The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Benedict XIV (1740-1758)
Consistory of April 10, 1747 (II)
Celebrated in Rome

(26) 1. MENDOZA, Álvaro de (1671-1761)

Birth. November 14, 1671, Madrid, Spain. Son of Antonio Domingo de Mendoza, second marquis of Villagarcía and viceroy of Valencia, and Juana Catalina de Rivera y Ronquillo. He was baptized on November 28, 1671, in the parish of San Nicolás, with the name Álvaro Eugenio. His last name is also listed as Mendoza Caamaño Sotomayor; and as Mendozza.

Education. Obtained a doctorate in theology at the University of Ávila.

Early life. In 1699, King Carlos II of Spain granted him the habit of the Order of Santiago, with which he was invested on April 21, 1700.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 1715. Archdeacon of Toledo and of Santiago de Compostela. Abbot nullius of Alcalá la Real and of Burgohondo (from March 28, 1734 until his death). Major chaplain of the Royal Monastery of the Incarnation, Madrid; and sumiller de cortina. King Felipe V of Spain named him his almoner and major chaplain, and nominated him to the patriarchate of the West Indies in November 1733.

Episcopate. Elected patriarch of the West Indies and titular archbishop of Farsalo, January 20, 1734. Consecrated, Sunday May 9, 1734, Royal Monastery of the Incarnation of the Discalced Augustinian nuns, Madrid, by Domingo Valentín Guerra Arteaga y Leiba, archbishop-bishop of Segovia, assisted by Benito Madueño Ramos, titular bishop of Sion, auxiliary of Toledo, and by Dionisio Mellado Eguíluz, titular bishop of Lares, auxiliary of Toledo. Since 1737, he belonged to the Venerable Congregation of San Pedro of secular priests native of Madrid. King Fernando VI of Spain requested the promotion of Patriarch Mendoza Caamaño to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 10, 1747; the pope sent him the red biretta with Monsignor Salviati, privy chamberlain; the king imposed the biretta on him on August 16, 1747, in the church of San Jerónimo in Madrid in the presence of the entire court; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title. Did not participate in the conclave of 1758, which elected Pope Clement XIII. Known for his aversion to luxury and arrogance and famous as a sharp, joyful and prudent person, he distributed his large income among the poor.

Death. January 23, 1761, palace of Buen Retiro, Madrid. Buried in the monastery of San Gil, Madrid, in the tomb of his mother (1). On the tombstone was engraved a brief inscription in Castillian.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1797, IX, 28; Goñi Gaztambide, José. Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975; Suplemento (1987), suppl., 475; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1700-1867). Españoles obispos en españa, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 29), p. 54; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 15, 243 and 336; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 404.

Links. Hubo otros Mendoza by José Luis García. de Paz, in Spanish, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid; and his engraving by Antonio Pazzi, based on a portrait by Domenico Campiglia, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy; Tres cardenales en el monasterio de Santa María del Burgo, Real Monasterio de Santa María del Burgo 2014.

(1) Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IX, 28, indicates that the cardinal's body was placed in the same tomb where his mother had been buried seventy-three years earlier, and that her body was found incorrupt, causing maraviglia universale (universal wonderment).

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(27) 2. DELFINO, Daniele (1686-1762)

Birth. January 22, 1686, Venice. Fourth of the seven children of Daniele III Delfino (called Giovanni), Venetian ambassador to Vienna, and Pisana Bembo, patrician nobles.The other siblings were Benedetta, Daniele I (called Giovanni); Daniele II (called Silvestro); Daniele IV (called Andrea); Daniele V (called Marco); and Daniele VI (called Girolamo). The future cardinal was Danielle III (called Daniele). His last name is also listed as Dolfino. Nephew and coadjutor of Dionisio Delfino, patriarch of Aquileia (1699-1734). Grand-nephew of Cardinal Giovanni Delfino (1667), patriarch of Aquileia, 1659-1699, of whom Dionisio was coadjutor.

Education. Studied in Parma; and later at the University of Padua, where he obtained a doctorate in 1715.

Early life. Named to the Grand Council of Venice in 1707; but soon after abandoned his political career to enter the ecclesiastical life and went to Aquileia.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Aureliopoli and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of the patriarch of Aquileia, December 6, 1714. Consecration (no information found). Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, April 14, 1715. Abbot commendatario of Moggio, 1717. Succeeded to the patriarchate of Aquileia, August 13, 1734. He conducted frequent visitations to the territory of the patriarchate and celebrated a synod in 1740. The Venetian senate asked the pope to promote him to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 10, 1747; the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief of April 17, 1747; received the red hat on November 16, 1747; and the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, November 20, 1747. Pope Benedict XIV, to quiet the controversy between Venice and Austria, suppressed and extinguished the patriarchate of Aquileia by the apostolic constitution Injuncta nobis of July 6, 1751; and in its place erected the metropolitan sees of Udine and Gorizia. Cardinal Delfino strongly protested the decision. Transferred to the see of Udine, retaining the title of patriarch with its honors and prerogatives, July 6, 1751. The Republic of Venice gave him the decision over the new canons of the metropolitan chapter of Udine; and Empress Maria Teresa of Austria allowed him to transfer the most distinguished relics from the patriarchal cathedral of Aquileia. Abbot commendatario of Rosazzo from 1756. Rebuilt the cathedral of San Vito, Udine. Participated in the conclave of 1758, which elected Pope Clement XIII. Opted for the title of S. Marco on July 19, 1758. He was a notable sacred orator and established a Greek chair in the seminary. Moreover, he built the monastery of S. Caterina in Udine, three new churches in the diocese, among them the church della Purità, for which he commissioned frescoes to Giambattista Tiepolo, and restored and embellished numerous others. He introduced in Udine the Congregation of the Priest of the Mission; and promoted the cult of Blessed Bertrando and Saints Ermacora and Fortunato.

Death. March 13, 1762, at 10:00 a.m., of an apoplexy, Udine. Exposed in the cathedral of Udine; and buried in the church of S. Filippo Neri under a tombstone with only his name inscribed in it. The canons of the cathedral chapter of Udine placed an honorable inscription in his memory in the sacristy of the cathedral. In his will he mandated that twice a year the most needy families of the diocese were assisted with the funds of his heredity.

Bibliography. Blasio, Luigi de. "I Patriarchi Aquileiesi di casa Dolfin: Giovanni, Dionisio e Daniele (1657-1762)", in I Ceti dirigenti in Italia in età moderna e contemporanea : atti del convegno Cividale del Friuli, 10-12 settembre 1983. A cura di Amelio Tagliaferri. Udine : Del Bianco, 1984. (Serie monografica di storia moderna e contemporanea ; 8; Variation: Serie monografica di storia moderna e contemporanea ; 8), p. 380-396; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1797, IX, 29-30; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 94 and 106; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 15, 45, 46 and 428, Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 429-430; Seneca, Federico. La fine del patriarcato aquileiese (1748-1751). Venezia : [s.n.], 1954. Note: Deputazione di storia patria per le Venezie. Miscellanea di studi e memorie. Vol. 9. pt. II; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 318.

Links. Biography by P. Preto, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Treccani; brief biographical data, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico Friulano; and his portrait by Nicola Grassi, Salesiani Don Bosco Casa Madre Torino-Valdocco his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy and his engraving by Nicolo Billy, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy.

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(28) 3. SIMONETTI, Raniero Felice (1675-1749)

Birth. December 12, 1675, Cingoli (or Osimo). From a patrician family. Fourth of the five children of Count Francesco Simonetti, gonfaloniere of Osimo, and his first wife, Giulia Marefoschi. The other siblings were Federico, Claudio-Pio (an abbot), Cosimo and Anna Virginia. His first name is also listed as Ranieri. Nephew, on his mother's side, of Cardinal Prospero Marefoschi (1724).

Education. When he was very young, he was sent to Rome, under the care of his maternal uncle, Prospero Marefoschi, future cardinal, with whom he learned the initial principles of the ecclesiastical life. Later, he studied at the University of Macerata, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on November 10, 1693.

Early life. Entered the Roman prelature in 1693 as relator of the SS.CC. of the Apostolic Visit, of the Ecclesiastical Immunity, and of the Controversies of Jurisdiction. Auditor of the nunciature in Paris, 1700; chargé d'affaires, August to November 1706. Auditor of the nunciature in Naples, 1707. Governor of Masserano. Consultor of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition. Intérim nuncio in Savoy, October 7, 1711 until 1717. Named canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica on September 12, 1717. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, September 22, 1718. Voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, September 1724.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 20, 1727.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Nicosia, June 14, 1728. Consecrated, June 29, 1728, church of S. Ignazio, Rome, by Cardinal Prospero Marefoschi, assisted by Tommaso Cervini, titular archbishop of Nicomedia, and by Francesco de Vico, titular bishop of Elusa. Nuncio in Naples, December 23, 1730. He was present at the arrival of Infante Carlos, new king of the Two Sicilies. A few years later, he was ordered to close the nunciature and leave the city because of disagreements between the Sicilian court and that of Rome; he retired to the city of Nola, where he resided until the conflict was solved; returned to Naples, where he was graciously welcomed by the king. Recalled to Rome on September 9, 1743, he was named governor of Rome and vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church on December 11, 1743; occupied the post until April 14, 1747.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 10, 1747; received the red hat on April 13, 1747; and the title of S. Susanna, May 15, 1747. Resigned the governorship of Rome, April 17, 1747. Transferred to the see of Viterbo e Toscanella, with personal title of archbishop, May 6, 1748.

Death. August 20, 1749, Viterbo. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Viterbo (1).

Bibliography. Capece Galeota, Nicola. Cenni storici dei nunzii apostolici residenti nel regno di Napoli. Naples : Tip. Vico Donnaromita n. 13, 1877, pp. 70-72; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1797, IX, 30-32; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, p. 116; Karttunen, Liisi. Les nonciatures apostoliques permanentes de 1650 à 1800. Genève : E. Chaulmontet, 1912, p. 261; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, p. 289; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 15 and 49; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 280-282; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 889; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7), pp. 362 and 918; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), III, 905-906.

Links. I Simonetti a Cingoli, in Italian, Araldica Simonetti; his portrait, Pinacoteca Podesti, Ancona, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his portrait, Duomo, Viterbo, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his portrait, Naples, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his engraving by Antonio Pazzi, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy; his funeral monument, church of S. Salvatore in Lauro, Rome; his tomb, cathedral of Viterbo, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Seidler, Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777), p. 281:

D.     O.     M.
RAYNERIUS SIMONETTI PATRICIUS AUXIMANUS
XII VIR SIGNATURAE JUSTITIAE APOST. SEDIS
LEGATI MUNERE APUD UTR. SICILIAE REGEM
DIFFICILLIMIS TEMPORIS
SINGULARIS PRUDENTIAE LAUDE
XII ANNOS PERFUNCTUS
URBIS, PRAEFECTUS
S.R.E. CARD. TITULI S. SUSANNAE
A BENEDICTO XIV CREATUS
DEMUM EPISCOPUS VITERBIENSIS AC TOSCANENSIS
H.S.E.
CONSILIO, ZELO, GRAVITATE PRAEDITUS
PLURIMIS LIBERALITATIS IN ECCLESIAM ET PAUPERES
MONUMENTIS RELICTIS SUMMO OMNIUM DESIDERIO
0BIIT XIII KAL. SEPTEMBRIS A.S. MDCCXLIX.
VIXIT ANN. LXXIII MENS. VIII DIES XX.
FRIDERICUS ET FRANCISCUS COMM. SIMONETTI
FRATRI PATRUO MOERENTES P.P.


According to Seidler, Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777), p. 282, in the church of S. Maria di Loreto, in Rome, in the tomb of Cardinal Prospero Marefoschi, there is an inscription in a superb marble mausoleum which reads:

RAYNERIO SIMONETTO AUXIMANO
AD UTRIUSQUE SICILIAE REGEM
LEGATO
URBIS PRAEFECTO
S.R.E. CARD. ET EPISCOPO VITERBIENSI
COMES FEDERICUS SIMONETTI
GERM. FRAT. ET HERES
POSUIT
VIXIT ANN. LXXIII, MENS.VIII DIES VIII
OBTIT XX, AUGUSTI MDCCXLVIII.

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(29) 4. LA ROCHEFOUCAULD DE ROYE, Frédéric-Jérôme de (1701-1757)

Birth. July 16, 1701, Versailles, France. Of an illustrious and noble family. Third of the six children of François de la Rochefoucauld, count of Roye, and Catherine Françoise d'Arpajon (1). The other children were François, Louis, Françoise Marguerite, Elisabeth Catherine and Charlotte Eléonore.

Education. Studied at the Jesuit Collège Louis le Grand; the at Seminary Saint-Sulpice, Paris; and later, at the Theological Faculty of La Sorbonne University, Paris, where he obtained a doctorate in theology.

Early life Entered the ecclesiastical state and King Louis XV of France granted him the rich abbeys of Saint Romain de Blaye in 1717; and Beauport in 1722. Prior commendatario of Lanville, of Pré; and of Bonne-Nouvelle.

Sacred orders. (No information found). Vicar general of Rouen. He was presented by the king of France for the archdiocese of Bourges on January 22, 1729.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Bourges, July 6, 1729. Consecrated, August 7, 1729, church of the Theatines, Paris, by Louis de la Vergne de Tressan, archbishop of Rouen, assisted by Étiene-Joseph de La Fare, bishops of Laon, and by Étienne-René Potiers des Gesvres, bishop of Beauvais. Prior of La Charitè sur Loire, April 1732. Coadjutor of the abbot of Cluny, Cardinal Henri-Oswald de La Tour d'Auvergne de Bouillon, September 29, 1738. Author of a new breviary in 1741. Commander of the Royal Order of Saint-Esprit, February 2, 1742. President of the Assembly of Clergy, April 1742, 1750, 1753, and 1756. Named French ambassador before the Holy See in 1743; in Rome from June 6, 1745 until March 13, 1748; because of this post, he was not named archbishop of Paris in 1746. Abbot of Cluny, April 1747.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 10, 1747; received the red hat on April 13, 1747; and the title of S. Agnese fuori le mura, May 15, 1747. He was ascribed to the SS. CC. of Bishops and Regulars, Tridentine Council, Propaganda Fide and Rites. Grand almoner of France from 1756.

Death. April 29, 1757, after suffering from pectoral inflammation for five days, in Paris. Buried in the choir of the church of Saint-Sulpice, Paris. His heart was deposited in the church of Saint-Martin-des-Champs, in which his nephew the duke of Biron placed a magnificent eulogy in French.

Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre .... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1466-1467; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1797, IX, 32; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 367-368; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, p. 122; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 15 and 41; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 370-371; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 509-510, no. 692.

Links. His genealogy, p. 12, Racines et Histoire; his genealogy, C4 F1G3, Genealogy EU; Le cardinal de La Rochefoucauld et l'ambassade de Rome de 1743 ` 1748 by M. le vicomte de Brimont, in French, Gallica Bibliothèque National de France; biography, in French, Wikipedia; and his engraving by Claude Olivier Gallimard, CalcoGRAFICA, Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy.

(1) This is according to the two genealogies, linked above. Weber, Senatus divinus, p. 509, no. 692, says that the cardinal's mother was Julienne-Cathérine de la Tour.

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(30) 5. ROHAN-SOUBISE-VENTADOUR, François-Armand-Auguste de (1717-1756)

Birth. December 1, 1717, Paris. Second of the five children of Jules François de Rohan, prince of Soubise, and Anne-Julie de Melun, princess of Epinoy. Both parents died of smallpox in Paris in 1724. The other siblings were Charles, François Auguste, René and Marie Louise Geneviève. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Armand-Gaston-Maximilien de Rohan (1712), bishop of Strasbourg (1704-1749). Took the last name Ventadour to distinguish himself from his uncle. Distant cousin of Cardinal Louis-César-Constantin de Rohan-Guéménée-Montbazon (1761), bishop of Strasbourg from 1757 to 1779. Uncle of Cardinal Louis-René-Édouard de Rohan-Guéménée (1778), bishop of Strasbourg from 1779 to 1801.

Education. Initial education at home by several learned teachers. Later, he studied at the Theological Faculty of La Sorbonne University, Paris, where he obtained a doctorate in theology. Socius Sorbonicus; rector of the university.

Early life. He was prince of Tournon. Entered the ecclesiastical state. Abbot commendatario of Ventadour. Granted dispensation to be elected bishop of Strasbourg by its cathedral chapter when he was seven years younger than the required canonical age, September 2, 1740. Member of the Académie Française, July 15, 1741.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 23, 1741, in the cathedral of Strasbourg.

Episcopate. Elected coadjutor bishop of Strasbourg by its cathedral chapter, May 21, 1742. Preconized by the pope coadjutor of Strasbourg, with right of succession, and elected titular bishop of Tolemaida, July 30, 1742. Consecrated, November 4, 1742, cathedral of Strasbourg, by Cardinal Armand-Gaston-Maximilien de Rohan de Soubise, bishop of Strasbourg, assisted by Scipion Bégon, bishop of Toul, and by Claude-Antoine de Choiseul-Beaupré, bishop of Châlons. Promoted to the cardinalate at the instance of James III, the pretender to the British throne.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 10, 1747; with an apostolic brief of April 17, 1747, the pope sent him the red biretta to Paris with Msgr. Bernardino Onorati; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title. Abbot commendatario of the abbey of Chaise-de-Dieu, 1747. Commander of the Royal Order of Saint-Esprit. Succeeded to the see of Strasbourg, July 19, 1749. Grand almoner of France, 1749, succeeding his grand-uncle the cardinal. As bishop of Strasbourg, he was prince of the Holy Roman Empire and landgrave of Alsace. He was a patron of learned men and men of letters. When he was moribund, he asked to be transported to Saverne to die there.

Death. June 28, 1756, in the episcopal castle of Saverne (or Zabern), near Strasbourg. Exposed in the collegiate church major of the castle of Saverne; and buried in the chapel of Saint-Rosaire in that same church (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1797, IX, 32-33; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 471-472; Le Roy de Sainte-Croix, François Noël. Les quatre cardinaux de Rohan (évêques de Strasbourg) en Alsace. Strasbourg : Hagemann et cie, 1880. (Grande collection alsacienne), pp. 59-79; Muller, Claude. Le siècle des Rohan : une dynastie de cardinaux en Alsace au XVIIIe siècle. Strasbourg : Nuée bleue, 2006; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 15, 99 and 349; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 330; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 510, no. 693.

Links. Biography, in French, Académie Française; biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his genealogy, A3 B2 C2 D1 E2, Genealogy UE; his engraving by Antonio Pazzi, based on a portrait by Giovanni Domenico Campiglia, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy; his engraving by Pierre-François Bassan, châteaux de Versailles et de Trianon, Versailles, Réunion des musées nationaux et du Grand Palais des Champs-Elysées; Les quatre cardinaux de Rohan (évêques de Strasbourg) en Alsace by François Noël Le Roy de Sainte-Croix (Strasbourg : Hagemann et cie, 1880), Google Books.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Le Roy de Sainte-Croix, Les quatre cardinaux de Rohan, p. 61-62, linked above:

HIC REQUIESCIT
Serenissimus princeps
Armandus de Rohan-Soubise,
sanctæ romanæ ecclesiæ cardinalis,
Argentoratensis episcopus et princeps
Alsatiæ Landgravius,
Murbacencis et Luderencis abbas,
princeps sancti imperii, etc.,
splendidos natales æquavit titulis,
Animo superavit :
Artes egregias, quas ultró coluerat puer,
ornavit juvenis.
Rapido progressu summa consecutus,
Academiæ Parisiensi, ac præsertim Sorbonæ.
Præluxii ingenio, honore profuit.
Veri et justi tenax,
ingenti patruo
Similitudine virtutum commendatus,
iisdem in vestigiis,
in eádem station collocatus,
ut episcopatûs,
sic acerrimi ecclesiæ tuendæ studii
successor non degener.
Heu ! tanto viro non impar,
si non ipso æatis fiore succisus !
in medio cursu laborum,
quos pro ecclesiâ susceperat,
Mortem obrepere sentiens
hoc ad vos evolavit,
O Alsatiæ cives,
ut in sinu vestro extremum spiritum deponeret.
Hunc præcordiis vestris inclusum
fovete, lugete, ac precibus apud Deum adjuvate.
Obiit die 28 Junii 1756, ætatis suæ anno 39.

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(31) 6. TROYER, Ferdinand Julius (1698-1758)

Birth. January 20 (or 19), 1698, Innsbruck, diocese of Brixen, Germany. Son of Count Franz Anton Troyer and Maria Maximiliana, baroness of Teuffenbach. He was baptized on January 26, 1698. He is also listed as Ferdinando Giulio de Trojer; his first name as Ferdinandus Iulius; and his last name as Troyer z Troyersteinu.

Education. Studied at Collegio Germanico, Rome, from 1716 to 1722; he earned a doctorate in theology in 1722.

Sacred orders. Received the clerical tonsure on January 31, 1711; the minor orders on September 8, 1711; the subdiaconate on March 4, 1719; and the diaconate on February 24, 1720. Non-resident canon of the cathedral chapter of Olomouc, September 25, 1711.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1720. Resident canon of the cathedral chapter of Olomouc, February 16, 1725. Archdeacon of Troppau, 1731. Canon magistral of the cathedral chapter of Olomouc, October 15, 1741.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Olomouc by its cathedral chapter with twenty six votes in favor, December 9, 1745; the election was unanimous. Preconized by the pope, March 28, 1746. Consecrated, May 22, 1746, Olomouc, by Otto Honorius Eck, titular bishop of Termopoli, suffragan of Olomouc, assisted by Anton von Engel, bishop of Belgrade, and by Johann Anton von Khevenhüller, former bishop of Wiener Neustadt; he was enthroned on August 27, 1747. Privy councilor, 1746; and in that same year, member of the Imperial Council. At the request of Emperor Francis I, he was promoted to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 10, 1747; Msgr. Benedetto Passionei brought him the red biretta to Vienna; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title. After the death of Cardinal Sigismund von Kollonitsch, archbishop of Vienna, Austria, on April 12, 1751, Empress Maria Theresa appointed him protector of the German nation. In 1752, he restored the episcopal palace in Kromeriz, which had been destroyed by a fire; as well as the Piarist church. He also renovated the castle to Wischau. In 1754, the empress gave him and his brother Christoph, the Moravian Inkolat. He made a diocesan visitation, during which he established several new parishes and deaneries and parishes; the visitation was interrupted by his death. He was very solicitous with the poor. He promoted the cause of beatification of Father Jan Sarkander, a Polish and Moravian priest, who was tortured and killed in a prison in Olomouc in 1620 for his refusal to divulge what was said in confession (1). The cause has been opened by Bishop Wolfgang Hannibal von Schrattenbach of Olomouc.

Death. February 5, 1758, Brno, Moravia. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of St. Vaclav, Olomouc, without any memorial. He named his brother Christoph as his heir.

Bibliography. Bohumil Zlámal, Katalog moravskych biskupù, arcibiskupù a kapitul staré i nové doby. Olomouc, 1977, p. 82-83; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1797, IX, 33; Milan M. Buben, Encyklopedie ceskych a moravskych sídelních biskupù. Praha, 2000, p. 356-359; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 15 and 317; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 374-375; Zelenka, Aleš. "Troyer, Ferdinand Julius Graf von." Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1648 bis 1803 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz, unter Mitwirkung von Stephan M. Janker. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1990, p. 526-527.

Links. His portrait and coins, numismatika.cz.; his arms and brief biographical entry, in Czech, Wikipedia; arms and biography, in German, Wikipedia; his engraving by Antonio Pazzi, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy; his effigy on thirteen coins and medals, Numismatic collection of Olomouc archiepiscopate, Czech Republic; and his arms, in the square of the archbishopric of Olomouc, Czech Republic, Wikipedia.

(1) He was canonized by Pope John Paul II during his visit to Olomouc in 1995.

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(32) 7. MESMER, Giovanni Battista (1671-1760)

Birth. April 21, 1671, Milan. From a family of rich merchants, who, very possibly, were originally from Switzerland. His last name is also listed as Mesmerus.

Education. Studied law at the University of Pavia, earning a doctorate.

Early life. Stimulated by Cardinal Bernardino Scotti, his grand protector, he went to Rome and practiced law; then, he entered the Romna prelature on May 14, 1716. as referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signatures of Justice and of Grace. Voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace in 1716.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 1727. Commissary apostolic of the Annona in the legations of Marches and Urbino, together with Monsignor V. Fabretti, in September 1729, to clamp down on hoarding of wheat; he distinguished himself for the good results achieved. Civil lieutenant of the auditor of the Apostolic Chamber, 1728. In January 1732, during a dispute between Cardinal Francesco Barberini and Cornelia Barberini, princess Carbognano, concerning and inheritance, the new Pope Clement XII designated Monsignor Mesmer to hear all the causes related to the Barberini family, to appoint a treasurer, and to put order among the claims of the various contenders. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, October 1732; as such, he was pro-president of the Strade, July 1734; president, September 1734 to 1739. Canonist of the Apostolic Penitentiary. Governor of Castelnuovo, 1733, 1734. Datary of the Apostolic Penitentiary, March 1734. In July 1735, together with the prefect of the Annona Mario Bolognetti and other prelates, he was named member of the congregation especially established to deal with the famine that raged in the Papal States. In August 1737, he was part of the commission created to examine and audit the hospital and the bank of Santo Spirito. Prefect of the Annona, February 19, 1739 until September 8, 1743. In January 1741, he was appointed to the committee to discuss the fate of the column Antonina. Delegate of the Chamber of the Spogli, July 1741. Treasurer general of the Apostolic Chamber, September 1743, when Monsignor Mario Bolognetti was promoted to the cardinalate. Because of the appreciation of the pope, he was called upon to play a key role in the economic and financial management of the Holy See, and especially in the implementation of the measures taken by Pope Benedict XIV designed to reorganize the operations of the Apostolic Chamber.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 10, 1747; received the red hat on April 13, 1747; and the title of Ss. Quattro Coronati on May 15, 1747. Opted for the title of S. Onofrio, September 22, 1749. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 3, 1757 until March 13, 1758. In the last years of his life he became senile and lost his memory. Did not participate in the conclave of 1758, which elected Pope Clement XIII.

Death. June 20, 1760, Rome. Buried near the main entrance of the church of S. Carlo al Corso dei Milanesi, Rome, with an adorned tombstone with a magnificent eulogy (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1797, IX, 33-34; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 15, 43, 44 and 56; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 398-399; Weber, Christoph. Legati e governatori dello Stato Pontificio : 1550-1809. Roma : Ministero per i beni culturali e ambientali, Ufficio centrale per i beni archivistici, 1994. (Pubblicazioni degli archivi di Stato. Sussidi; 7) pp. 210, 345, and 950-951; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 513; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), III, 743.

Links. Biography by M. C. Giannini, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Treccani; and his engraving by Antonio Pazzi, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy.

(1) According to Seidler, Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777), p. 399, there was a couplet in his sepulchre, composed by Cajo Pedone Albinovano, which read:

Quid numeras annos? Vixi maturior annis:
Acta senem faciunt, haec numeranda mihi

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(33) 8. CÂMARA, José Manoel da (1685-1758)

Birth. December 25, 1685, Atalaia, archdiocese of Lisbon, Portugal. Son of D. Luís Manoel de Távora, fourth count of Atalaia, and his second wife D. Francisca Leonor de Mendonça (or de Câmara). He was baptized in the mother church of Nossa Senhora da Asunção, Atalaia, on January 6, 1686. He is also listed as Iosephus Manuel; as José Manuel da Câmara; as José Manoel da Camara; as Giuseppe Manoel Portoghese; as José Manuel only; as José Manuel da Câmara de Atalaia; and as José Manuel d'Atalaia.

Education. Studied at Colégio de São Pedro, Coimbra, of the Third Order of Saint Francis (laymen), which he joined.

Early life. Named to the service of the Royal Chapel, where he was sumilher da cortina. On May 15, 1710, King João V of Portugal named him dean of the Royal Chapel, which had been recently erected as a collegiate church of São Toméon March 1 of that year. On November 7, 1716, the Royal Chapel became the metropolitan patriarchal see by the papal bull In supremo apostolatus and D. José Manoel became member of Colégio dos Principais, and as its dean, presided over the Te Deum, in which, for the first time, all the dignities wore prelatic habits. Ascribed as a judge to the Supreme Tribunal of the Inquisition of Lisbon; and president of the Grand Curia. Deputy to the Junta dos Três Estados. Provider of Misericórdia de Atalaia. Named by King João V primarius principalis of the cathedral church of Lisbon; and protonotary apostolic. He was promoted to the cardinalate at the request of King João V.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 10, 1747; with an apostolic brief of April 17, 1747, Monsignor Carlo Livizzani brought him the red biretta to Lisbon; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title. He was presented by King José I of Portugal for the patriarchal see of Lisbon on March 9, 1754.

Episcopate. Elected patriarch of Lisbon, May 20, 1754; he was granted the pallium on that same day. He took possession of the see on June 2, 1754. Consecrated, July 25, 1754, Lisbon, by Cardinal-elect Lucas Melchor Tempi, titular archbishop of Nicomedia, nuncio in Portugal, assisted by José Henriques, bishop of Constantina, and by Hilário de Santa Rosa, O.F.M., former bishop of Macau. He was the second patriarch of Lisbon. After he became patriarch, he never used his last name again. On July 27, 1754, he received the pallium from José Dantas Barbosa, titular archbishop of Lacedemonia. On Saturday September 7, 1754, he solemnly entered his see. During his patriarchate occurred the devastating earthquake of November 1, 1755, which destroyed most of Lisbon's buildings, including the cathedral, which was left completely in ruins. This tragedy affected the patriarch profoundly and, according to contemporary sources, shortened his life. Did not participate in the conclave of 1758, which elected Pope Clement XIII. On June 7, 1758, he had to publish an edict in which the Jesuits were prohibited from preaching and hearing confession in the patriarchate of Lisbon. Tired of resisting the anti-Jesuit policies of Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, marquis of Pombal, retired to Atalaia, near Lisbon, where he died three days after the election of Pope Clement XIII. He prepared his will on July 7, 1758, and named his half-brother João Manoel de Noronha and his cousin Duarte da Câmara as executors.

Death. July 9, 1758, Atalaia. He was exposed in the palace of his family. The funeral took place on July 12, in the mother church of Nossa Senhora da Asunção of Atalaia, where he was buried in the wall on the side of the Gospel of the main chapel (1). Presently, his tomb is under the main altar.

Bibliography. Bastos, João Soalheiro Celina. "D. José Manuel da Câmara (1754-1758)." Os patriarcas de Lisboa. Coordenação D. Carlos Azevedo, Sandra Costa Saldanha, António Pedro Boto de Oliveira. Palavra de apresentação do Cardeal Patriarca, D. José da Cruz Policarpo. Lisboa : Centro Cultural do Patriarcado de Lisboa; Alêtheia Editores, 2009, p. 23-32; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1797, IX, 34-35; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 15 and 424-425; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 385; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 510, no. 694.

Links. Brief biographical data in Os Cardeais Portugueses, in Portuguese, patriarchate of Lisbon; his genealogy, in Portuguese, Geneall; his portrait, patriarchate of Lisbon; his image, arms and biography, in Portugues, Atalaia-V.N.Barquinha, blog by Fernando Freire; his engraving by Giovanni Domenico Campiglia and Nicolaus Billy (or Gilly), Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; another image of the same engraving by Billy; his funeral monument, mother church of Nossa Senhora da Asunção, Atalaia, flickr; Freguesia da Atalaia, municipality of Vila Nova de Barquinha.

(1) This is the text of his epitaph, taken from Bastos, D. José Manuel da Câmara (1754-1758)." Os patriarcas de Lisboa, p. 30:

DOM. JOSÉ.
S. R. E. PROESBYTER CARDINALIS.
EMMANOEL.
S. L. E. PATRIARCHA.
I. PATRIARCHATUM REXIT
ANN. IV. MENS. I. DIES XIV.
OBIT.
ANN. DOMINI MDCCLVII. MENSIS. JULII. DIE IX.
REQUIESCAT IN PACE.

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(34) 9. ALBANI, Gian Francesco (1720-1803)

Birth. February 26, 1720, Rome. Of a distinguished Italian family, descendant of refugees from Albania in the fifteenth century. Originally, the family had two branches: Bergamo and Urbino. Son of Carlo Albani, prince of Soriano, and Teresa Borromeo. His first name is also listed as Giovanni. Grand-nephew of Pope Clement XI (1700-1721). Nephew of Cardinals Annibale Albani (1711); and Alessandro Albani, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1721). Uncle of Cardinal Giuseppe Albani (1801). The first cardinal of the family was Gian Girolamo Albani (1570).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Protonotary apostolic, October 1740. Vicar of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, March 1742. President of the Papal Chamber, November 1742. Cleric of the Apostolic Chamber, September 1743. Pro-secretary of the S.C. of Ecclesiastical Immunity, September 1743. Relator of the S.C. of Indulgences and Sacred Relics, 1743. His uncle Cardinal Annibale Albani, protector of the kingdom of Poland, asked King August III to request the promotion to the cardinalate of his nephew Gian Francesco.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of April 10, 1747; received the red hat on April 13, 1747; and the deaconry of S. Cesareo, May 15, 1747.

Sacred orders. Received the subdiaconate on November 1747; and the diaconate on March 31, 1748. Protector of the kingdom of Poland, 1751. Participated in the conclave of 1758, which elected Pope Clement XIII.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1759. Opted for the order of priests and the title of S. Clemente, February 12, 1759.

Episcopate. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, July 21, 1760. Consecrated, September 21, 1760, basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, by Pope Clement XIII, assisted by Cardinal Giuseppe Spinelli, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, by Cardinal Flavio Chigi, by Cardinal Camillo Paolucci, bishop of Frascati, and by Cardinal Carlo Cavalchini, bishop of Albano. Protector of the Order of St. Jerome. Protector of the Congregation of Blessed Pietro of Pisa, October 8, 1761. Protector of the kingdom of Scotland, May 13, 1763. After the expulsion of the Jesuits from the kingdom of Naples in 1768, he was named member of a special congregation instituted by the pope and he pronounced himself in favor of the suppression of the Society of Jesus. Participated in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV. After the election of the new pope, which he strongly opposed, Cardinal Gian Francesco refused to serve in the papal throne, and found himself once more at odds with the positions taken by the pope, especially on the question of the Jesuits, whom he now supported and defended. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, March 15, 1773. Sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals (1). Participated in the conclave of 1774-1775, in which was elected Pope Pius VI. In the following years, he worked for the reestablishment of the Society of Jesus. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, December 18, 1775. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica. Prefect of the S.C. Ceremonial. In 1789, together with Cardinal Francesco Saverio de Zelada, secretary of State and Cardinals Leonardo Antonelli, Hyacinthe Sigismond Gerdil, C.R.S.P., and Filippo Campanelli, he was part of a special congregation, instituted by Pope Pius VI, which examined and condemned the "Puntazioni di Ems" of August 25, 1786; and the Synod of Pistoia, held from September 18 to 28, 1786, to advance Jansenism. After the Revolution broke out in France, he was asked to join, along with Cardinals Vitaliano Borromeo, Leonardo Antonelli, Filippo Campanelli, Guglielmo Pallotta and Gregorio Salviati, the Congregation for the Affairs of France, which was to examine the situation that followed the promulgation of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy; and oriented the hard decisions of the pope. During the first French invasion of Rome, threatened with being arrested with all his family by General Louis-Alexandre Berthier, he escaped from Rome in February 1798, hiding for some months in the abbey of Casamari; from there, in July, he went to Naples; when the French entered Rome, they devastated sacked the cardinal's villa and confiscated his possessions. He remained for some time in Naples, and the accepted the invitation of Cardinal Jean-Siffrein Maury to travel to Venice. It was his responsibility, after the death of the pope, to choose the place where the conclave would be held (on November 13 1798, a bull of Pope Pius VI, in anticipation of the difficult moment that his death would open for the Church, had in fact given to the eldest of the cardinals choosing the place, in the territory ruled by a Catholic prince, in which the College of Cardinals had to elect his successor). Although shortly after the death of Pope Pius VI the Neapolitan and Austrian troops had entered Rome, freeing it from the French, Cardinal Albani, as dean of the Sacred College, chose Venice for the celebration of the conclave and placed it under the protection of Emperor Franz Il. Participated in the conclave of 1799-1800, in which was elected Pope Pius VII. The new pope named him legate a latere, together with Cardinals Aurelio Roverella and Giulio della Somaglia, to go to Rome ahead of the pope and to receive from King Ferdinando IV of Naples the government of the Papal States. In spite of his advanced age, the cardinal took part in the discussions of the concordat with France; and, successively, of that with the Italian Republic, 1800-1802. During his long fifty-six-year cardinalate, he was the principal representative of the pro-Austrian (and anti-French) line.

Death. September 15, 1803, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, where the funeral took place; transferred privately to the patriarchal Liberian basilica and, according to his will, buried in the tomb of its canons.

Bibliography. Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 13, 40, 41, 43 and 50; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 14.

Links. Biography by Gg. Sofri, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Treccani; his portrait, diocese of Sabina; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le attività culturali, Italy; his portrait by Vincenzo Milione, Ministero per i Beni e le attività culturali, Italy; his engraving by Antonio Pazzi, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy; The Albani family by Thomas Shahan, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; and his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr, in English, Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church.

(1) According to Seidler, Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777), p. 642, at the death of Cardinal Carlo Alberto Guidobono Cavalchini, bishop of Ostia e Velletri, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, on March 7, 1774, it corresponded to Cardinal Gian Francesco Albani, who as bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina and sub-dean of the college, to become the dean. But Cardinal Albani, unhappy with the constitution of Pope Clement XIV, which gave the temporal jurisdiction of Velletri to the S.C. Congregation of Good Government, declined to opt; and this allowed Cardinal Fabrizio Serbelloni, bishop of Albano, to become the dean. At the death of Cardinal Serbelloni, during the pontificate of Pope Pius VI, Cardinal Albani became the dean.

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(35) 10. MILLINI, Mario (1677-1756)

Birth. February 9, 1677, Rome. Of an ancient and noble family. Eldest of the four children of Pietro Paolo Millini and Giulia Cevoli. The other siblings were Teresa, Domenica and Nicola. Nephew of Cardinal Savo Millini (1681). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Francesco Serlupi (1823). Great-grand-uncle of Cardinal Charissimo Falconieri Mellini (1838). His last name is also listed as Mellini. Other cardinals of the family were Giovanni Battista Mellini (1476); and Giovanni Garzia Millini (1606).

Education. Educated under the direction of his uncle the cardinal; later, studied law under the most distinguished professors at La Sapienza University, in Rome, where he obtained a doctorate on March 26, 1722.

Early life. Entered the Roman prelature on April 23, 1722 as referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, March 27, 1723. Abbot commendatario of S. Pietro, Eboli, fom June 1723. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota on April 28, 1725; took possession, December 7, 1725; became its dean on July 14, 1744. Regent of the Apostolic Penitentiary on September 1, 1734. Consultor of the S.C. of the Holy Office. Commissary apostolic in Piamonte, 1742. He was promoted to the cardinalate at the request of Empress Maria Theresa of Austria.

Sacred order. Roman cleric.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of April 10, 1747; received the red hat on April 13, 1747; and the title of S. Prisca, May 15, 1747. Ascribed to the SS. CC. of Rites, Sacred Consulta, Bishops and Regulars, and Tridentine Council. Opted for the title of S. Marcello, April 1, 1748. Minister of Austria before the Holy See from 1748 until his death. Prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, 1753 until his death.

Death. July 25, 1756, Rome. Exposed in the Servite church of S. Marcello, Rome, where the solemn funeral took place, and buried in the chapel of S. Nicola da Tolentino, of his family, in the church of S. Maria del Popolo, Rome (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1797, IX, 35-36; Del Re, Nicola. "I cardinali prefetti della sacra congregazione del concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), p. 127; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 15, 45 and 48; Seidler, Sabrina M.; Weber, Christoph. Päpste und Kardinäle in der Mitte des 18. Jahrhunderts (1730-1777) : das biographische Werk des Patriziers von Lucca Bartolomeo Antonio Talenti. Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 2007. (Beiträge zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd. 18), p. 331-332; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 617; Weber, Christoph. Die päpstlichen Referendare 1566-1809 : Chronologie und Prosopographie. 3 vols. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2003-2004. (Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31/1, 31/2, 31/3; Variation: Päpste und Papsttum ; Bd. 31), III, 739-740; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 510, no. 696.

Links. His engraving by Antonio Pazzi, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy; his engraving, Araldica Vaticana; his tomb in S. Maria del Popolo, Rome, ArtServe, The Australian National University; more images of his tomb, Rquiem Datenbank.

(1) This is the inscription in his tomb, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D .     O .     M .     S .
MARIO . MILLINO . ROMANO . S . R . E . CARDINALI
SVMMIS . VIRTVTIBVS . PRAEDITO
IVSTITIAE . ET . RELIGIONIS . CVLTORI . EXIMIO
PAVPERVM . PATRONO . ET . PARENTI . BENEFICENTISSIMO
INGENIO . ET . DOCTRINA . CLARO
MVLTISQVE . HONORIBVS . PER . GRADVS . FVNTCO
IN. XII VIRALI. ROTA. DECANO. REG. SAC. POEN. AC. CONG. TRID. CON. PRAEFECTO
OB . CONSTANTIAM . EIVS . PRVDENTIAMQVE . SINGVLAREM . IN . MAGNIS . REBVS . AGENDIS
PETITV . M . THERESIAE . AVGVSTAE . ET . HVNGARIAE . REGINAE . APOSTOLICAE
APVD . SANCTAM. SEDEM . DIFFICILLIMIS [SIC!]. TEMPORIBVS. CVM . SVMMA . POTESTATE . LEGATO
ANNA . SERLVPIA . ET . IVLIA . FALCONERIA . EX . FRATRE . FILIAE . HEREDESQVE
ET . ANTONIVS . CASALIVS . SORORIS . F . REI . ALIMENT . VRB . PRAEFECTVS . F . C.
PATRVO . AMATISSIMO . OPTIME . DE . FAMILIA . MERITO
MEMORIAM . CONTRA . VOTVM . PONENDAM . CVRAVERE
ANNO . REPARATAE . SALVTIS
CIƆIƆCCLX

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(36) 11. DELLE LANZE, Carlo Vittorio Amedeo (1712-1784)

Birth. September 1, 1712, Turin. Of a noble family. Eldest of the two children of Carlo Francesco Agostino delle Lanze, count delle Lanze and Vinovo, and Barbara Luigia di Piosacco di Piobesi. The other child was Gabriella Marianna. His godparents were his paternal uncle King Vittorio Amedeo II of Sardinia and his wife, Queen Anna Maria d'Orléans. His first name is also listed as Carlo Vittorio Amedeo Ignazio; and his last name as delle Lancie; and as De Lances. After his mother died on February 2, 1721, he went to Chambéry, because his father had been named governor of Savoia; the country was very troubled by the aftermath of the war and the nightmare of the plague outbreak in Marseille, and the father was involved in the embezzlement of the mercantile middle class; in 1724, he was sentenced to death in absentia and had his assets confiscated; he fled abroad; and ended up settling in Bologna.

Education. After traveling to the most important European cities, he had started a military career. He was in the Netherlands, in 1730, when he learned that King Vittorio Amedeo II had abdicated. On September 17, he wrote from The Hague to the new king; and a month later, on October 17, he announced the decision to join the Canons Regular of Sainte-Geneviéve in Paris. In those years, Sainte-Geneviéve had acquired notoriety as a place of penance and the outbreak of Jansenist opposition. While he was in his novitiate, his father ordered him to go to Rome, where he became a secular cleric and continued his ecclesiastical studies at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, founded by Pope Clement XI, where young noblemen were prepared for the highest posts of the ecclesiastical prelature. In 1732, he returned to Piedmont, where he continued his studies (philosophy), avoiding all honors and promotions. On April 17, 1734, he obtained the baccellierato in theology at the University of Turin.

Early life. Adhering himself to the anti-Jesuit and philo-Jansenist ideas of the time, had a crisi di coscienza which his old friends defined as an apostasy.

Sacred orders. Received the subdiaconate in 1731, in Tivoli; and the diaconate in 1736. When he became of age, he regained his father's fiefs except Vinovo, but he renewed the cession to the king on October 15, 1732, obtaining in exchange a good pension. On September 23. 1736, he celebrated his first mass in the Barnabite church of S. Dalmazzo, Turin; in that church, he began his first apprenticeship in the care of souls. United still to the academic world, he used to designate part of his assets in support of young students until graduation. His house was a gathering place for those who were passionate about issues pertaining to the reform of the Church and the Jansenist movement. This is why the young cleric had been keeping an eye on those who, like the vicar of the Holy Office, Giovanni Alberto Magliano Alfieri and the supporters of the Jesuits, were following the royalist, the Gallican and the Augustinian doctrines taught by professors at the university who were very close to Father Delle Lanze, such as Frangois Mellet and Thomas Crust. The rapprochement between Rome and Turin led, as a guarantee of loyalty and orthodoxy, to the dismissal of Mellet in 1736; and of Crust in 1739. Father Delle Lanze then leaned to the more clearly orthodoxy of the Augustinian Thomism and of the Antibenignism, of which the University of Turin had two prominent Barnabite figures such as Fathers Francesco Antonio Luciardi and Hyacinthe Sigismond Gerdil, future cardinal; as well as Theatine Father Michele Casati. Abbot of the abbey nullius of S. Giusto di Susa, 1743 to 1749. Grand-almoner and pro-chaplain of the court of his cousin King Carlo Emanuele III of Sardinia, October 17, 1746 until February 1773, when the king died. Abbot commendatario of Lucedio, May 2, 1747. Promoted to the cardinalate at the request of that king.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of April 10, 1747; the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief of April 17, 1747; received the red hat on July 13, 1747; and the deaconry of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, July 31, 1747.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Nicosia, August 11, 1747. Consecrated, September 24, 1747, Pauline chapel of the Quirinale palace, Rome, by Pope Benedict XIV, assisted by non-bishop Cardinals Alessandro Albani and Neri Maria Corsini. Opted for the order of priests and the title of S. Sisto, October 2, 1747. Abbot of the abbey nullius of S. Benigno di Fruttuaria, August 5, 1749, where he fixed his residence; he embellished and enriched that church and built a palace that was also used as a seminary; regularly celebrated synods; and was very generous with the poor. From around 1750, the cardinal spent most of his life in the abbey of S. Benigno. He participated in events in the court of Savoy only when it was necessary to give luster to religious ceremonies. On October 12, 1749, he consecrated the church of Superga; on May 31, 1750, at Oulx, he blessed the marriage of the duke of Savoy, the future King Vittorio Amedeo III, and the Infanta of Spain, Maria Antonieta Ferdinanda; shortly after he presided over the ostensione of the Shroud of Turin; and the following year in Milan, he took part in the solemn translation of the body of S. Carlo Borromeo. Participated in the conclave of 1758, which elected Pope Clement XIII. In the conclave, he identified himself with the anti-Jesuit party. Opted for the title of S. Anastasia, November 22, 1758. In 1759, he intervened to obtain the cardinal's hat for the former nuncio in Turin, Ludovico Merlini; and, at the request of the pope, he supported the credentials of Abbot Domenico Morelli, chargé d'affaires of the Holy See in Turin after the departure of Nuncio Merlini. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, March 21, 1763. Participated in the conclave of 1769, which elected Pope Clement XIV. Resigned titular see of Nicosia, April 12, 1773. On October 15, 1773, he was named president of the ecclesiastical council with the task of providing for the absorption of staff and the redistribution of assets formerly belonging to the Society of Jesus. Participated in the conclave of 1774-1775, which elected Pope Pius VI. At the conclave, he arrived with a reputation as protector of the Jesuits, and for this he was not acceptable to the crown cardinals. Secretary of the S.C.of the Tridentine Council, March 22, 1775 until his death; the pope exempted him from the residence in Rome. Shortly thereafter, on December 30, having died the charge d'affaires at Turin, Abbot Morelli, Cardinal Delle Lanze was asked to replace him until the appointment to that position of Abbot Emidio Ziucci, in November 1778. In 1782, the cardinal went to meet Pope Pius VI, who was returning from Vienna, and accompanied him from Ferrara to Imola. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, July 18, 1783. Cardinal protoprete. He dedicated the income of that title to the cause of beatification of Giuseppe Benedetto Labre, the beggar of Rome who was often lying in front of the palace of Cardinal François-Joachim de Pierres de Bernis, but this cardinal had found nothing in him spiritually significant. He spent his last years in Fruttaria visiting and doing good to the poor families of the town.

Death. January 25, 1784, at the abbey of S. Benigno di Fruttuaria. According to his will, he was exposed and buried in that abbey's church. In his will, he named the seminary of the abbey, which he had founded, as his sole heir.

Bibliography. Barberis, Giulio. L'angelo del Piemonte, ossia il cardinale Carlo Vittorio Amedeo Delle Lanze, abate di s. Benigno di Fruttuaria. S. Benigno Canavese : Tipografia e libreria Salesiana, 1886. (Letture cattoliche ; 34/406); Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1797, IX, 36-39; Frola, G. "X lettere inedite del cardinale Carlo Vittorio Medeo delle Lanze, abate di S. Benigno di Fruttuaria", Boletino storico-bibliografico subalpino, XXVII (1925), pp. 215-225; Re, Nicola del. "I cardinali prefetti della sacra congregazione del concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), pp. 129-130; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VI (1730-1799). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 15, 42, 45, 48, 49, 51 and 310; Saroglia, Giovanni. Il cardinale Carlo Vittorio Amedeo delle Lanze, abate di S. Benigno di Fruttaria. Ivrea : 1884; Stella, Pietro. "La 'apostasia' del card. Delle Lanze (1712-1784) : contributo alla storia del giansenismo in Piemonte", Salesianum, XXV (1963), pp. 3-46; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), V, 352; Weber, Christoph. Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 510, no. 697.

Links. Biography by Pietro Stella, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Treccani; biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his portrait and biography, in Italian, donboscoinsieme; his genealogy, A2 B1, Genealogy.eu; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his portrait, Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali, Italy; his engraving by Nicolo Billy, CalcoGRAFICA - Istituto Nazionale della Grafica, Italy; his statue, abbey of Fruttuaria, Panoramio, Google; and detail of the same statue.

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