(31) 1. STAMPA, Gaetano (1667-1742)
Birth. November 1, 1667, Milan. Of a patrician family. Son of Cristierno Stampa, count of the Sacred Roman Empire and of Montecastello, and Giustina Borromeo, of the counts of Arona. He is also listed as Carlo Gaetano. Nephew of Cardinal Gilberto Borromeo, seniore (1652), on his mother's side.
Education. He received his initial education at home; when he was twelve years old, he was sent to Rome to study at Seminario Romano (philosophy and theology); he then attended. University of Pavia, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on July 10, 1698; he was admitted to Nobile Collegio Dottorale degli Avvocati of Milan in 1699.
Early life. Abbot commendatario of S. Antonio di Valenza, 1693. He went to Rome and was named privy chamberlain of His Holiness in 1703. Referendary of the Supreme Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, May 28, 1705. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, 1705. Abbot commendatario of S. Abbondio in Como, and of S. Ambrogio ad Nemus in Milan. Vice-legate of Romagna, December 10, 1706 until 1709. Governor of Spoleto, May 18, 1709. Governor of Ancona, May 19, 1714; he was able to free the city from the attacks of pirates. Abbot commendatario of S. Silano in Romagnano. Inquisitor in the island of Malta in 1716; he never occupied the post or went to the island.
Priesthood. Ordained, October 31, 1717.
Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Calcedonia, December 6, 1717. Consecrated, January 23, 1718, chapel of the choir, church of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome, by Cardinal Ferdinando d'Adda, assisted by Vincenzo Petra, titular archbishop of Damasco, and by Pietro Luigi Carafa, titular archbishop of Larissa. Nuncio in Florence, April 29 (1), 1718 until October 12, 1720. Nuncio in Venice, September 23 (2), 1720 until May 7, 1735. Secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, December 12, 1734. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Milan, May 6, 1737; he took possession of the see on the following July 13 through his procurator, Monsignor Giovanni Manrique, vicar capitular; he entered the see privately in July 1738.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 23, 1739. On the following May 10, he made a triumphant entrance in the city, in the presence of Grand Duke Francesco di Lorena of Tuscany; Princess Maria Teresa Amalia, daughter of Emperor Karl VI; and Friar Lorenzo Ganganelli, director of studies in the convent of S. Francesco of the Friars Minor Conventual of Milan, future Pope Clement XIV. Participated in the conclave of 1740, which elected Pope Benedict XIV. Received the red hat and the title of S. Alessio, September 16, 1740.
Death. December 23, 1742, suddenly, in Milan. His body was embalmed and the solemn funeral took place on Monday January 21, 1743. His remains were buried in front of the altar of the chapel della Madonna della Rosario, called dell'Albero, in the metropolitan cathedral of S. Maria in Nascente, Milan (3). His heart was buried in the parish church of Tromello, Pavia, beneath the altar dedicated to the Madonna della Donzellina, venerated by the Tromellesi.
Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 295-296; Cazzani, Eugenio. Vescovi e arcivescovi di Milano. Nuova ed./ a cura di Angelo Majo, 2. ed. Milano : Massimo : NED, 1996. Note: Originally published 1955, now enlarged and updated, p. 252-253; Forcella, Vincenzo. Iscrizioni delle chiese e d'altri edificii di Roma dal secolo XI fino ai giorni nostri. 14 v. in 7. Roma : Tip. delle scienze matematiche e fisiche, 1869-1884, I, 48, no. 68; Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 262-263; Majo, Angelo. Storia della chiesa ambrosiana. 5 vols. 2nd ed. Milano : NED, 1983-1986, III, 102, 105 and 109; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, LXIX, 186-187; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 155-156; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 9, 41 and 284; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 130; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 118, 370, 389 and 931-932.
Links. His engraving and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his engraving and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his portrait attributed the Giuseppe Mariano, Kunst für Alle; his portrait, Palais Fesch, musée des beaux-arts, Ajaccio; his engraving by Marco Alvise Piteri, Biblioteca Classense - Ravenna, Istituto per i bene artistici, cultirali e naturali ella Regione Emilia-Romagna; his engraving by Girolamo Rossi, Bildarchiv Austria. Die Bildplattform der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek; his engraving, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna: personal and funeral information, in German and Latin, Requiem Datenbank; and his tombstone in the metropolitan cathedral of Milan, Wikimedia; Tributi d'ossequio della città di Milano a sua eminenza il Signor Cardinale Carlo Gaetano Stampa, in congiuntura della di lui elezione a questo Arcivescovado, promozione alla Sacra Porpora, e solenne ingresso nella suddetta Metropoli, seguito agli 10. maggio 1739 by Gabrio Perabò, Antonius Quadrius, Gaetano Le Poer and Giuseppe Pandolfo Malatesta (In Milano : Nella Regia Ducal-Corte, per Giuseppe Richino Malatesta, 1739); Serie cronologica dei vescovi di Milano (III-XXI secolo), in Italian, archdiocese of Milan.
(1) This is according to Riztler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, V, 156; Karttunen, Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800, p. 262, indicates that he was named on May 3, 1718.
(2) This is according to Riztler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, V, 156; Kartunnen, Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800, p. 262, indicates that he was named on September 21, 1720.
(3) This is the text of the inscription in his tomb, taken from Requiem Datenbank, Beschreibung, linked above:
(32) 2. TENCIN, Pierre-Guérin de (1680-1758)
Birth. August 22, 1680, Grenoble, France (1). Of a family of financiers and magistrates. Son of Antoine Guérin, sieur of Tencin, presidente of the parlement of Grenoble, and Louise de Buffévent. The last name Gérin was replaced by that of Tenci, which was the land owned by Antoine's mother. His baptismal name was Pierre-Paul. Brother of Claudine Alexandrine de Tencin, author of Conte de Comminges and other famous romances, who lived a very dissipated and scandalous life after having been a nun and becoming secularized with the permission of the pope. Pierre-Guérin owed his advance to power to his sister. He was destined to the Church by his family.
Education. Initial studies with the Oratorian Fathers in Grenoble. He later went to Paris and studied at La Sorbonne, University, Paris, (elected prior in 1702; doctorate in theology, 1705).
Early life. Conclavist of Cardinal Etienne Le Camus in the conclave of 1700; Cardinal Gianfrancesco Albani was elected pope but considered himself unworthy and declined; young Pierre-Guérin was asked to change the cardinal's mind and succeeded; Cardinal Albani became Pope Clement XI; as a reward, King Louis XIV of France named him abbot commendatario of the abbey of Vezelay, diocese of Autun, on April 15, 1702.
Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). In the archdiocese of Sens, archdeacon of its cathedral chapter, and vicar general. He received the abjuration of John Law, financier and statesman, controller general of finances of France under King Louis XIV and founder of Banque Générale de France, at Melun, on September 17, 1719. Conclavist of Cardinal Henri-Pons de Thiard de Bissy in the conclave of 1721 (2). After the election of Pope Innocent XIII in 1721, he stayed in Rome as chargé d'affaires of France before the Holy See. He was nominated for the see of Embrum by the king of France on May 6, 1724.
Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Embrun, June 12, 1724. Received the pallium on June 26, 1724. Consecrated, July 2, 1724, church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, by Pope Benedict XIII, assisted by Filippo Valignani, archbishop of Chieti, and by Cesare Lucini, bishop of Gravina. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, October 6, 1724. He was very zealous in the persecution of the Jansenists in his archdiocese; at the provincial synod which he celebrated in Embrun from August 16 until September 28, 1727, he suspended Bishop Jean Soanen of Senez, who had appealed against the apostolic constitution Unigenitus Dei Filius of Pope Clement XI condemning 101 propositions of Pasquier Quesnel, permeated with Jansenist errors the council condemned Instruction pastorale, which had been published by the bishop. He was promoted to the cardinalate at the request of James Francis Edward Stuart, the "old pretender" to the British throne.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 23, 1739; with an apostolic brief of March 23, 1739, the pope sent him the red biretta; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, July 20, 1739. French ambassador before the Holy See, 1739-1742. Abbot commendatario of the Cistercian abbey of Sainte-Marie des Trois-Fontaines, Marne, 1739-1753. Participated in the conclave of 1740, which elected Pope Benedict XIV. Nominated by the king of France for the see of Lyon on September 17, 1740. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Lyon, November 11, 1740; on that same day, he was granted the pallium; primate of France. He remained in Rome and did not go to his see until 1742. Minister of State of King Louis XV, September, 1742. Commander of the Order of Saint-Esprit, January 1743. After the death of French prime minisiter and Cardinal Andri-Hercule Cardinal de Fleury, to whom he owed much of his political advancement, Cardinal Tencin's influence began to decrease. He eft the court and retired to Lyon in 1752. Abbot commendatario of Ainay in 1757. Personal friend of Cardinal Prospero Lambertini, later Pope Benedict XIV, with whom he maintained an interesting correspondence from the historical point of view. The French mathematician and philosopher Jean Le Ronde d'Alembert was the illegitimate son of his sister Claudine Alexandrine.
Death. March 2, 1758, Lyon. Exposed and buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Lyon.
Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre .... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1517-1518; Boutry, Maurice. Une créature du Cardinal Dubois: Intrigues et missions du Cardinal de Tencin, d'après les Archives du Ministère des affaires étrangères. Paris : Émile-Paul, 1902; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 296-298; Coynart, Charles de. Les Guérin de Tencin (1520-1758). Paris : Hachette et cie., 1910; Notizie per l'anno1753. In Roma MDCCLIII : Nella Stamperia del Chracas, p. 91; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, p. 191; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 9, 47 and 268.
Links. Biography by Michael Ott, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English, (Britannica); biography, in German; his portrait, metropolitan cathedral of Lyon, Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication; his portrait, engraving and biography, in French, Wikipedia; his engraving by Johann-Georg Wille, after a painting by Jean-Gaspard Heilmann, Banque d'images, Centre de Recherche, Château de Versailles et de Trianon; his portrait, Musée Dauphinois de Grenoble, Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication; his engraving by Niccolo Billy, Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio, Bologna; his engraving by Étienne Desrochers, Bibliothèque Publique et Universitaire Neuchâtel; his engraving by Johann Martin Bernigeroth, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; and his effigy and arms on a coin, jeton (token) of August 26, 1742, cgb.fr.
(1) Some sources say that he was born in 1679.
(2) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VIII, 296. His biography in English, linked above; and Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1518, say that he was conclavist of Cardinal Armand Gaston Maximilien de Rohan de Soubise.
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