered by removing Nuncio Firrao from Portugal, recalling all the Portuguese from the Papal States, ordering that all dignities and benefices coming from the Holy See be repudiated, forbidding the sending or depositing of money to Rome, and finally expelling from Portugal all subjects of the pope, with the exception of Archbishop Bichi. In the meantime, the former nuncio had been threatened with censure by the pope if he did not leave Lisbon but in spite of this, he stayed there until his promotion to the cardinalate. This situation lasted until 1731, when Pope Clement XII elevated both prelates to the cardinalate. Evidently in all this matter Nuncio Firrao had not been totally a stranger and had influenced Pope Benedict XIII. The king then revoked all the provisions of 1728 disadvantageous to the Holy See. In reality, the conflict with Portugal had as its backdrop the king's aspiration to obtain a nunciature like the ones of Spain, France and Austria, in which the nuncio was automatically made a cardinal when he ceased in his diplomatic post.

Cool Archive

(7) 2. DORIA, Sinibaldo (1664-1733)

Birth. September 21, 1664, Genoa. Of an illustrious family. Second of the six children of Marquis Giovanni Battista Doria and Benedetta Spinola. He was baptized on September 21, 1664. Other cardinals of the family were Girolamo Doria (1529); Giovanni Doria (1604); Giorgio Doria (1743); Giuseppe Maria Doria Pamphilj (1785); Antonio Maria Doria Pamphilj (1785); and Giorgio Doria Pamphilj (1816).

Education. He studied at Seminario Romano; later at the University of Siena, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on August 17, 1688.

Early life. Went to Rome in July 1690 and was admitted into the Roman prelature as referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, July 13, 1690. Governor of Tivoli, July 13, 1690 until November 1691. Governor of Fano, November 16, 1691 until 1693. Vice-legate in Ferrara, 1693 until 1695. Governor of Montalto, August 1, 1695 until 1698. Governor of Ascoli, 1698 until 1700. Governor of Marche, pro interim, November 20, 1700; governor, January 3, 1701. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, December 9, 1702. Vice-legate in Avignon, November 4, 1706 until November 12, 1711. He was recalled to Rome. Received the minor orders, October 25, 1711; subdiaconate, October 28, 1711; diaconate, November 1, 1711. Preceptor of the archhospital of S. Spritio in Sassia, Rome, at the end of 1711 or beginning of 1712. Abbot commendatario of the monastery of S. Fruttoso di Capodimonte, Genoa. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monastery of S. Maria di Gallinaria, diocese of Albenga.

Priesthood. Ordained, November 4, 1711.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Patra, December 18, 1711. Consecrated (no information found). Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, December 25, 1711. Prefect of the Cubiculi of His Holiness, May 14, 1721 until the end of the pontificate of Pope Innocent XIII. Named consultor of the Holy Office by Pope Benedict XIII (1). He was not well seen in the court of that pontiff and patiently endured all the humiliations he suffered. Reappointed to the post of prefect of the cubiculi by Pope Clement XII, October 3, 1730. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Benevento, May 21, 1731; he suffered much from the intrigues of Cardinal Niccolò Coscia, administrator of the see under Pope Benedict XIII; he founded a great library, which was subsequently enlarged by Cardinal Francesco Maria Banditi in 1775.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 24, 1731; with an apostolic brief of September 26, 1731, the pope sent him the red biretta; received the red hat and the title of S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni, December 17, 1731.

Death. December 2, 1733, Benevento. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Benevento.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 253-254; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 309; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 6 and 43; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 179-180; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 374; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 124, 134, 237, 253, 290, 405 and 647.

Links. Biographical entry, in Italian, Wikipedia; his portrait, Galleria Doria Pamphilj, Rome, iccd immagini, Fototeca Nazionale; his portrait, collection of portraits of the preceptors of the Hospital "S. Spirito in Sassia", Rome, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali; and his engraving by Rocco Pozzi, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica.

(1) This is according to Seidler, Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777), p. 180, which adds that he was also named datary of the Apostolic Penitentiary with an exclamation mark (!).

Cool Archive

(8) 3. FIRRAO, Giuseppe (1670-1744)

Birth. July 12, 1670, Luzzi, one of the fiefdoms of his family, diocese of Bisignano. Of the Neapolitan patrician family. Second of the four children of Pietro Firrao, prince of Sant'Agata, and Isabella Caracciolo, of the princes of Torrenova. The other siblings were Tommaso, Teresa and Gennaro. Grand-uncle of Cardinal Giuseppe Firrao (1801).

Education. Went to Rome when he was very young and studied at Seminario Romano; then, at La Sapienza University, Rome (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, January 22, 1695).

Early life. On March 3, 1695, he entered the Roman prelature as referendary of the Supreme Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Vice-legate of Urbino, 1697. Governor of Loreto, February 22,1698. Governor of Ancona, May 31, 1701. Governor of the territory of Civitavecchia and Tolfa, and superintendent of Corneto, December 17, 1702. Governor of Viterbo, April 22, 1705. Governor of Perugia and Umbria, July 12, 1706 until June 16, 1709. Relator of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta and voter supernumerary of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace, April 18, 1709.

Sacred orders. Received the minor orders, April 6, 1711; diaconate, August 25, 1714. Voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace, 1712. Apostolic visitator of the provinces of Marche and Umbria in 1713. Named nuncio extraordinary in Portugal to bring the fascie benedette to the prince of Brazil in 1714 (1).

Priesthood. Ordained, September 2, 1714.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Nicea, September 2, 1714. Consecrated (no information found). Nuncio in Switzerland, October 23, 1716; he helped restore the monastic and religious discipline and brought peace to the famous monastery of Campidona. Nuncio in Portugal, September 28, 1720 (1). Abbot commendatario of the abbey of S. Samuele, Barletta, June 1723. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monastery of S. Maria di Passaca, diocese of Catanzaro. Transferred to the see of Aversa, with personal title of archbishop, December 11, 1730; resigned the government of the diocese, September 26, 1734.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 24, 1731; received the red hat and the title of S. Tommaso in Parione, November 19, 1731. In May 1733, he was named prefect of a particular congregation for the free port of Ancona. Named secretary of State on October 4, 1733, in place of the late Cardinal Antonio Banchieri; he occupied the post until February 6, 1740. Prefect of the Congregation of the Sacred Consulta of Avignon; of the Holy House of Loreto; and of the state of Fermo. Protector of the Order of the Eremites of Saint Augustine, January 17, 1737. Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace, November 29, 1737. Named protector of Collegio Maronita, Rome, December 4, 1737. From 1737, he was protector of the Order of the Eremites of Saint Augustin and of the Sovereign Military and Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta. Prefect of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, August 27, 1738. Participated in the conclave of 1740, which elected Pope Benedict XIV. Opted for the title of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, August 29, 1740. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 2, 1741 until January 22, 1742.

Death. October 24, 1744, at 6 p.m., Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Agostino, Rome, where the capella papalis took place with the participation of Pope Benedict XIV on October 26, 1744; transferred to his title in the afternoon and buried in front of the main altar of that church, in the sepulchre that he had built. His tombstone was inscribed with his name and family arms only (3).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 252-253; Del Re, Niccolò. La Curia romana : lineamenti storico giuridici. 4th ed. aggiornata ed accresciuta. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, p. 89; Finch, Urban. Die Luzerner Nuntiatur 1586-1873 : Zur Behördengeschichte und Quellenkunde der päpstlichen Diplomatie in der Schweiz. Luzern ; Stuttgart : Rex Verlag, 1997. (Collectanea Archivi Vaticani ; Bd. 40) (Luzerner Historische Veröffentlichungen ; Bd. 32); Notizie per l'anno 1736. Rome : Nella Stamperia del Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1736, p.185; Notizie per l'anno bissestile 1752. Rome : Nella Stamperia del Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1752, p.126; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, p. 287; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 6, 43, 49, 56 and 111; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. 6 v. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 423; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 117, 220, 282, 333, 418, 433 and 673.

Links. Biography by D. Busolini, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Treccani; his engraving and biography, in Italian, Sant'Agata di Esaro; his engraving, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving by Pietro Nelli and Rocco Pozzi, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali - CulturaItalia; and his tomb in S. Croce in Gerusalemme, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) "Fascie" in Italian means a long band of strong white linen, with which newborn infants are tightly swathed during the first months of their life. However ungentle this practice may seem, it is kept up in Italy even in our own days, as the people believe they impart more firmness of limb to their children by swathing them in this manner. The habit of the papal court of presenting these fascie to the eldest born of a royal house dates as far back as Pope Clement VIII. This pope gave them, for the first time, in 1601, to King Henry IV of France, whose second wife, Maria de' Medici, had given birth to the dauphin, the future Louis XIII. The fascie were entrusted to a special ambassador, Maffeo Barberini, who afterwards became Pope Urban VIII.
(2) See note 1 in Cardinal Vincenzo Bichi's biographical entry.
(3) This is the text of the inscription on his tombstone, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

HIC IACET
IOSEPH
TIT . S . CRVCIS IN HYERVSALEM
S . R . E . PRESB . CARD . FIRRAO
ORATE PRO EO
OBYT
DIE XXIV OCTOBRIS
MDCCXLIV"

Cool Archive

(9) 4. GENTILI, Antonio Saverio (1681-1753)

Birth. February 9, 1681, Rome. Of noble parents. Son of Nicola Ottaviano Gentili, from Camerino, and Teresa Ursi, from Rome. He is also listed as Antonius Xaverius de Gentilibus; and his first name as Saverio only. Another cardinal of the family was Luca Rodolfucci de Gentili (1378)

Education. Studied at La Sapienza University, Rome (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, April 2, 1699).

Early life. Organized in his house conferences of young doctors to discuss legal and ecclesiastical matters. Referendary of the Supreme Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, March 12, 1705. Auditor of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, October 1712. Abbreviatore del Parco maggiore. Lieutenant of the auditor of the Apostolic Chamber, 1715. Lieutenant of the auditor of the Apostolic Chamber, January 1716.

Priesthood. Ordained, January 1, 1727.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Petra, March 17, 1727. Consecrated, March 23, 1727, Rome, by Pope Benedict XIII. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, March 23, 1727. Secretary of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, April 1728. Secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, five months later in September 1728, with a canonicate in the patriarchal Liberian basilica. Solemnly consecrated the parish church of S. Niccolò in Arcione and its three altars in 1728; a plaque placed on the left side of the church commemorates the ceremony. Named praepositus in the chapel of the Most Holy Manger of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, July 28, 1730. Datary of His Holiness, May 17, 1731 to 1740.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 24, 1731; received the red hat and the title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, November 19, 1731. In his titular church, the bodies of martyrs Ss. Primo and Feliciano were found, and after a solemn procession with the Sacred College of Cardinals and the Roman prelature, they were placed in a magnificent altar that he had built and consecrated. From October 1736 he was pro-prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council; became its prefect on March 20, 1737; occupied the post until his death (1). Together with Cardinals Neri Maria Corsini and Marcello Passari, he was asked by the pope to try to end the dispute between the royal court of Portugal and the Holy See over the provision of bishops for that kingdom and establish a concordat; the mission was successful and the concordat was signed in the library of the convent of Aracoeli, Rome; for future memory, Father Giuseppe Maria di Evora, later plenipotentiary minister of Portugal in Rome, had a portrait, which is still in that library, painted; in the portrait appear the three cardinals and Father Evora. Participated in the conclave of 1740, which elected Pope Benedict XIV. In 1741, he was named apostolic visitor of the Archhospital of S. Spirito in Sassia; he was able to obtain one million scudi to pay the hospital's debt; he expanded it increasing the number of patients, whom he visited at day and night, administering them the Holy Sacraments. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 22, 1742 until January 28, 1743. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, April 10, 1747; he visited the diocese and performed many acts of beneficence in favor of the poor as well as its cathedral. He was protector of the monks Olivetani; of the Order of the Most Holy Trinity (Trinitarians); of the Order of Bethlehem, in the West Indies; of the Order of Charity, called of S. Ippolito, in México; of the Theological Academy, Rome; of the nuns of the Purification; of the monastery of S. Susanna, Rome; of the convictorium Bambino Gesù; of Collegio Greco, Rome; of the church and nazione Camerinese; of the Archconfraternity della Pietà de' Carcerati; of the Archconfraternity of S. Maria del Soccorso and of S. Giuliano and of the Missions; of the Hospital of S. Gallicano; and of the Università de' Librari, de Sellari, Vascellari, Cuochi, ed Osti.

Death. March 13, 1753, near 5 a.m., Rome. Transferred to the Jesuit church of S. Ignazio, Rome, March 16, 1733, where the capella papalis took place the following day with the participation of Pope Benedict XIV, and buried in the church of S. Venanzio dei Camerinesi, Rome, according to his will.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 255-257; Del Re, Niccolò. "I cardinali prefetti della sacra congregazione del concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), p. 126-127; Notizie per l'anno bissestile 1752. Rome : Nella Stamperia del Chracas, presso S. Marco al Corso, 1752, p. 87 and 106-107; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, p. 312; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 6, 40, 49 and 56; Storti, Nicola. La storia e il diritto della Dataria Apostolica dalle origini ai nostri giorni. Napoli : Athena Mediterranea Editrice, 1969, p. 172, no. 67; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), II, 638.

Links. his portrait, diocese of Rieti, Beweb; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali - CulturaItalia; his engraving by Rocco Pozzi, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his arms, Opac della Biblioteca Casanatense; and another image of his arms, from the same source.

(1) Starting with him, successive prefects also assumed the prefecture of the subsidiary congregation super statu ecclessiarum commonly called del Concilietto, instituted by Pope Benedict XIV in 1740 and which lasted until the reform of the Roman Curia effected by Pope St. Pius X in 1908. Then, its attributions, in relation to the examination of the report of the bishops on the state of their respective dioceses, were transferred to the S.C. Consistorial (currently Congregation for Bishops).

Cool Archive

(10) 5. GUADAGNI, O.C.D., Giovanni Antonio (1674-1759)

Birth. September 14, 1674, Florence. Of a noble family. Only child of Marquis Donato Guadagni, of a senatorial family, and Maddalena Corsini. Nephew of Pope Clement XII, on his mother's side.

Education. Studied at the University of Pisa (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, May 3, 1696).

Early life. Obtained a canonicate in the cathedral chapter of Florence. Studied at the University of Pisa. Went to Rome to practice law. Returned to Florence and decided to embrace the religious life. Entered the Order of Carmelites Discalced in Arezzo, against the will of his family; took the name Giovanni Antonio di San Bernardo; he made his solemn profession on November 1, 1700; studied philosophy and theology in Carmelite convents in Florence.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 11, 1702. In his order, he was master of novices; prior of the monastery of S. Paolo in Florence; provincial of Etruria; and founder of a convent in Pisa. At the request of the grand-duke of Tuscany, he was promoted to the episcopate.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Arezzo, December 20, 1724 with dispensation of his vow of not accepting ecclesiastical dignities. Consecrated, December 31, 1724, church of S. Maria della Scala, Rome, by Cardinal Lorenzo Corsini, future pope Clement XII, assisted by Pietro Luigi Carafa, titular archbishop of Larissa, and by Filippo Spada, bishop of Pesaro. As bishop of Arezzo he was prince of the Holy Roman Empire and count of Cesa. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, January 1, 1725 (1). By special papal grace, he was granted the pallium, proper of the metropolitan archbishops only; he received it from Pope Clement XII in the private chapel of the Quirinale Palace on November 22, 1730. He celebrated a diocesan synod in 1730.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 24, 1731; accepted the promotion for holy obedience; by an apostolic brief of September 26, 1731, the pope sent him the red biretta; arrived in Rome from Arezzo on the following November 7; on November 11 made his solemn entrance through Porta Pia; received the red hat on November 22, 1731; and the title of S. Martino ai Monti, December 17, 1731; took possession of the title on December 30. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of Bishops and Regulars, Ecclesiastical Immunity, Religious Discipline, Rites, Holy Office and Tridentine Council. Vicar general of Rome and its District, March 1, 1732. Resigned the government of the diocese of Arezzo, November 4, 1732. Protector of the Benedictine Congregation of Vallombrosa, August 21, 1734. Prefect of the SS.CC. of the Discipline of Regulars and of he Residence of Bishops, January 1737. Abbot commendatario of Grottaferrata, September 1738. Participated in the conclave of 1740, which elected Pope Benedict XIV. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 28, 1743 until February 3, 1744. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati, February 23, 1750. Sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, January 12, 1756. Participated in the conclave of 1758, which elected Pope Clement XIII. Protector of the Benedictine Congregation of the Guglielmiti monks; of the Piarist Fathers; of the Fathers of the Christian Doctrine; of the Fathers Fateben Fratelli; of the Congregation of Priests; of the Theological Academy; of Collegio Apostolico de' Sacerdoti; of Seminario Romano; and of Collegio Nazareno, Rome.

Death. January 15, 1759, Rome, in odore di santità. Buried in the choir situated on the left side of the main altar of Carmelite church of S. Maria della Scala, in the tomb he had built for himself; he also composed the inscription on his tomb (2).

Beatification. The process to initiate the cause of his beatification was opened in 1763.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 254-255; Notizie per l'anno1753. In Roma MDCCLIII : Nella Stamperia del Chracas, p. 88 and 107; Notizie per l'anno1763. In Roma MDCCLXIII : Nella Stamperia del Chracas, p. 127-128, no. 6; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, p. 98; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 6, 40, 41, 47 and 56; Villiers, Cosme de Saint Étienne de. Bibliotheca Carmelitana, notis criticis et dissertationibus illustrata. 2 v. in 1. Edited by Gabriel Wessels. Romae, In aedibus Collegii S. Alberti, 1927. Responsibility: curâ et labore unius è Carmelitis Provinciae Turoniae collecta. Aurelianis, Excudebant M. Couret de Villeneuve & J. Rouzeau-Montaut, Regis, Serenissimi Aurelianensium Ducis, Regiique Aurelianensis Collegii Typographi & Bibliopolae, M. DCCLII. Cum Approbatione et Privilegio Regis, II, col. 930-931; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), III, 301.

Links. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his portrait by Giorgio Domenico Duprà; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali - CulturaItalia; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali - CulturaItalia; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali - CulturaItalia; another portrait, from the same source; his engraving by Pietro Nelli and Rocco Pozzi, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; his engraving by Pietro Nelli and Rocco Pozzi, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica; his arms, Opac della Biblioteca Casanatense; and his tomb in the church of S. Maria della Scala, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is according to Viliers, Bibliotheca Carmelitana, col. 930. Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi, V, 98, says that he was named on February 27, 1725.
(2) This is the inscription on his tomb, taken from Requiem Datenbank:

D     ·     O      ·     M     ·
FR · IOANNIS ANTONIUS GUADAGNI
ORD · CARMELITAR · EXCARCLATOR
OLIM EPISCOPUS ARETINUS
POSTLA S · R · E · CARD · EPISCOPUS TUSCULAN ·
EX PAPAE VICARIUS
SE EX TERRA FOMATIUM
IN PULVEREM REVERSURUM COGITANS
HIC VIVENS QUOD SIBI SUPEREST SEPULCHRUM
DELEGIT
VIXIT ANNOS LXXXIV MENSES IV DIES II
OBIIT ANNO REP · SALUT · MDCCLIX
DIE XV IANUARII
EPISCOPUS PORTUENSIS

Top Catalogs Home

©1998-2015 Salvador Miranda.